Parol Evidence Rule(口頭証拠排除原則)
Parol Evidence Ruleとは、契約書面に書かれていない内容に効力を認めず、契約締結後の変更は書面によらなければならない、とする英米法上の原則。従って、契約書面と矛盾する書面、内容変更の合意の証拠を提出しても認められない。
Parol Evidence これに対し、大陸法系は、制定法により契約が補完され、契約解釈は当事者意思を目的論的に探求し、信義則が適用される。これに対し、英米法では、判例法のため契約の補完可能性が不明確であり、契約解釈は文理解釈が原則であり、信義則の適用には消極的。
Parol Evidence Ruleを貫くと、交渉の経緯や契約後の事情の一切が無視され、契約解釈にも使えずに衡平を欠く。そこで英国の裁判所では広く例外が認められてきた。
米国では、UCCにてParol Evidene Ruleを正面から認めているが、取引慣行や実際の履行状況、内容に矛盾しない追加条件の存在が証明されれば契約の補充としては使える(UCC2-202)。
Short Form A: supersedes all other commitments
This Agreement, including its Schedules, sets out the entire agreement between the Parties as to the subject matter of this Agreement and supersedes all other commitments, representations and warranties which may have been made by the parties either orally or in writing prior to the date of the Agreement. Each Party warrants to the other that it has not relied on any such commitment, representation or warranty in entering into this Agreement.
Short Form B: cancel all prior agreements and nullifies all rights
This Agreement, including its Schedules, sets out the enire agreement between the Parties as to the subject matter of this Agreement and cancels all prior agreements which may have been made by the parties either orally or in writing prior to the date of this Agreement and nullifies all rights (if any) of either party arising against the other under all or any of the said prior agreements, or any of the provisions, notwithstanding the existence of any provision in any such prior agreement that any such rights or provisions shall survive its termination.
- This Agreement, including its Schedules, sets out the entire, complete and exclusive agreement and understanding between the Parties as to the subject matter of this Agreement, and supersedes and invalidates all prior representations, arrangements, understandings and agreements between the parties (whether written or oral) relating to the subject matter.
- Each party warrants to the other that it has not relied on any representation, arrangement, understanding or agreement (whether written or oral) not expressly set out or referred to in this Agreement in entering into this Agreement.
- Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, save as expressly provided in this Agreement, (a) Party A gives no promise, warranty, undertaking or representation to Party B, (b) Party A shall be under no liability in respect of the transactions contemplated by, and the subject matter of, this Agreement, and (c) all other warranties express or implied by law, legislation or otherwise howsoever are hereby expressly excluded.
- Each party further agrees and undertakes to the other that no breach of this Agreement shall entitle it to rescind this Agreement, and that its remedies for any breach of this Agreement shall be solely for breach of contract, which remedies shall be subject to and in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.
All Exhibits shall be deemed a part of this Agreement.