Home / 英文契約 / 契約英語の基礎(修飾語)


  1. MODIFICATION (S V [Process] [Circumstantial])

    1. Fundamentals

      1. WORD ORDER [comment],


[Comment] S [Certainly] [Frequency] V [Process] [Circumstantial(Place, Time)]



  1. 副詞の定位置


定位置から動かす場合はカンマを置く(Yesterday, I walked my dog.)


  1. 限定の副詞







Happily, no one was badly injured.

Clearly, we cannot handle this situation alone.

Honestly, I have no idea where she went.

As far as I know, John is the only one with a key to the safe.





We will surely/probably/perhaps make it on time.

We will definitely make it on time.





My mom always nags me.

I never talk back to my wife.





He is so annoying.

That is totally out of the question.


  1. 説明の副詞







We ran really fast and just managed to catch the last train.

The player scored with his hand, not with his head.

I beat my best time for 100 meters run by 0.8 seconds.

You’d better do exactly as I tell you, or you’ll be in big trouble.





Many people were waiting at the bus stop.

Terrible things happened here.





I walked my dog yesterday.

I had a party last night.

Wake me up at 6:30, Mom.




  1. 説明の副詞の重ね方;「行為様態⇒場所⇒時間」の順番となる。

The couple argued bitterly
in the restaurant
last night.

The barbecue will start around 1 o’clock tomorrow.

We first met at the Louvre in Paris.



  1. 限定ルール(前から限定)と説明ルール(後ろから説明)



限定は前から:a 12-year-old boy won the tournament.

説明は後から:My son is 12 years old.





a 12-year-old boy won the tournament.

My son is 12 years old.






predatory animalはOK

predatory tigerはNG

the animal is predatoryはOK

tiger is predatoryもOK



  1. 限定ルール


very, so, really

Nancy is very tall.


a(an), the, some

I found the dog.


  1. Comparison(比較)(形容詞・副詞の応用)

a. Jim is tall

b. Jim is as tall as Lucy.

c. Jim is taller than Lucy.

d. Jim is tallest of the three.


  1. 比較表現の総論



  1. 同等(as-as)

    1. as-asの基本



  1. as-asの作り方(Tom is as tall as Mary.の作り方)


STEP1: Toms is as tallとここまで一息に作り出す(“as tall”は”equally tall”と同じ意識で一息に話す。)。

STEP2: as Mary.と続ける。


She now speaks as naturally as a native speaker.

Jeff save as much money as he could. (できるのと比べて、できる限り)


as…asの後ろは目的格。目的格は「指す」ニュアンスをもった形。as tall as meは自分を指差す感覚で使われている。


  1. 限定語句(限定詞、限定の副詞など)と共にas-asを使う

not + as…as~



She isn’t as attractive as Sarah.

He didn’t play as well as his opponent, so he lost.

I’m not so/as smart as Takeo.



He is almost as tall as his Dad now.



Why did he get the job rather than me? I’m just as experienced as him.



This cake is not half as delicious as it looks.

more than twice


Facebook is more than twice as big as MySpace.

three times


Soon it may be three times as big!


  1. 比較の焦点(最初のas)一語だけでなくフレーズも可能


I have as many CDs as Ken.

She is not as good at skiing as me.

Eva didn’t perform as well in the exam as Tess.



  1. 比較の対象(二番目のas)
    1. as-as フレーズ(doing+O, to不定詞+O)

I think reading a book is as exciting as going to Disneyland.

To write Japanese is not as easy as to speak Japanese.

On camp, I ate as well as at home.


  1. 文を比較の対象とする(穴埋め修飾の文)

My boss isn’t as decisive as he was a couple of years ago.

Dad is not as grumpy as he used to be.

I don’t skip as many classes as you do!

Chris isn’t as old as he looks.


  1. 会話で使うas-as+文(厳密な穴埋め関係ではないが会話なので気にしない)

The situation is not as desperate as it may seem.

The new vaccine is not as promising as we thought/expected/hoped.

You can stay as long as you’d like.


  1. as-asの後ろに目的格が使われる理由

Tom is as tall as I. も間違いではないが不人気である。”I”という一語だけで、文でもないのに主格を用いるのは堅苦しいと感じる。

  1. 比較対象の省略(比較対象が明らかな場合)

His first album sold over half a million copies, and we hope this second album will be just as popular (as that).

Hiromi plays the piano brilliantly, but her sister can play as well (as her).


  1. 比較対象をそろえること

NG: The culture of Japan is as rich and beautiful as England.

NG: Gary’s car isn’t as flashy as Mary.




  1. as-asを用いたフレーズ


as…as ~ can

as…as possible


OK, keep calm. I’ll get there as fast as I can.

I’m sorry I’m late. I got here as quickly as I could.

My boss needs this report as soon as possible.

as… as can be

as good as It gets



I’m as happy as can be.

Enjoy the moment―――this is as good as it gets.

as … as any


any は「どれをとっても」のイメージ(相手に選択の自由を許す表現)

This example is as good as any, so let’s use it.

Lay? You are crazy. Charie is as hardworking as any students in our class!

as…as ever


Ha! Ha! I see you are as witty as ever.

not so much … as ~


I’m not so much concerned about the money as about how much time it will take.

as good as ADJ


Trust me, it’s as good as new!

If my parents find out, I’m as good as dead!

as soon as



as far as







  1. as-as any どの~にも劣らず

Hiroko has seen as many foreign movies as
anybody in her class.


  1. not so much A as B


  1. 比較級表現:「より~」


  1. 比較級の基本

Follow me. This way is quicker.

Many people would like to have a better life.

Try swinging the bat more slowly.


Slow down! I can’t keep up with you. That’s because I’m fitter than you.

How can I get a higher TOEIC score than her? She lived in the States for 5 years!

C’mon, kids! You can scream louder than that.


  1. than のイメージ(あるポイントから「離れる」)

other than ~ ~以外の

rather than ~ ~よりもむしろ、~ではなく

Do you have more samples other than those you’ve shown us already?

In the end, I decidd to repair my old bike rather than buy a new one.

I‘d rather go naked than wear fur.


  1. less than~ ~より少ない

否定文+still less~ まして~ではない




  1. 限定語句と共に比較級を使う

Camembert is not tastier than Gruyere.

My kids are no naughtier than most other children.

The perfume isn’t any more fragrant than the one I am using now.


  1. little, more, much, far, even

My hair is little softer than before, so I like this conditioner.

Today’s test was somewhat more difficult than last week’s.

Fruit is much cheaper in my country than in Japan.

Whisky is far stronger than beer.

My brother is even crazier than me!


なお、単純強意表現(very, really, so, pretty)はだめ。なぜなら、比較級はレベル差について述べる形であるから、距離感を意味しない限定はできない。

Sue is three younger than me.

I need 3 more volunteers.

  1. many more, much more


Don’t worry, you’ll get many more chances to meet a nice girl.

I have much more confidence than before.


  1. ・・・より~倍

Did you know a woman’s hips are approximately one and half times bigger than man’s?

This new operating system is 2 to 3 times faster than the old one.


  1. 以前より (than before)

My hair is little softer than before, so I like this conditioner.


  1. 比較級を使い切る(thanに続く比較対象は名詞だけでなく、さまざまな表現が可能)

It’s cheaper to eat at home than at a restaurant.

Doing something is always better than doing nothing.

It’s healthier to play sport than to watch it on TV.

He looks older than he actually is.

I’m more confident than I’ve ever been.

The meeting lasted longer than I expected.


  1. 比較級を用いたフレーズ


比較級 and 比較級



It’s becoming harder and harder to get a job.

Hey, your English is getting better and better.

This situation is becoming more and more serious.

the 比較級~, the 比較級~


The younger you are, the easier it is to learn.

The more expensive the hotel, the worse the service.

The sooner you dump him, the happier you will be.

The more we have, the more we want.

all the 比較級


I like her all the better because she is shy and modest.

The fact I simply ignored his rude comments made him all the more angry.


the 比較級


Which of these 2 lines is the shorter?

shorterは形容詞ではなく名詞(shorer oneの意味)

比較級+ any other


John is taller than any other boy in his class.

Tokyo is bigger than any city in England.

John is taller than everybody/anybody else in his class.

more … than~



She is more pretty than beautiful.

Getting a visa is more time-consuming than difficult.

no more … than ~


STEP1: notで否定する代わりにno moreを使う

STEP2: ありえないことをthanで引き合いに出す。

That is no more a Rolex than this plastic toy watch!

He is no more an artist than I am.

You, a detective? Ha! You’re no more a detective than my grandmother!


He’s no more fit to do this job than a monkey!

I could no more lie to you than fly to the moon.

※ふつうの比較文と混同しない。He is no more intelligent than me.

less + 原級


Lucy is less intelligent than Hanako.

no less … than ~


I’m no less confident than before, just because I didn’t win.

He’s no less a man than you, just because he refuses to fight.

no more than~



The earth is no more than a little star.

a little star以上のものではない=a little starにすぎない


no less than~



You got Chris to pay for a drink? That is no less than miracle!

A house in that area would cost no less than $500,000.

more or less


I’ve more or less made up my mind.

not ~ any more (= no more)



I don’t love her any more.

I can’t take it any more.

not ~ any longer


I can’t wait any longer.

know better

know better than to ~



That was a really stupid thing to do. You should know better.

His bags were stolen? But he should know better than to leave his stuff unattended.

none + the比較級


She explained how to do 3 or 4 times to me, but I’m still none the wiser.


  1. no more thanとnot more than

There were no more than ten people present.(がっかりした気持ちが入っている)

There were not more than ten people present.(気持ちが入っていないお役所表現)


You must pay this fine not more than 12 days after the date written below.

We have to write a paper of not less than 5,000 words.


  1. 最上級:「最も~」「一番~」

STEP1: Adj, Advの代わりに最上級(-est)を使うだけ。

STEP2: 最上級(-est)にはふつうtheが伴う。


  1. 基本形

Cheryl is the cleverest.

Oh, that’s the best idea.

Which engine runs the most efficiency?



Who stayed awake longest?


  1. theを用いないケース
    1. ある1つのモノの状態について述べる場合

The road is narrowest at this point.

I’m happiest when I’m surrounded by my family.

  1. mostが「とても」の意味で使われる

Well done. Your performance was most impressive.

She kissed my cheek most tenderly.


  1. どの中で一番なのか、比較範囲を示す






Tom is the tallest of the three/ of all.

Tom is the tallest in his class.



  1. 最上級を限定語句と共に使う

This is by far the best book we’ve written.

This site has the very best free online games.

Her grades are excellecnt, but they are only the second best.

  1. ever(これまで)とのコンビネーション

This is the most moving film I‘ve ever seen.

This is the most hair-raising roller-coaster ever created.

  1. 最も~なものでさえ

The best players can sometimes lose.

Even the most competent professionals make embarrassing mistakes.

The most patient teachers lose their cool once in a while.

  1. at (the) 最上級 ~の点では


  1. least of all ~ 最も



  1. PREPOSITIONS(前置詞):イメージは位置関係・動きのみ


  1. 前置詞基礎

There’s an apple on the table.

Come and have some fun with us.


  1. 前置詞句(前置詞+名詞)の働き

There are a lot of Brazilians in Japan.(文の説明)

I can’t sleep at night.(文の説明)

The tropical depression is headed towards the Bahamas.(be headedの説明)

I can pick a lock with a paper clip.

All the kids in my class donated money to the Haiti Disaster Relief Fund.


  1. 前置詞句のさまざまな位置

behind-the-scenes negotiation(舞台裏の交渉)

in-depth explanation(深く掘り下げた説明)

under-the-table dealings(裏取引)

Behind the sofa is a good place to hide.(ソファの後ろはいい隠れ場所。名詞として働く。)


  1. 前置詞の目的語になる要素

Our situation went from bad to worse.(badやworthは形容詞だが、悪い状態からさらに悪い状態へ、と名詞的意味で使われている)

He lived in Paris until quite recently.

The cat came out from under the sofa.

She insulted me by calling me a liar.

Your success depends on how you make decision.

It’s a bit awkward to invite Helen to the party in that her ex is also coming.(来るという点においてawkward(=まずい)である)


  1. 前置詞は前置詞としてだけ使うわけではない

Your cell phone is in your bag.

Miniskirts are in this year.(in this yearは形容詞として働いている)

Please drop in any time.(drop in で”立ち寄る”)


  1. 前置詞以外が前置詞として働く

According to Mom, I have zero fashion sense!

The final was postponed because of rain.


  1. 前置詞の選択(その状況をどう感じられるか、イメージをしっかり掴むこと)

Unbelievable! Apples are selling at just \200 a kilo.(値段)

I bumped into Cathy at the bank this morning.(場所)

Their flight is due to arrive at 10 a.m.(時間)

Mommy, look at my drawing.


We had to change planes at Heathrow Airport. (狭い場所、乗り換えの「点」なのでat)

We enjoyed some last-minute shopping in Heathrow Airport. (広い場所、内部がイメージされる文脈なのでin)


We refueled at Naples.




My Dad often sits in his favorite chair and watches TV all night.(包むようなアームチェア)

My Dad usually sits on that chair.(普通のいす)


My ball hit a tree and landed in the fairway. Lucky!

When I played golf in Thailand, there were monkeys on the fairway!



  1. 前置詞句を多用するとBureaucratic soundingな文章になる



in accordance with といった定型的な前置詞句を使いすぎると、Bureaucratic soundingな(官僚の作文的な)文章になる。

The company’s president と書けば済むのに、The president of the company と書き、

All X’s except Y と書いた方が簡単なのに、All X’s with the exception of Y などと書いてしまう人は要注意です。


  1. WH修飾(先行詞を受け穴に導く+穴の種類を指定+選び取る意識)

    1. Wh修飾の機能

      1. 「結び付きをガッチリ」(先行詞を受けて穴に導く)


  1. 穴の種類の指定(人・モノ・場所など)



Who do you like?(人)

What do you like?(モノ)


This is the boy who loves Nancy.


  1. 特定の人や場所などを選び取る意識


Who? Where?は「誰?」「どこ?」と特定の人や場所をピックアップさせている。

STEP1: The woman who… のwhoは、いろいろいる女性の中からどういうthe womanなのかをつまみ上げる意識。

STEP2: … lives next door is an English teacher.と、そのつまみ上げた女性に説明を加える


  1. WHO(人指定)



  1. 主語の穴に組み合わせる

The woman who lives next door is an English teacher.

I know a lot of teenagers who feel alone.



  1. 目的語の穴に組み合わせる

That is the guy who I met ■ on the flight on London.

The girl who I wanted to date ■ is now going out with my best friend!

Is that the teacher who you complained about ■?


  1. whose+名詞の形

A widower is a man whose wife has died.

I just met a girl whose brother I used to play soccer with.


STEP1: afriend (これだけじゃ説明不足だ。説明しなくちゃいけない。)

STEP2: whose father (この人のお父さんで説明しよう)

STEP3: ■ is lowyer (穴あき文をくっつける)


  1. whomの衰退



ただし、I got a beautiful letter from the family with whome I stayed in Australia.のように、前置詞をwh語の前に出す形ではwhomが使われる。


  1. WHICH(モノ指定)

    1. 主語の穴に組み合わせる

Where is the parcel which arrived this morning?

The house which was for sale has now been sold.

I like stories which have happy endings.

  1. 目的語の穴に組み合わせる

The top which Ann bought is sooo cute!

The engagement ring which I want is too expensive.

Is this the file which you are looking for?

  1. whose +名詞(人、モノ共用)

You can choose a laptop whose price falls within your budget.

This is a smartphone whose new features are simply amazing.

  1. 前置詞の前置き

This is the hospital. + I was born in ■.


This is the hospital which I was born in.


This is the hospital in which I was born.


The clerk to whom I handed the form said it was not properly filed in.

I handed the form toと、文末に残ったtoを前置きしてto whomとする。


The clerk whom I handed the form to said it was not properly filed in.


  1. フレーズの一部となっている前置詞は動かすことができない

NG: This is the file for which I was looking.

OK: This is the file which I was looking for.


  1. Wh語を使わないケース

    1. wh語を使わないケース(目的語に穴がある場合)

The car I want to get ■ is eco-friendly.

The guy you were talking to ■ is my boyfriend.




  1. wh語が必要な場合(主語に穴がある場合)

I met the girl loves Tom.では、2つの文の優劣がわからない。

I met the girl ■ love Tom.ならよいが、

I met the girl + the girl loves Tom.と2つの文が重なって見える??なんで?


  1. THATを使うケース


The woman that lives next door is an English teacher.

The car that I want to get is eco-friendly.


  1. thatが優先して使われるケース

the only, the first/last, 最上級の場合、選ぶ必要がない

Man is the only animal that blushes.

The simplest emotion that we discover in the human mind is curiosity.



This is everything that I own.

Don’t believe all the stuff that you read in the papers.



A team that doesn’t have a good coach has no chance of success.


  1. Wh語の使用頻度、thatのすすめ


(i) This is the girl Dave is going out with.

(ii) This is the girl that Dave is going out with.

(iii) This is the girl who Dave is going out with.



(iv) The dress she was wearing didn’t suit her at all.

(v) The dress that she was wearing didn’t suit her at all.

(vi) The dress which she was wearing didn’t suit her at all.





Jim, who speaks French, works as a tourist guide.

We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which some friends recommended to us.


  1. where, when, whyのwh修飾

    1. Where (場所・case・situation・circumstance)

This is the park where I go jogging every morning.

Kochi is the city where Sakamoto Ryoma was born.

I’d like to live in a city where there is a great nightlife.


I met Mary there [at the bus stop / on the street / in the office / in London]

the park where I go jogging ■ every morning.


I found myself in a situation where I just had to lie.



This is the hospital where I was born.

= This is the hospital in which I was born.


  1. 「時間」のwhen

Can you pinpoint the moment when you fell in love with her?

The exact time when the murder was committed is still unknown.

The Christmas when the whole family got together remains one of my fondest memories.


I run into her just now [yesterday / at 3:00 / last night / a couple of years ago].


The exact time when the murder was committed ■


  1. 「理由」のwhy

The reason why I’m calling you is to ask you a favor.

The reason why I’m calling you ■…


  1. wh語なしで修飾できる表現

day, year, time:whenがなくてもいいし、軽くthatで導いてもいい。

-where語 (everywhere etc.):


way:the way howはNG(howにはwh修飾の使い方はない。)


  1. ハイレベルwh修飾

This is the video game that most of the kids in my school say is just awesome.

The keys which my wife thought I lost were in her bag.

The pople I really wanted to be at my party can’t come.


the video game that most of the kids in my school say ■ is just awesome

The keys which my wife thought I lost ■

The pople who I really wanted ■ to be at my party


  1. カンマ付wh修飾(イメージ:追加情報をねじ込む、注釈を加える)

    1. 注釈を加える

The woman who designed my apartment is a Feng Shui expert.

My brother Geoff, who is a chef, lives in Newcastle. 兄のジェフ、、、(ところで)料理人をやってるんだけどね、ニューキャッスルに住んでるよ。



カンマ有⇒追加情報(My brother Geoffだけで十分誰のことかわかる)


by the wayが付け加えられることもある

My brother Geoff, who is a chef by the way, lives in Newcastle.


  1. カンマ付wh修飾の実践

Jim, who speaks French, works as a tourist guide.

We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which some friends recommended to us.

Amy, whose date had just stood her up, was in a foul mood.

I’m going to spend two weeks in New York, where my daughter lives.


  1. カンマ付wh修飾では必ずwh語。wh語の省略やthatは付加。

The students gave an excuse for missing class, the truth of which was dubious, to say the least!(the truth of an excuseを意識しながら、the truth of whichと受ける)

This watch, for which I paid 200 dollars, is a fake!

I bought 2 kilos of apples, half of which were rotten!

We looked at 2 apartments, both of which were excellent.


  1. 複雑な係り受けの表現

    1. 関係代名詞の二度使いを避ける表現

      1. S1 shall V1 that S2 ,to be ~, V2 S1は、~されることになるS2がV2することを、V1するものとする。

8. Each Party shall require that hazardous wastes or other wastes, to be exported, are managed in an environmentally sound manner in the State of import or elsewhere. Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of wastes subject to this Convention shall be decided by the Parties at their first meeting.



  1. ~であって、~なもの

3. Measurement equipment falling under the following i. and ii (excluding interferometers which have no feedback function and with which slide movement errors of machine tools, measurement equipment or those similar thereto are measured by using lasers).〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

(三) 次の1及び2に該当するもの(フィードバック機能を有しない干渉計であって、レーザーを用いて工作機械、測定装置又はこれらに類するもののスライド運動誤差を測定するものを除く。)


  1. ~であって、・・・を除く

(2) The term “wages” as used in this Act shall mean the wage, salary, allowance, bonus and every other payment to a worker by the employer as remuneration for labor, regardless of the name by which such payment may be called (except for payments made by way of anything other than currency which are beyond the scope specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare).

2 この法律において「賃金」とは、賃金、給料、手当、賞与その他名称のいかんを問わず、労働の対償として事業主が労働者に支払うもの(通貨以外のもので支払われるものであつて、厚生労働省令で定める範囲外のものを除く。)をいう。


Article 18: Waste to be accompanied by certain information

1. Waste as referred to in Article 3(2) and (4) that is intended to be shipped shall be subject to the following procedural requirements: (a) In order to assist the tracking of shipments of such waste, the person under the jurisdiction of the country of dispatch who arranges the shipment shall ensure that the waste is accompanied by the document contained in Annex VII. (b) The document contained in Annex VII shall be signed by the person who arranges the shipment before the shipment takes place and shall be signed by the recovery facility or the laboratory and the consignee when the waste in question is received.

2. The contract referred to in Annex VII between the person who arranges the shipment and the consignee for recovery of the waste shall be effective when the shipment starts and shall include an obligation,

where the shipment of waste or its recovery cannot be completed as intended or where it has been effected as an illegal shipment, on the person who arranges the shipment or,

where that person is not in a position to complete the shipment of waste or its recovery (for example, is insolvent), on the consignee,


(a) take the waste back or ensure its recovery in an alternative way; and

(b) provide, if necessary, for its storage in the meantime.

The person who arranges the shipment or the consignee shall provide a copy of the contract upon request by the competent authority concerned.

3. For inspection, enforcement, planning and statistical purposes, Member States may in accordance with national legislation require information as referred to in paragraph 1 on shipments covered by this Article.

4. The information referred to in paragraph 1 shall be treated as confidential where this is required by Community and national legislation.


  1. 後ろから説明~の順番


undertake certification based on the data measured and evaluated by a power output tet undertaken in accordance with STC by a third person test organization in Japan designated by Seller.



  1. 関係代名詞


  1. 法人はthatかwhich (whoはNG)

It sounds better to use “that”. For example: The company that polluted the river was ordered to clean it out within two years.



  1. of which (S1 V1 O1 of which S2 V2 O2 = S1 V1 O1 and S2 of O1 V2 O2)

The belief that it is unwise to alter the initial response to a multiple choice question is questioned. Among 39 380 MCQ responses, there were 1818 changes (4.62%) of which 21.9% were correct to incorrect responses, 46.3% incorrect to correct responses and 31.8% incorrect to incorrect. This effect was very much more marked among the better students, incorrect to correct changes accounting for 61% of the responses in the upper group, 42% in the middle group and 34% in the lower group.


  1. whichever (A is either B or C, whichever is D)

When stock is issued for services, the transaction should be recorded at either the FMV of the stock issued or the FMV of the services rendered, whichever is more objective.(Serviceの対価として株式を発行した場合、発行株式のFair Market Valueと提供されたサービスのFMVのうちより客観的に把握できる金額により記録する)


  1. 関係代名詞の代わりに前置詞を使う

We’re having a problem that ~ = We’re having a problem with ~



  1. Defining ClauseとNon-Defining Clause



A defining or identifying clause tells us which specific person or thing we are talking about in a larger group of people or things.

A non-defining or non-essential clause gives us more information about the person or thing we are talking about.

If a defining relative clause is removed, the meaning of the sentence changes significantly. A defining relative clause is not separated from the rest of the sentence by commas or parentheses.

If a non-defining relative clause is removed from a sentence, we lose some detail, but the overall meaning of the sentence remains the same. Non-defining relative clauses are always set off from the rest of the sentence with commas or parentheses.

The woman who visited me in the hospital was very kind.

The umbrella that I bought last week is already broken.

The man who stole my backpack has been arrested.

The weather that we had this summer was beautiful.

Learn more about using defining relative clauses correctly.

The farmer, whose name was Fred, sold us 10 pounds of potatoes.

Elephants, which are the largest land mammals, live in herds of 10 or more adults.

The author, who graduated from the same university I did, gave a wonderful presentation.

My mother, who is 86, lives in Paris.




  1. 関係代名詞のRestrictive Clause(制限用法)とNonrestrictivve Clause(非制限用法)

①He has daughters who are university students.

②He has daughters, who are university students.



②は非制限用法です。この「who」は「daughters」を制限せずに、説明を加えています。そして「彼には娘がいて、その娘達全員は大学生です。」という意味になります。非制限用法の場合、先行詞はすでに特定されていますので、その特定された先行詞について全てということになります。また、非制限用法は文語的です。②の意味を口語であらわすのなら、次のように文をわけて言います。He has daughters. All of them are university students. また、非制限用法は説明を加えるというところから、「and」や「but」、「because」の意味を表すことになります。She has a sister, who often writes to her.(彼女には妹がいて、よく彼女に手紙を書きます。)We like the teacher, who is friendly.(私達はその先生が好きです、なぜなら親切だからです。)








A who are Bは、ベン図のA∧B

A, who are Bはベン図のAのみ





if the clause are deleted

the meaning change

the meaning would not change


He has daughters who are university students.

He has daughters, who are university students.

=He has daughters. All of them are university students.


Restrictive clauses limit the possible meaning of a preceding subject.

Nonrestrictive clauses tell you something about a preceding subject, but they do not limit, or restrict, the meaning of that subject.


she is his daughter who is a university student.

she is his daughter, who is a university student.


The suspect in the lineup who has red hair committed the crime.

The suspect in the lineup, who owns a red car, committed the crime.


The tiger which is over 400kg killed three man in this viledge.

The tiger, which is over 400kg, killed three man in this viledge.


The officer helped the civilians who had been shot.


The officer helped those civilians who had been shot.

(= not all of the civilians had been shot)

The officer helped the civilians, who had been shot.

(=all the civilians had been shot.)


ABCED; is the lineup.

only one person in the lineup has red hair. (e.g. A has red hair.)

ABCDE:is the lineup

One or more persons owns a red car. (e.g. A, B and C has a red car.)


Note how the subject “suspect” in this sentence is restricted in two ways: we know that this suspect is both in the lineup and has red hair. As a result, we know that the other suspects, who are not in the lineup, could not have committed the crime. Moreover, of those suspects in the lineup, we know that the one suspect in the lineup with red hair committed the crime. If there were more than one suspect in the lineup with red hair, the above usage would be incorrect because it implies a different meaning.

In this example, the restrictive clause “in the lineup” tells us that of all possible suspects in the world, the one who committed the crime is in the lineup. However, while the nonrestrictive clause “who owns a red car” tells us something about the suspect, it does not foreclose the possibility that there are several different suspects in the lineup with red cars. The car color may tell us something useful, but it does not restrict us to only one possibility.







Clauses – Restrictive and Nonrestrictive

1. Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses Defined. Restrictive clauses limit the possible meaning of a preceding subject. Compare the following examples.


2. When choosing between “that” and “which,” use “that” to introduce a restrictive clause and “which” to introduce a nonrestrictive clause. Although some writers use “which” to introduce a restrictive clause, the traditional practice is to use “that” to introduce a restrictive clause and “which” to introduce a nonrestrictive clause. When writing a restrictive clause, do not place a comma before “that.” When writing a nonrestrictive clause, do place a comma before “which.”

Correct Restrictive Use: The store honored the complaints that were less than 60 days old.

Correct Nonrestrictive Use: The store honored the complaints, which were less than 60 days old.

These sentences have different meanings as well as different punctuation. In the restrictive sentence, the store honored only those complaints less than 60 days old, but not those over 60 days old. In the nonrestrictive sentence, the store honored all the complaints, all of which were less than 60 days old.


3. Place proper punctuation around nonrestrictive clauses, but do not place punctuation around restrictive clauses. When a nonrestrictive clause appears in the middle of a sentence, place commas around it. When a nonrestrictive clause appears at the end of a sentence, place a comma before it and a period after it. Do not punctuate restrictive clauses.

Correct Punctuation of Nonrestrictive Clause: The 1964 Ford Mustang, which propelled Lee Iacocca to the top of the automobile industry, is now considered a classic.

Correct Punctuation of Nonrestrictive Clause: The credit card is in my wallet, which you can find in the kitchen drawer.

Correct Punctuation of Restrictive Clause: The boat that sailed on October 25 is the one to which we referred in the contract.



  1. 関係代名詞と前置詞





例文:She is Akiko.(彼女はアキコです。)

I talked with her yesterday.(私は彼女と昨日話しました。)


[関係代名詞+~+前置詞]She is Akiko who I talked with yesterday.

[前置詞+関係代名詞+~]She is Akiko with whom I talked yesterday.

このように、前置詞をそのままの場所に置いていても、関係代名詞の直前に持ってきてもOKです。ただ、先行詞が人で目的格の場合は、who と whom のどちらでも使えますが、上の文のように、




  1. in which


(2) This Convention does not apply to contracts in which the preponderant part of the obligations of the party who furnishes the goods consists in the supply of labour or other services.

(2) この条約は、物品を供給する当事者の義務の主要な部分が労働その他の役務の提供から成る契約については、適用しない。


A Legal Professional Corporation shall, upon its establishment, become a member of the bar association of the district in which its principal law office is located (if there are two or more bar associations in that district, the one that is specified in the Legal Professional Corporation’s articles of incorporation).



  1. 解説


1 関係代名詞との違い



例文:That is a tall building.+I build it.

=That is a tall building which I build.(A)(あれは私が建てた高いビルです。)


例文:That is a tall building.+I live in it.

=That is a tall building which I live in.(あれは私が住んでいる高いビルです。)

=That is a tall building in which I live.(B) これは関係代名詞が前置詞の目的語になっているので、「前置詞+関係代名詞」に書き換えます。




例文    :That is a tall building.+I live in it.

=That is a tall building.+I live there.(there = in it)

=That is a tall building where I live.(C)






  1. 過去分詞

    1. p.p. + at Store (byとなりそうだがatの方がなじむ)

Many dishes served at the Urban Café contain vegetables harvested by the Chef himself.


  1. the NOUN + p.p. + time

When Gadget Guide Weekly tested the laptops introduced this year, the Star 1000 was rated the most powerful.



  1. 確認的表現(狭い解釈を防止する)

    1. Also ~も





  1. without incurring を負うことなく


【WHETHER OR NOT】は、条件A,Bどちらも、結果を左右しないという意味です。


I will go whether it rains or not.

= I will go whether or not it rains.


  1. ADJ

    1. 予定されている

      1. notice contemplated by this Agreement 本契約で予定されている通知



  1. 唯一の

    1. singular; sole; unique




  1. 全部、全体⇔個別に・それぞれ⇔残りの部分・残余

    1. 全部 all


  1. Either in whole or in part 全体または一部分において


“Inspection date” refers to the date which notification of acceptance or rejection has been provided within __ days calculated from the day following the due date prescribed in Section 5 after First Party has performed an inspection immediately following delivery of translation deliverables, either in whole or in part, from Second Party.



  1. 全体





  1. 一部分 a part; a portion; a section


  1. 残りの部分・残余
    1. remainder of 残り,残余


If any portion of any Confidential Information falls within any of the above exceptions, the remainder of the Confidential Information shall continue to be subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement.





  1. 明確性、明示的⇔黙示的

    1. Apparent


  1. obvious




a fact that is admitted and has no controversy surrounding it.


  1. expressly or impliedly / explicit or implicit (明示的または黙示的)

 上記の2つの語は、対でよく使用され、契約書や法律関係のテキストで頻繁に見かける表現です。文脈によっては、express or implied、あるいはexpressed or impliedとして使われています。後で引用する加藤と丸山の対談に出てくるように、explicitやimplicitが使われることもあります。法律用語としては、「明示的または黙示的」、あるいは「明示または黙示」という日本語が使用されています。ここで取り上げたのは、ときどき、「黙示的」や「黙示」を、「暗示的」や「暗に、暗黙に」と訳している場合を見かけることがあるからです。以下に見るように、法律用語としては、「黙示的」「黙示」はすでに定着している表現です。なぜ、このような誤訳(?)が生じるのか。しかも、自他共に英語の達人とされている人たちの訳から生じているのです。ここで考えてみようと思います。


(1) All Confidential Information is provided “AS IS”, and without any warranty, whether expressed or implied, as to its accuracy or its completeness.


(2) A proposal is sufficiently definite if it indicates the goods and expressly or implicitly fixes or makes provision for determining the quantity and the price.(申入れは、物品を示し、並びに明示的又は黙示的に、その数量及び代金を定め、又はそれらの決定方法について規定している場合には、十分に確認しているものとする。)




implied power(黙示的権限)やimplied terms(黙示的条項)、implied warranty(黙示の担保責任、黙示の瑕疵担保責任)



契約書や法律用語としては、expressly or impliedlyは、「明示的または黙示的」と訳さなければならない。


•Except as stated above, this Software is provided without warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and noninfringement of third party rights or arising from a course of dealing, usage or trade practice.


•This Agreement contains the complete understanding between the parties as to the matters herein referenced and supersedes all previous understandings, whether express or implied, written or oral, regarding the matters herein referenced.




  1. 確定的な

    1. final and conclusive     確定的な


  1. 同一の、類似の

    1. Same

I have the same watch as [that] you have. ぼくは君のと同じ時計を持っている 《★【用法】 as は同種の時で that は同一の時とされているが, 現在厳密な区別はない》.

•same as always 相変わらずで、いつも通りで

give someone the same level of responsibility as (人)に~と同じ責任を負わせる


  1. the same liability as that borne by [sb] 「人」が負う責任と同一の責任

The specific successor of a unit owner shall bear the same
that borne by the unit owner pursuant to the preceding Article, even with regard to obligations of the incorporated management association that arose before his/her succession.



  1. the same liability as [sb] 「人」と同じ責任

Any person whose conduct misleads others to believe that he/she is a member shall bear the same
as a member with respect to any party who entered into a transaction with the Legal Professional Corporation as a result of being misled.


A passenger carrier shall have the same
as a freight carrier with regard to the baggage that passengers have delivered thereto, even when the passenger carrier does not claim any special freight charge for the baggage.



  1. similar

1a類似した; 同様の,同類の (⇔dissimilar) 《★【類語】 ⇒→same》.

用例 similar colors 同系色

similar nature 似通った性質

similar tastes 同じような趣味

Our opinions are similar. 我々の意見は似ている.

b【叙述的用法の形容詞】 〔+to+(代)名〕〔…と〕類似して,似通って.

用例 Your opinion is similar to mine. 君の意見は私のと似ている.

2(比較なし) 【幾何】 相似の.

用例 similar figures 相似形.

【語源】ラテン語「類似の」の意; 【名詞】 similarity,similitude





Conform to the samples

Same as the samples

Similar to the samples

Equal to samples or equivalents




  1. 似ている










  1. 客観的な⇔主観的な


  1. Objective 〈物事が〉客観的な.

an objective analysis 客観的分析.

objective evidence 客観的証拠.

an objective test 客観テスト.


  1. Subjective 主観の,主観的な; 想像(上)の (⇔objective).

a subjective test 主観テスト.

It’s a very subjective view. それはとても主観的な見方だ.


  1. 最新⇔陳腐化


  1. 最新
    1. (more up‐to‐date; most up‐to‐date) 最新(式)の,現代的な,先端的な (out‐of‐date) (cf. up to DATE1 【成句】 (2)).


  1. update

【名詞】【不可算名詞】 [具体的には 【可算名詞】]







  1. 陳腐化した
    1. obsolete; outmoded; out-of-date; obsolescent



  1. attributable

All natural persons identified below are United States citizens and the address for each is: “c/o Meredith Corporation, 1716 Locust Street, Des Moines, IA 50309”. Some persons identified below as holding 0% of the equity in an entity may own stock in amounts that would round to 0%. Percentage of Total Assets (debt plus equity) is not applicable for any respondent as there is no debt that would cause any otherwise non-attributable party to acquire attributable status as a result of operation of the “equity debt plus” rule (47 C.F.R. § 73.3555, Note 2(i)).


  1. 専用の、

for (one’s) private use

for exclusive use

single purpose

very own


to be made を入れなければ, strong arguments は「すでにされている」

to be made を入れると, strong arguments は「これからされる」つまり「今のところまだされていない」ことになります。

to be made = that should be made/that will be made など です。



  1. Categories

    1. Five Categories



      They tell the circumstances relating to the clause, such as when or where an activity took place (circumstance adverbials). She grinned widely.

      PLACE/POSITION:Put the chairs here/outside/upstairs.

      PLACE/DIRECTION:Push it inwards/down/through/out/away.

      TIME/MOMENT:They will be coming tomorrow/sometime/then/soon/later.



      how things happen

      MANNER:She spoke hesitantly.

      RESPECT:The concert was a success artistically but not financially.



      They express a speaker’s feelings, evaluation, or comments on what the clause is about (stance adverbials). In all honesty, $300 million…

      POSSIBILITY:You are certainly right. Perhaps I’m wrong.

      RESTRICTION:That is hardly true. It is only a half-truth.

      NECESSITY:The houses are necessarily/compulsorily pulled down.

      VOLITION:The boss has reluctantly/unwillingly raised my wages.

      Linking /Conjunctive

      They link the clause (or some part of it) to another clause (linking adverbials). In summary, the apartments are of high standard.


      ENUMERATION/SEQUENCE:First it’s important to get a job and secondly to save.



      EQUATION:You must take plenty of food, and likewise warm clothes.

      REINFORCEMENT:The house is small and furthermore has no garden.




      Degree/ Focusing


      COMPARISON:Sheila is more/the most/less/the least industrious as a student.

      INTENSIFICATION:She lives all alone but seems quite happy.

      RESTRICTION:That is merely a detail. He is solely interested in money.

      REINFORCEMENT:Even a child knows that.



indeed, in fact, of course, certainly


so…that (Adv-Subord)

such…that (Adj-Subord)



EPISTEMICはof or relating to knowledge or the conditions for acquiring it.だって。Modalに入れるべきか?

ATTITUDEは、manner, disposition, feeling, position, etc., with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, especially of the mind





    Prepositional Phrase

    Subordinators(Adverbial Clause)


    Sentence Connectors



    Prep + Noun

    Although SV, SV

    SV although SV

    SV, and SV

    SV. However SV

    SV; however, SV

    When; specific point in time


    last night



    early in the morning

    In 1959

    On Thursday

    At 7:00

    Before noon

    After hours

    During lunch

    By 5:00

    When I was young

    While you were here

    Once he arrived

    Before you went home

    After I finish my work

    As soon as I get there

    By the time he arrived



    (How often?)



    On Tuesdays

    Whenever you have time

    Anytime you like

    As often as you wish


    How Long?;



    For two hours

    Since last year

    Until I finish

    Since I was a young boy

    As long as you want





    In the house

    On the table

    At the store

    over, under, around, through, between, beside, beyond

    Wherever he can



    Condition (Under what conditions)

    For pay only

    If you want me to

    Unless I get paid

    Whether you like it or not












    With a fork

    Like a pig

    By train

    As a good boy does






    With a friend





    In addition




    For fun

    Because of the war

    Because I want to

    Since you are here

    So that I could win


    ※To get fat (Infinitive)




    Contrast (To show a slight/major difference)


    Despite my wishes

    In spite of his illness

    Although I didn’t do it

    Even though I didn’t

    Even if I could

    While I didn’t believe him

    Whereas she did believe him







    On the other hand



  1. Other categories







    how far?

    how long?












    how much?









    on what condition?



















    when, after, before, as soon as

    When did you first meet him?

    We first met when he became the manager of the bank.



    How long did you wait for him?

    I waited for half an hour but he didn’t arrive.



    How often have you been seeing him since then?

    Once a week, usually. More frequency, if his wife was away.



    Where did you arrange to meet him?

    I arranged to meet him outside the bank.


    because, since, as

    Why did you arrange to meet him there?

    So that he could give me the money.


    so that, in order to


    I finished work early in order to catch the 4:30 train.

    I left work early so that I could catch the 4:30 train.


    if, provided (that), so long as, in case


    You can borrow my car on Saturday, provided / so long as you return it by seven o’clock in the evening. Take a packed lunch with you, in case you get hungry.


    as if, as though


    He shook my hand warmly as if/ as though he had known me for years.


    although, whereas





I have gone through grammar books and online sites. Most of the online sites and some grammar books show that there are 5 types of adverbs.

There are adverb of manner – place – time – frequency – degree.

So, what about adverb of purpose/reason and adverb of cause/effect?

Are these types belong any other category?Please help me with this question.


The last two may be lumped under ‘manner’ for the book you’re referencing. Grammarians do vary. Quirk, et al place purpose/reason/cause/effect under the grouping called adverbs of ‘contingency’.


space position,direction, distance

time position, duration, frequency, relatioship

process manner, means, instrument, agent

respect being concerned with

contingency cause, reason, purpose, result, condition, concession

modality emphasis, approximation, restriction

degree amplification, diminution, measure






space position    the story has often been told.

process manner    The story is told in seven episodes each covering a day.

respect    He told them a story about his own children when they were very young.

contingency purpose    I tell this story for two reasons.

modality emphasis    She really is telling this story.

degree measure    …and then have the Oracle tell the story of the Poison Feast from the Drachenfels novel in full..



  1. Three major functions of Adverbials (Circumstance, Stance, Linking)

They have many semantic roles. concession, reason, location, time, attitude…

Multiple adverbials can occur in a clause, and Most adverbials are optional.



They tell the circumstances relating to the clause, such as when or where an activity took place (circumstance adverbials). She grinned widely.


They express a speaker’s feelings, evaluation, or comments on what the clause is about (stance adverbials). In all honesty, $300 million…

mostly medial position


They link the clause (or some part of it) to another clause (linking adverbials). In summary, the apartments are of high standard.


•WIDELY VARYING TYPES OF LAND ARE CULTIVATED. (widely – part of the phrase)


  1. Notable point of adverbials

–They serve a variety of functions.

–They have many semantic roles. concession, reason, location, time, attitude…

–They have a wide range of syntactic forms.

–They occur in various positions in clauses.

–Multiple adverbials can occur in a clause.

–Most adverbials are optional.


There are three classes of adverbials: circumstance, stance, and linking.

–    Circumstance adverbials are by far the most common class.


  1. Forms of Adverbials

Adverbials can take many forms: adverbs and adverb phrases, nouns and noun phrases, prepositional phrases, and finite and non-finite clauses.

Prepositional phrases are the most common form overall.

Adverbials can occur in three major positions in clauses: initial, final and medial.

–Medial position has several variants.

–In conversation and fictional dialog, some adverbials are connected with another speaker’s main clause.

The function of adverbials in their clauses sometimes varies, depending on the scope of circumstance and stance adverbials, or the amount of text connected by linking adverbials.



  1. CORE vs NON-CORE circumstantial elements


    Core circumstantial elements

    Non-core circumstantial elements (ACREAM)


    Time (when)

    Location/Place (where)

    Manner (how)

    Reason/Cause (why, for what/who)

    Accompaniment (together with whom/what?)

    Contingency (under what circumstances?)

    Role (as/into what?)

    Extent (at what interval?)

    Angle (Whose/which perspective?)

    Matter (about what? as for what?)


    1. Core Circumstances






      Mr Bean tore his shorts in the park.



      Mr Bean tore his shorts for fun.



      Mr Bean tore his shorts carelessly.



      Mr Bean tore his shorts yesterday.


    2. Non-Core Circumstances





      With whom/what?

      Mr Bean was having lunch with his girl friend.


      Under what circumstances?

      Mr Bean tore his shorts despite his girl friend’s protest.


      As/into what?

      Mr Bean tore his shorts into shreds.

      As a garment inspector, Mr Bean tore his shorts.


      At what interval?

      Mr Bean tears his shorts from Mondays to Wednesdays.


      Whose/which perspective?

      Mr Bean tore his shorts, according to his girl friend.


      About what?

      Mr Bean kept quiet about his torn shorts.


  2. Prepositions & Subordinators









    In spite of/Despite




  1. Circumstance adverbials

–Place, time, and process (especially manner) adverbials are most common overall.

–Three circumstance adverbials are extremely common in conversation and have important functions in spoken discourse: just, then, and there.


  1. position in sentence

•Circumstance adverbials can appear in initial, medial, and final position.


initial position

medial position

final position

commonly used to maintain given/new information structure or when the adverbial has scope over a series of clauses.

common for addition/restriction and degree adverbs that have limited scope, and for short adverbials of time.

the most common position for circumstance adverbials in general.

often serves special functions: especially

・signaling cohesion or information flow, and framing subsequent discourse.


the most common position for both finite and non-finite clauses.



  1. Circumstance adverbials that are clauses

•Clausal circumstance adverbials have some special types of meaning in addition to the meanings of non-clausal circumstance adverbials.

–    For example: Conditional clauses can express open, hypothetical (unreal), and rhetorical conditions.

–    Additional semantic categories are preference, proportion, and supplement.

•Finite clauses are much more common than non-finite clauses.

–    They also have a number of advantages over non-finite clauses, such as a wider range of meanings and an explicitly stated subject.

•Subordinators begin the great majority of finite clauses but are rare with non-finite clauses.



  1. SO(すごく・だから)イメージは「→」;強意副詞、先行文脈を受ける語、接続詞としてもOK



These puppies are so cute! すごくかわいい!(だから抱きしめちゃいたい)



I forgot my girlfriend’s birthday, so she got really mad at me.



Has Tim arrived yet?――I don’t think so.

I love Lady Gaga.――So do I.(助動詞Doが前に出ているので、”Me too”よりも勢いがある。)

so… (that)


I was so tired I couldn’t sleep.(疲れすぎていて眠れなかった)

The teacher’s explanation was so long and complicated that not even the best students could follow it.


  1. SUCH;イメージは「指さし」(矢印)


These kids are amazing. They train every day, rain, hail or shine. Such dedication is hard to find these days.


Shinobu is such a geek!

I’ve never seen you wearing such bright colors.

such as … (・・・のような)

I like different kinds of movies, such as action, horror, comedy, and so on.

I think our school has many good point.――Such as?

such … that ~(とても・・・なので~)

He was such a loser that I dumped him after the first date!



  1. TOO;イメージは「行き過ぎ(否定的なニュアンスを伴う)」

I thought the movie was too long.

too ~ to …

It’s too hot to play tennis.


  1. RATHER;イメージは「対比」

This steak is rather tasteless, don’t you think?(思ったよりもまずい、という対比が隠れている)



  1. would rather むしろ~したい

Lots of people are into sports or hobbies, but I‘d rather just hang out with my friend.


  1. but rather そうじゃなくて

The problem is not a lack of intelligence, but rather a lack of motivation.


  1. rather than … ・・・というよりも

Actually, it’s a small apartment rather than a house.




  1. NOW;イメージは「今+勢い」(「さあ」「さて」など文に勢いを与える。)


I’m free now.(


Now, let’s move on to the next item on the agenda.

Now, if I were the boss, I would give everyone a pay raise!


by now


The paint should be dry by now.

just now


for now


Just put your bags on the floor for now.



Was that the phone




  1. THEN; 未来や過去の一時点をあらわす表現


  1. 一時点

It was then that I remembered where I’d seen her face before.

I’m going to the concert too, so I’ll see you then.


  1. イメージ「→」;「これから」と気軽に付け加える単語。

We went to Los Angeles and then to Las Vegas.

Nobody home? He must be still at work then.

A big typhoon is coming.――We’d better cancel classes, then.

Okay then. We’ll all meet there next Wednesday.

Now then, what would you like to do today?


  1. if + then; もし・・・それなら・・・と論理性に力点を置いた言い方

Well, if Hank is refusing to do it, then I guess I’ll have to.




  1. AGO; (話し手基準で、現在から過去に遡る)~前 ⇔ SINCE(過去から現在に向かう感覚で)~から

My dad died 15years ago.


a minute ago;ちょっと前

a while ago;しばらく前

a long time ago; ずっと以前

ages ago; ずっと以前



I’ve had a part-time job since 6 months ago.(6か月前から)とは言えない。

正しくはI’ve had a part-time job for 6 months.


  1. BEFORE; (現在以外を基準に)~前

Miyuki told me about her strange dream, and it was really funny because I had had the same dream 3 days before.



  1. ALREADY; 完了(できごとが「すでに」完了していることを示す)

I’ve already seen that movie.


  1. YET;未完了(できごとがまだ完了しておらず、後に続くこと)



Has the game started yet? ――No, not yet.



She’s still very young, yet she is a true entrepreneur. It’s a small apartment, and yet there’s lots of storage space.



This could turn out to be her most successful book yet.


  1. EVER; 任意の時点(いつのことでもいいんだけど・・・)”any”の時間バージョン

    1. いつのことでもいい

Have you ever been to France?

Nobody ever sleeps in Chris’s class. He’s too scary!

Many students hardly ever speak English outside of class.


  1. 強調

If you are ever in Barcelona, make sure you give me a call.

This is the best pizza ever!


  1. for ever;永久に

I hope our friendship will last for ever.


  1. as ever;いつものように

As ever, Jim was the only one not to pay for a round of drinks.


  1. ever since;それからずっと

My son has been happier ever since he changed school.


  1. ever after;その後ずっと

Lots of children’s stories end with; “They lived happily ever after”


  1. whatever; なんでも(いつのことでもいい⇒選択の自由⇒なんでも)

I’ll support you whatever you decide.


  1. NEVER; =not … at any time(~したことはない)




  1. JUST;ピタッ(ちょうど・まさに・~だけ等)


(基準に照らして)ズレがない。「これ以上でもこれ以下でもない」(no more and no less)




Mom! Your percel has just arrived.


I just can’t stand my sister’s new boyfriend!(まさにcan’tだよ)

These new desigs are just stunning.(まさにstunningだ)


You are just like your mother.

We had just enough money to buy a ticket home.

More discipline is just what our school requires.


Our latest laptop will sell at just 80,000yen.

Don’t worry――it’s just a small technical hitch.

Just call me Ken.

Can I just use your cell phone.



  1. just because ひとつの理由だけ示し、他の理由がない。


今朝、「just because」についての記事を書こうと思っていましたが、書けば書くほど、「just because」の使い方は本当に複雑だなと気がつきました。もし分かりにくいところがある場合、教えて下さい。

基本的に、「just because」は「この理由だけだから」という意味になります。以下の二つの例文は「just because」と「because」の違いを示します。


It’s just because they don’t know. ただ知らないだけなんです。

It’s because they don’t know. 知らないからです。


通常、「just because」を使う時には一つの理由だけを示します。他の理由はありません。「because」を使う時には、 一つの理由を示すことが出来ますが、他の理由もあるかもしれないというニュアンスがあります。


否定文で「just because」を使うと、逆の意味になります。この場合、「ある理由に限りません」という意味です。


It’s not because I’m English. イギリス人だからという理由ではありません。

It’s not just because I’m English. イギリス人だからという理由に限りません。


ネイティブは喧嘩をしている時には、「just because」でよく文章を始めます。



Just because……. doesn’t mean that ……. . だからというだけで。。。。。 とは限らない。

Just because he’s rich, doesn’t mean that he has a nice house. 金持ちという理由だけで、いい家に住んでいるとは限らない。

Just because you want my girlfriend, doesn’t mean that you can tell me what to do. 彼女だからって、あんたの言いなりにはならないよ。


最後に、「just because」を台詞として用いる利用法を紹介しましょう。この場合、意味が全く異なります。


Why do you like this song?

Just because.




ここには、理由を聞かれましたが、理由はないや理由をいうのは面倒臭いと思っている時には、「just because」で答えます。


  1. EVEN; さえ、すら(レベルの高低を表す強意表現。意外・驚きを伴う極端なレベルを表す。)

Some new graduates can’t even make a spreadsheet.

Even my little kid can do that much!

Question 4 was even more difficult.


  1. even so;たとえそうであっても(そこまでは認めるよ。ただしね、、、)


This guy seems perfect for the job. Even so, I want to see all the other applicants.


  1. HERE・THERE(ここ・そこ)(比喩的な場所にも気軽に使える)

He got stopped by the police for speeding, but his troubles didn’t end there because he also drunk!

I don’t have time to go into detail here, I’m afraid.



  1. WELL; よく・十分に・健康な(さまざまな要素を勘案して判断した結果、まぁ満足かな)

My Dad is doing well after his operation.

How are you and your family?――Oh, we’re all well, thank you very much.

You lost the match, but you played well.


  1. 強意語としてのWell

Your daughter’s English skills are well above average.

I love his new movie, It’s well worth seeing.


  1. 思考をあらわすWell

Well, let’s wait and see how things turn out.



  1. UP・DOWN(上下→増減、接近、出現/消失、完全、良い/悪い、活発/沈滞)

    1. 上下

They’ve gone hiking up in the mountains.

I need to sit down for a while. I’m exhausted.


  1. 増減

The number of road fatalities went up/down this year.

The temperature went up/down.

You’d better speed up, if you want to finish on time.

Could you speak up, please?


  1. 接近のup

Bad karma always catches up with you.

Coming up, a fascinating documentary entitled Inside Asia.


  1. 出現のup / 消失のdown(土の中から芽が出てくるように)

My date didn’t show up.

We have to think up a foolproof plan.

I’ve been busy grading my classes: 4 down 3 to go.


  1. 完全

I need to fill up the car with gas before we set off.

It’s going to take us forever to clean up this mess.

My old car has broken down again. Time for a change.

Hey, just shut up, will you?


  1. 良い/悪い

I’ve always looked up to my parents.

Some of my colleagues look down on me because I didn’t go to an Ivy League school.

We all have ups and downs in life.


  1. 活発/沈滞

I woke up late today.

The flowers you sent me really cheered me up.

The whole nation was down after the terrible earthquake.


  1. OUT

Let’s eat out today.

Get out!

Is Namie going out with Daiki? (外出する・デートする)

They carried out the plan to perfection.(机上の計画を外に持ち出す)

With her ability, she’ll always stand out.(外にはみ出して目立つ)

Truth will out.

I found out where they were hiding.(隠れていたものが外に出てくる)


  1. 逸脱・脱出

Statement T-shirts are out this year.(望ましい状態からの脱出)

The students were getting out of control, so the Headmaster stepped in.

We can’t rule out the possibility of further job losses.(

I’m sure we can work it out.

My friend helped me out after my accident.

I’l try to talk her out of going there alone.


  1. なくなる

We’re running out of milk.

pass out;意識がなくなる

wear out;磨り減る

die out;絶滅する

black out;停電


  1. 完全

Just hear me out, OK?

I was impressed by their extremely well-through-out proposal.

Fill out this form.


  1. OFF

    1. 離れる

I’m off.

Don’t you think that’s a bit off?

I’m getting off at the next station.

Take off your shoes.


  1. 活動から離れる

Don’t forget to turn your cell phone off.

I get off work in about half an hour, so we could grab a coffee.

The TV is never off in their house!



  1. COMMENT, ATTITUDE: (話し手の)評価・(発言)態度をあらわす副詞(文頭が定位置)

Happily, no one was badly injured.

Clearly, we cannot handle this situation alone.

Honestly, I have no idea where she went.

As far as I know, John is the only one with a key to the safe.


  1. 話し手の評価



Clearly, we cannot handle this situation alone.









Happily, no one was badly injured.


















  1. 発言態度


    As far as I know






Honestly, I have no idea where she went.

As far as I know, John is the only one with a key to the safe.



  1. 【!】EMPHASIS

of course

  1. 明らかに、明白に

    1. apparently

Apparently, the package was not handled right. 《レ》荷物が適切に扱われなかったことは明らかです。◆注文◆破損


  1. apparentlyとIt seems that



Natural English Expressions 6: About “Apparently”

Good evening, everyone!

Recently, I’ve noticed a lot of people using “it seems that”.

There’s nothing wrong with that, but normally, it’s more natural to use “apparently”.

For example:


It seems that ~



It seems that Akira lost the match.

Apparently, Akira lost the match.


formal feel

in normal situations


“Apparently” is a big word, so I find the fact that it’s used so often quite strange.

Nevertheless, in a lot of situations, “apparently” is the best choice.




Example A:

Example B:

In Japanese: あきらさんはその試合で負けそうです。

(Of course, “I heard Akira lost the match.” is natural too.)

To native speakers, B sounds more natural than A.


This is because “it seems that” has a formal feel to it.

So, if you say it in a normal situation, people might think you have a stiff way of talking.

To show you what I mean, I’ll give another example.

Example: Doctor, it seems that we’ve made a grave error.

In Japanese: 博士、大変な間違いをいたしそうでした。

In that sentence, it would be kinda weird to use “apparently”.

So, please use “apparently” in normal situations, and “it seems that” in formal ones.

Anyway, that’s all I’ve got! Sorry about the short entry, but since this is kinda simple, I don’t think a long explanation is necessary.

Still, if you have any questions, feel free to ask them.

Next time, “The Difference Between ‘if I was’ and ‘if I were'”. Please look forward to it!

Thanks for reading!



  1. MentalVerb + that ; 話者の主観


I’m sure




I believe


Which of your dairy products are produced locally?—All of them, I believe.

I think


I don’t think there are any other hotels close by, aren’t there?

I reassure [sb] that ~


I nevertheless would like to reassure you upon the fact that ‘this exclusivity wording not being relevant any more’ should not be translated in any specific intend from us with regards to our partnership.

I’d say ~



What can we do to expand our customer base?—Change our marketing strategy, I’d say.

Says [sb](me/you) 


Says Vargas, “Dr. Christal has a bright future here. We are lucky to have him.”

I mean









    1. fundamentals

We use comment adverbs to include a comment or opinion about what is being said or written.

We can use some of them such as probably in mid position, but we usually put comment adverbs such as surprisingly or of course in front or end position with commas.


e.g. probably, surprisingly, of course, definitely, obviously, fortunately, seriously, actually, apparently, certainly, frankly, honestly no doubt, presumably, sadly


It was probably a misunderstanding

Surprisingly, he failed.

I’ll refund the cost, of course.


We can use comment adverbs such as definitely and obviously to say how sure we are and others such as fortunately and seriously to say how we feel.


I’ll definitely call you tonight.

Obviously, someone forgot to lock the door.

Fortunately, no one was injured in the crash.

We’re seriously thinking about moving to the country.



  1. It sounds like ~



  1. FREQUENCY(How Often?) an activity occurs?

  1. Fundamentals



    always, nearly always, usually, often, frequenty, sometimes, occasionally, selcom, rarely, hardly ever, never, daily, seldom, monthly, every month


    in each case, on Tuesdays




    As often as you wish


    1. 限定の副詞②; 頻度副詞(動詞の前に置く)





  1. Indefinite Interval



    We always take the garbage out at night. (≒nearly always)

    We routinely take the garbage out at night.

    As a rule, we take the garbage out at night.

    In general, we take the garbage out at night. (There are few exceptions.)

    We normally take the garbage out at night. (Unless something unexpected prevents this.)

    We usually take the garbage out at night. (Sometimes we’re too tired.)

    50 %~70%

    Most of time, we take the garbage out at night. (Sometimes we forget to.)

    We often take out the recyclables.

    We frequently take out the recyclables. (We take it out when the container is full.)

    Half of the time, we take out the recyclables.


    We sometimes take batteries out.

    We occasionally take batteries out.

    On occasion, we take batteries out.

    We rarely take batteries out. (We don’t use many batteries.)

    We seldom take batteries out.

    We hardly ever take batteries out. (Use ever after a negative word.)

    0% (not at all)

    We never take hazardous waste out. (We use them up and then recycle the containers.)

    We don’t ever take hazardous waste out. (Use ever after a negative word.)


    1. frequently

Zellacor Software, Inc., frequently hires part-time programmers and information technology specialists.


  1. definite interval (at what interval?)

hourly, daily, weekly, fortnightly, montly, quarterly, annually, yearly





  • The word “bimonthly” is ambiguous and best avoided. Bimonthly can mean “twice a month” or “every two months”.


Mr Bean tears his shorts from Mondays to Wednesdays.




happening on one day, week etc, but not on the day, week etc that immediately follows



once every year



a biennial event happens once every two years



happening or produced twice a month or every two months



relating to a period of 24 hours, especially to the changes in people’s or animals’ bodies that happen during this period



done or happening every day



very formal



happening every 30 minutes



happening once every hour



happening or published once a month



happening every night



happening every three years

a month at a time


for one whole month each time

night after night


every night for a long period of time

once a week/month/year etc


happening one time each week/month/year etc

once every three days/four years etc


happening one time every three days/four years etc

an/per hour


at a rate based on an hour of a particular activity

week in (and) week out


every week for a long time

year on year


used for talking about situations in which something continues to change or develop every year



  1. ○年毎、○月毎

For drug substances with a proposed re-test period of at least 12 months, the frequency of testing at the long term storage condition should normally be every 3 months over the first year, every 6 months over the second year, and annually thereafter through the proposed re-test period.



  1. 回数を伴う頻度表現

<週に一度>once a weekなど。

in each case その都度、いずれの場合にも

from time to time 時々

•by means determined from time to time by the parties hereto 本契約当事者が適宜決定する方法[手段]により


once 1回

at least once every __ years•少なくとも_年毎に1回



    1. 定期的に;periodically

13. Parties shall undertake to review periodically the possibilities for the reduction of the amount and/or the pollution potential of hazardous wastes and other wastes which are exported to other States, in particular to developing countries.



  1. 継続的に

on a continuing basis

on a continuous basis

on an ongoing basis

without (any) [with no] interruption






  1. 一定の時間的間隔で at reasonable intervals

Regularly 規則正しく、定期的に

at certain intervals 間隔で

at intervals in accordance with ~に従った間隔で


  1. DEGREE/EXTENT (HOW MUCH?/TO WHAT EXTENT?); to say to what extent something is done or felt

extremely, not, quite, rather, really, terribly, too, very, harder, enough,


  1. 肯定・否定



  1. Negation(否定)

    1. notは前から

      1. 否定文の作り方

否定文の意識:ネイティブはまず打ち消してしまう。I don’tとかYou can’tなどと文をはじめてしまう。


助動詞+ not (e.g. I can’t play the piano.)

助動詞がない場合do+not(e.g. Most kids don’t like jazz.)

be動詞はbe+not (e.g. I’m not happy)


  1. 語句を否定する

Who let the cat out of the bag?—Not me!

This apartment is not for rent.

He’ll win not because he’s the better player but because he’s stronger mentally.


  1. not ~ any まったく~ない

I don’t have any friend.

N.G. Anyone didn’t attend the meeting. ⇒OK Everyone didn’t attend the meeting.

notは常に後ろを否定するから、any notの語順は不可能。


  1. 「強い単語」(really, alwaysなど)とのコンビネーション(それほど~ではない)

I don’t really like your new car.(それほど好きではない)

I really don’t like your new car.(本当に嫌い)

My girl friend is not always on time.(いつもではない)

My girlfriend is always not on time!(いつも時間通りではない)


  1. notのクセ

    1. 否定の前倒し(思う系の動詞, I don’t think ~)

Useful:    I don’t think it’s right.

Avoid:    I think it’s not right.


思う系の動詞(imagine, suppose, expect, seem etc…)は、意味が軽いため、否定の効力が中身に達する。


I fear that they will not accept our offer.とI don’t fear that they will accept our offer.では意味が違ってしまう。


  1. notを含んだ文に対する受け答え:相手のnotは勘定に入れない

Do you like your school uniform?—Yes, I do/ No, I don’t.


  1. notを含んだ文に対する受け答え:notを明示する

You’re not leaving me, right?—Of course not!

I didn’t go to work today.—Why not?


  1. 文の代わりにnot

Did you manage to get tickets for tonight7s game?—I’m afraid not.(残念ながらNOTだよ)

Do you think it will rain tomorrow?—I hope not.(NOTだといいな。)

Have you finished your homework?—Not yet.(まだNOTだよ)

I’m afraid I’ve been wasting your time—Not at all.(全然NOTですよ。どういたしまして。全然気になされないでください。)

I should be able to fix it by tomorrow.—If not, you’ll have to wait till Monday.(もし駄目なら)

Could you join us for dinner tonight?—If you don’t mind, I’d rather not. I’ve got a toothache.(どちらかというとやめておきたい)

  1. notを使ったさまざまな表現



One thing’s for sure, I will not give in without a fight.



The game is not over until the final whistle.

not only A but (also) B



Hey, these chocolates are not only for you but for your sister too.

The doctor told me not only to quit smoking but to go on a diet.

He not only directed but starred in it.

She is not only talented but confident—she’ll go a long way.

not A but B



Look, he messed up not once but three times, so I had to fire him!

My teachers don’t put me down but give me self-confidence.

cannot … to =


cannot help –ing


cannot but ~


not anymore


They used to be good friends, but they aren’t anymore.

not quite


The carpenters haven’t quite finished the job yet.

A, if not B


My brother loves baseball. He’s an enthusiastic, if not gifted, player.

not the least~


I haven’t the least ​idea (= I do not ​know) who he was.

She hasn’t the least ​interest (= she has no ​interest) in the ​project.



  1. in no way(少しも~ない) 副詞として使う




限定の副詞①; 程度副詞(さまざまな程度表現)





























a (little) bit

a little










  1. quite

She lives all alone but seems quite happy.


  1. 強意表現の副詞

considerably 《higher》; rather 《expensive》; 《口語》 a good bit 《taller》; 《口語》 good and 《short》; 《口語》 pretty 《good》《★「かなり」を fairly と訳す傾向があるが, fairly は意味が弱く適訳ではない》




(比較なし) [形容詞・他の副詞を修飾して] かなり,相当; ずいぶん,非常に.

considerable 《expense》


for a considerable timeかなり長い間

a sizable [considerable] sum of moneyかなりの大金

quite a 《task》


(for) quite a long time [a while] かなり長い間

a lot of 《people》


quite a bit of 《time》


a decent [respectable] income








rather a [a rather] large house

a pretty big house

a good‐sized house


  1. ADV; 数量・程度




Sheila is more/the most/less/the least industrious as a student.


  1. as if, as though

He shook my hand warmly as if/ as though he had known me for years.


  1. ADJ-程度に関する形容

    1. 同等以上

X will have a right of first refusal to purchase the same shares on conditions no less favorable than applicabel to the said third party.



  1. 重大な

    1. Material ⇔ Immaterial

Borrower will not violate any laws, rules or regulations.



  1. MAC (Material Adverse Change)

Borrower will not violate any material laws, rules or regulations.


  1. 何について重大であるか?

Borrower will not violate any laws, rules or regulations in a manner that could reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on Borrower’s business or financial condition.


  1. adverse effectを定義する方法

“Material adverse effect” means any material adverse effect on the Borrower’s business, assets, liabilities, prospects or condition (financial or otherwise).


Since the Closing Date, no event, act or condition has occurred that courld reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company.


  1. Prepondent

(2) This Convention does not apply to contracts in which the preponderant part of the obligations of the party who furnishes the goods consists in the supply of labour or other services.

(2) この条約は、物品を供給する当事者の義務の主要な部分が労働その他の役務の提供から成る契約については、適用しない。


  1. 強弱







  1. 厳しい・厳格⇔緩い・寛容








  2. 著しく、かなり

significant, significantly


  1. kind of ある(多い、または、少ない)程度において

(to some (great or small) extent)

he is kind of shy 彼はちょっと内気である


  1. excessive

“I find that the requested attorneys’ fee is excessive. My conclusion is not intended to diminish the commendable efforts of class counsel, who have worked vigorously and ably to achieve these outcomes,” the judge said. But he still found their pursuit of 33 percent of the total settlement fund was “unreasonable.”


  1. 完全に、実質的に

    1. completely


  1. substantially 実質的に

Substantially in the form of 実質的に同じ書式で




As a condition to the effectiveness of this Lease, the Lessee shall execute and deliver a solvency certificate substantially in the form of the solvency certificate delivered by the Lessee to XYZ Realty Co. on September 20, 2005.



  1. materially & substantially

Materially and substantially changed is a phrase commonly used in the context of support determinations in domestic relations law, as well as various other contexts. There is no precise definition of this subjective term, but it is generally interpreted as a change which is significant and has a noticeable impact on the current situation. It is a change which is important in terms of value, degree, amount, or extent.


In the context of child support payments, a material and substantial change in circumstances may justify a request for payment modification. For example, a parent’s loss of job or significant salary increase may be considered a material and substantial change. In another example, a child’s enrollment in summer camp may be considered a material and substantial change. The interpretation of a material and substantial change varies and depends on the views of the person ulimately reponsible for making the determination, such as a judge.


  1. in form and substance satisfactory 満足する形式および内容の


formとsubstanceは別である。したがって、形式について言及するならばin form satisfactoryとだけ記述すればよい。


in form and substance satisfactoryを追記することにより、書式作成(交付)義務者に対し、書式のないようの正確性や形式の点で一定の制約を課すことができる。


The Contractor shall deliver a plumbing subcontract in form and substance satisfactory to the Owner.



  1. in form and substance reasonably satisfactory 合理的に満足する形式および内容の


in form and substance satisfactoryは権利者に広範な裁量を与える。そこで、裁量を制限するためにreasonablyを追記する。


The Contractor shall deliver a plumbing subcontract in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Owner.



The Bank will, at the request of the Borrower, issue one or more letters of credit in a form satisfactory to the Bank.



  1. all or substantially all 実質的にすべて/相当な部分


  1. all or substantially all

The Company may not sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its assets.



  1. all or substantial portion of ~

Substantial portion of ~ は、Substantially allと比べて制限を若干緩和するもの。

The Company may not sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantial portion of its assets.



  1. 正確性

    1. おおよそ

Approximately when will your work finish?


  1. 重要

    1. central to ~ ~にとって重要な

Creative Director Ray Rabelo’s unique ideas have been central to our reputation as a leading design firm.



  1. FOCUSING(限度、限定); to draw attention to one part of the sentence



only, inparticular, at least


  1. Addition and Limitation





as well









not only







  1. Partial Limitation, Negative, Choice and Surprise










in particular



at least

for the most part (mostly)

by and large (mostly)


neither /nor






  1. especially

(more especially; most especially) 特に,とりわけ; 特別に 《★【類語】 especially は他のものと比較してそれよりとりわけ程度が高い,すぐれていることを表わす; specially はある特別の用途・目的のために特にという意味; particularly はいくつかある同種のものの中から特定のものを選び出して特に,と特定化する》.

It’s especially cold today. きょうは特に寒い.


  1. mostly 大部分は、たいていは

Our students are mostly hardworking. うちの学生は大部分はよく勉強する.

He works mostly at night. 彼はたいてい夜仕事する.



  1. 個別に、それぞれに




with respect to each frequency•周波数毎に

in a personalized manner [way, fashion]



individually, particularly




Cancellation with less than __ days notice will be separately negotiated with good faith.《契約書》


On a case-by-case basis


It means the rules apply differently to each case depending upon the circumstances surrounding the case.

license on a case-by-case basis個別許可

make the decision on a case-by-case basis 個別に判断を下す



In this Act, the meanings of the terms listed in the following items shall be as prescribed respectively in said items:





That is hardly true. It is only a half-truth.


These shoes are ridiculously expensive.(ばかばかしい程高い)

The tea was steaming hot.(湯気が出るほど熱い)

You stole it just because your mates told you to?(~という理由だけで)

I was bad-mouthing Jim and he was standing right behind me!(すぐ後ろに)

You can use cell phones only in this area.(このエリアだけ

He almost/nearly missed his flight.(ほとんど乗り遅れた)

I kind of love her.

We hardly talk anymore.





  1. 必要最小限度

    1. only to the minimum extent necessary必要最小限の範囲に限り

Principle 14 of the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms states “In the dispersal of violent assemblies, law enforcement officials may use firearms only when less dangerous means are not practicable and only to the minimum extent necessary.



  1. minimum necessary必要最小限度の

(2) The conditions set forth in the preceding paragraph shall be those minimum necessary for ensuring assured implementation of matters pertaining to the permission or approval set forth in the preceding paragraph.

2 前項の条件は、同項の許可又は承認に係る事項の確実な実施を図るため必要最小限のものでなければならない。



necessary measure必要な措置



  1. 上限

    1. up to a ceiling of~を上限として


  1. up to maximum of ~

pay benefits up to an annual maximum benefit of __ per person



  1. in up to ~

in up to …


occur in up to __% of ~ ~の最大_%に起こる[生じる・発生する]




  1. 制限(~に限る)

    1. A field-of-use limitation

A field-of-use limitation is a provision in a patent license that limits the scope of what the patent owner authorizes a manufacturing licensee (that is, a licensee that manufactures a patented product or performs a patented process) to do in relation to the patent, by specifying a defined field of use — that is, a defined field of permissible operation by the licensee. In addition to affirmatively specifying the field of use, the license may negatively specify a field or fields, by specifying fields of use from which the licensee is excluded.


By way of example, such a license might authorize a licensee to manufacture patented engines only for incorporation into trucks, or to manufacture a chemical only for sale to farmers (as contrasted with home gardeners). If the licensee exceeded the scope of the licensee, it would commit patent infringement. More generally, this kind of license permits the licensee to use the patented invention in some, but not all, possible ways in which the invention could be exploited. In an exclusive field-of-use license the licensee is the only person authorized to use the invention in the field of the license.


The concept of fields of use and field-of-use limitations is explained in the article The Doctrine of the General Talking Pictures Case. Field-of-use limitations in patent licenses may raise antitrust issues when such arrangements are used to allocate markets or create cartels.


  1. limited to ~ ~に限る

•ABC’s sole obligation under this warranty shall be limited to using its best efforts to correct any defects in such conformance and supply you with a corrected version of the Software as soon as practicable after you have notified ABC of such defects.



(1) A director, accounting advisor (when the accounting advisor is a juridical person, a member who is supposed to conduct the duty), company auditor, or executive officer of a Financial Instruments Business Operator (limited to those engaged in Securities-Related Business; hereinafter the same shall apply in this Article (excluding paragraph (4)) shall not concurrently hold a position of director, accounting advisor, company auditor, or executive officer (including any equivalent person) or work as an employee for a Parent Bank, etc. of said Financial Instruments Business Operator.




  1. 限定


  1. JUST

You stole it just because your mates told you to?(~という理由だけで)



  1. Only

You can use cell phones only in this area.(このエリアだけ

•The Products sold to Buyer shall bear only such warranties and guarantees by Seller as per the Exhibit B attached hereto and made a part of this Agreement unless otherwise agreed in writing by Seller.



  1. Onlyの位置について


“God only knows”


「神のみぞ知る」だと、”Only god knowでしょうか?

「彼は日本でしかライブをしない」は”He perform concerts in only Japan” でしょうか?



.実は、God only knowsというのは慣用句なのでそのほうが自然的です。昔の英語では単語の順番はもっと自由でしたがその影響でしょう。使い方は、たとえば探し物がとんでもない意外な場所にあったとしたらGod only knows how it got there(直訳:どうやってそこに着いたかは神しか知っていない)と言います。ただし、普通はGod only knowsの後にhow, what, when, where, whyなどの言葉で始まる文が続くので「神のみぞ知る世界」をThe World God Only Knowsと訳すると少しだけ不自然です。


Onlyの位置には少し余裕があります。たとえば「彼は日本でしかライブをしない」の場合はHe performs concerts only in JapanでもHe only performs concerts in Japanでも同じ意味と受けられます。He only performs concerts in Japanのほうが曖昧ですが、話し言葉でひろく使われています。In only Japanは「日本しかで」みたいな言い方になっています。前置詞がある場合は日本語の「しか」の位置の正反対みたいな感じです。




I only eat fishは「私は魚しか食べない」の意味です。「魚は食べるだけ」の意味で言いたいときは”I only EAT fish”と、声でeatの部分を強く言います。もちろん、I eat only fishも正しいです。


I only eat fish on Mondaysは曖昧ですが「魚は月曜日にだけ食べる」と思う人が多いという気がします。「月曜日には魚しか食べない」とはっきり言いたいときは、I only eat FISH on MondaysやOn Mondays, I only eat fishなどと言います。






He performs concerts in Japan only. 彼は日本でしかライブをしない。


  1. only if [when] ~の場合に限り

if and only if〔【略】iff◆数学で必要十分条件を表す時によく使われる。〕•~の時かつその時に限り

only when there is no possibility of•~の恐れがない場合に限り


  1. ONLY IF 「ある特定の条件下のみ」という意味です。

I will go tomorrow only if it is warm.

Only if it is warm will I go tomorrow.




only in cases in which 「which以下」の場合に限り


•Any waiver or amendments of any provision of this Agreement will be effective only if in writing and signed by the parties.


•Any delay occurring in the deliveries of subcontractors shall be regarded as a force majeure impediment only if it has been caused by events defined above.




  1. only available when


I cannot add additional toolbar buttons in Acrobat reader, it says “only available when document rights are enabled” (see the screen-shot bellow). I cannot highlight texts in pdf documents.

I have already set the permission for the document as “read and write”.


  1. only where

(3) An exclusive license may be transferred only where the business involving the working of the relevant invention is also transferred, where the consent of the patentee is obtained or where the transfer occurs as a result of general succession including inheritance.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

3 専用実施権は、実施の事業とともにする場合、特許権者の承諾を得た場合及び相続その他の一般承継の場合に限り、移転することができる。


  1. only on condition that

Tachikawa Machines shall pay Chicago Realty Group for the property only on condition that it is established as unencumbered.

Q,  in the event と on condition that はどう違うのか?


  1. only for the purpose of ~のみを目的として

be used only for educational purposes•教育目的に限って使用される


The Licensee agrees to use all technical information only for the purpose of manufacturing the licensed products.


Maker acknowledges and undertakes that it shall use such documents and drawings only for the purpose of the Development, and for such other purposes as Buyer may require under this Agreement, and for no other purposes, whatsoever.



  1. 無制限に

    1. 無制限に、限定なしに、留保なく

without (any) [with no] limit

without (any) [with no] limitation

without (any) [with no] qualification

without (any) [with no] restriction


  1. Apart from ~

Apart from their classroom value, thinking of good questions also helps inexperienced teachers to understand the complexities of form, function and meaning, and to practise grading their language. Some basic tips for good concept questions are:


  1. without [sb] Doing

Elizabeth has a lot of friends and cannot walk down the street without people saying hello to her.







    1. MANNER (HOW)(仕方・様態・手段・方法)

e.g. “How did she announce it?” – “calmly”


ROLE (As/into what?)

Mr Bean tore his shorts into shreds.

As a garment inspector, Mr Bean tore his shorts.


  1. Fundamentals

Adverbs of manner tell us how something happens.


quickly, slowly, sloppily, well, ill, wrong, badly, fast, wisely, foolishly, easily, happily, bravely, right, slowly


With, Like, By






  1. Most of them do end in “-ly”.

like this:

– How did they sleep? ~ they slept peacefully

– How well does the dance ~ She dances sublimily.

But common exceptions include:

hard fast straight late


  1. position

Adverbs of manner are usually placed after the main verb. e.g. He swims fast.

It is possible to place the adverb before the verb. This place emphasis on the adverb. e.g. She calmly announced that she had fallen in love with someone else.


  1. ADV

angrily    badly    beautifully    calmingly

carefully    cautiously    cleverly    dangerously

eagerly    excitedly    foolishly    fast

furiously    greedily    happily    hard

hurriedly    kindly    nervously    politely

quickly    quietly    secretly    silently

slowly    softly    stupidly    unhappily

well    wickedly    willingly    wisely


  1. cooperatively

deal cooperatively with continuing problems継続的な諸問題に協力して対処する



  1. 手段により、方法により、やり方により

    1. In the manner determined by ~ ~で定める方法により

(2) A Designated Investigation Institution shall conduct a Soil Contamination Investigation, etc. fairly and in the manner prescribed by the Ordinance of the Ministry of the Environment under Article 3, paragraph (1) and Article 16, paragraph (1).

2 指定調査機関は、公正に、かつ、第三条第一項及び第十六条第一項の環境省令で定める方法により土壌汚染状況調査等を行わなければならない。


  1. in some way 何らかの方法で

In computer programming, you need to store things in memory, things like numbers and strings of text. You store them so that you can retrieve them later and manipulate the numbers or strings of text in some way.


  1. 同様に
    1. likewise 【副】


・If you can do likewise, that would be great. : 同じようにして戴ければ最高です。


•We will send you printed documents together with the data. We would appreciate it if you could do likewise.


No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.


  1. like never before かつてないほど

Ironically, in 2015, the PC hardware for that touchscreen future is now here — everything from 2-in-1s such as the Lenovo Yoga line to convertible tablets with detachable keyboards, like Microsoft’s own Surface. And Windows 10 smoothly lets users transition from “tablet” to “PC” mode on such devices like never before.



  1. AS

    1. as/ just as ~ ~するように

The fillm depicts life as it was in 1900.

Complete each exercise as I showed you.

I wrote the note just as you told me to.

Everything happened just as my mother had predicted.


  1. as if/ as though
    1. after look, seem, sound, taste

We use as if and as though with the same meaning in manner caluse after verbs such as look, seem, sound, taste, etc.

Can I help you? You look as if you’re lost.

He sounds as though he might be getting a cold.


  1. after act, behave, talk

We can also use as if/though after verbs such as act, behave and talk when we are desciving behavior.


  1. BY

    1. by way of






(1) For a claim for payment of money for a bill or note and a claim for damages at the statutory interest rate that is incidental thereto, a trial and judicial decision may be sought by way of
an action on bills and notes.

1 手形による金銭の支払の請求及びこれに附帯する法定利率による損害賠償の請求を目的とする訴えについては、手形訴訟による審理及び裁判を求めることができる。

(2) The statement to the effect that a trial and judicial decision are sought by way of
an action on small claim shall be made upon filing an action.

2 少額訴訟による審理及び裁判を求める旨の申述は、訴えの提起の際にしなければならない。

(2) Notwithstanding the provision of any other act, a Bank, etc. may carry out Insurance Solicitation activities by way of registration under the following Article or Article 286.

2 銀行等は、他の法律の規定にかかわらず、次条又は第二百八十六条の登録を受けて保険募集を行うことができる。


  1. by hand 手書きで、手で


  1. By a method that enable

The court may, if a party resides in a remote place or in any other cases where the court finds it to be appropriate, conduct the proceedings on the date for scheduling conference by a method that enables the court and both parties to communicate simultaneously with one another by audio transmissions, after hearing the opinions of the parties; provided, however, that this is limited to cases where either of the parties appears on said date.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕



  1. 書面で決定する

(2) An order set forth in the preceding paragraph shall be made by means of a document, and the authenticated copy thereof shall be served upon a new defendant. 2 前項の決定は、書面でするものとし、その正本を新たな被告に送達しなければならない。


  1. 別途書面合意により

First Party and Second Party may adjust the scope of amendments with charge and the relevant remuneration by separate agreement in writing.




  1. via

Tara Kwon will share the results of the cafeteria survey via email.



  1. like

No one will ever love you like I do.

It feels like winter has suddenly arrived.


  1. 並べ方


  1. in rows 複数に列に

Potted plants have been organized in rows.



  1. 要式性、書面性

    1. In writing 書面により


  1. In writing and signed 署名した書面により

A waiver shall not be effective unless it is in writing and signed by the party against whom the waiver is being enforced.



  1. In written mutual agreement 書面による合意


  1. Unless otherwise agreed in writing duly executed by their duly authorized officers (no less low rank than the signer hereof) both of the parties

Unless otherwise agreed in writing duly executed by their duly authorized representatives (no less low rank than the signer hereof) both of the parties, the delivery of Goods shall be made by the Supplier on ___ Incoterms 2010 at the port specified by the Purchaser in the PO.


  1. whether in writing or orally 書面であると口頭であるとを問わず



  1. in the form of ~ ~の書式により

書式を限定するにはin the form of ~を追記する。


As a condition to the effectiveness of this Lease, the Lessee shall execute and deliver a solvency certificate in the form of the solvency certificate delivered by the Lessee to XYX Realty Co. on Sep 20, 2005.



  1. 直接間接、単数複数、全面的部分的

    1. directly or indirectly 直接的または間接的に

XYZ understands that ABC shall be entitled to export the Agreement Products provided in the Agreement directly or indirectly to third countries where XYZ has no agreement to grant exclusive right to sell the Agreement Products provided in the said Agreement.



information which is disclosed to the receiving party by a third party who did not obtain such information, directly or indirectly, from the disclosing party



Seller agrees to indemnify Buyer against all consequences of any and all claims, suits, or demands asserted against Buyer directly or indirectly from any product liability claim made by third persons, which claim may be attributable to incorporation of the Product to Buyer’s products by Buyer.



(iii) A foreign corporation, over 50 percent of the number or the amount of whose issued shares, etc. are held directly or indirectly by a foreign corporation listed in the preceding two items (excluding a foreign corporation falling under the category of a foreign corporation listed in the preceding two items and a foreign corporation falling under the category of a specially-related shareholder, etc.).

三 前二号に掲げる外国法人がその発行済株式等の百分の五十を超える数又は金額の株式等を直接又は間接に保有する外国法人(前二号に掲げる外国法人に該当するもの及び特殊関係株主等に該当するものを除く。)


  1. whether it is singular or plural 単数であれ複数であれ


  1. whether in whole or in part 全面的か部分的かを問わず



    1. ACCURACY/CORRECT (How Accurate/complete?)




an accurate measurement 正確な寸法



correct は規準に合って間違いのない,または一般的に認められた慣習に合った










  1. approximately

The state of being bery close to an actual accu



  1. 厳格、厳格でない、徹底して




•The Trademark shall be used strictly in accordance with the Licensor’s instructions.


•The Use of Products Causing Fire or Smoke is Strictly Prohibited. Smoking in the Lavatory will Activate the Smoke Detector System and may Lead to Action such as an Emergency Landing or Diversion to the Nearest Airport.


not more restrictive to



許容されるものを列挙する方法より、”is not more restrictive to”の挿入の方が認められやすい。

Debtor may incur Indebtedness the proceeds of which are used to repay the Senior Notes, so long as the agreement governing such Indebtedness is not more restrictive to Debtor than the Senior Notes.




(i) The forward view shall be thoroughly observed. 一 前方を十分に監視すること。



As the grant application for additional funding cannot exceed five pages, all research must be presented thoroughly yet concisely.完璧にかつ簡潔に




この条項の問題は”more restrictive”をどの単位(どの程度の細かさ)でみるかが不明瞭である。例えば、借換えに15の条件がある場合に、14個は”not more restrictive”であるが、残る1個が”more restrictive”である場合、その扱いが不明瞭である。


Debtor may incur Indebtedness the proceeds of which are used to repay the Senior Notes, so long as the agreement governing such Indebtedness is not more restrictive to, taken as a whole, Debtor than the Senior Notes.





  1. 必要な、十分な

  1. needed to ~ ~するのに必要な

(2) The standards for establishment specified by this Ministerial Ordinance shall be the minimum standards needed to establish a university.

2 この省令で定める設置基準は、大学を設置するのに必要な最低の基準とする。


  1. necessary and sufficient 必要十分な

The Minister of Justice shall not issue the designation of a Training Course in accordance with the provisions of Article 5 unless the Minister confirms that the contents of the Training Course are appropriate and sufficient for the acquisition of the abilities necessary to engage in attorney services.



  1. (能力や性能が)十分、満足、足りる
    1. sufficient

1十分な,足りる 《★【類語】 ⇒enough》.

sufficient food [evidence] 十分な食糧[証拠].

2【叙述的用法の形容詞】 〔+for+(代)名〕〔…に〕十分で.

The pension is not sufficient for our living expenses. その年金は我々の生活費に足りない.

3〔+to do〕〈…するのに〉十分で[な].

This is sufficient to show that his argument is false. このことだけで十分彼の議論が間違っていることが証明できる.

There’s sufficient food to support the people. 国民を養うだけの十分な食糧がある.


  1. adequate(資格・能力などが要求を満たせる程度に)〔【語源】ad + equal(等しくする)◆【反】inadequate〕

【類】enough ; sufficient

・This is a hormone that hasn’t had adequate study done on it. : これは、十分な研究がなされていないホルモンである。





  1. 正当性、適法性⇔違法性


■question of one’s legitimacy

■question of the legitimacy of



■rule on one’s legality

■rule on the legality of





It may not be tax evasion, which is illegal, but it could hardly be said that it’s tax avoidance, which is legal. It’s tax avoision. •それは違法な脱税ではないかもしれないが、適法な節税とはとても言えない。違法すれすれの節税です。

stay in ~ legally(国など)〔外国籍を持つ人が〕•に適法に滞在する

legality of the invasion•侵攻の適法性

Direct shipments are illegal in 18 states, and a dozen states have reciprocal agreements allowing it. •直送は18州では違法だが、12州では逆に適法である。

•legality of a measure議案の適法性




  1. 正式に
    1. Duly 正当に、

•amendment in writing duly executed by both of the parties


•IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be duly executed by their duly authorized officers as of the day and year first above written.


•”AGREEMENT” shall mean this AGREEMENT, the Annextures thereto and any amendment thereof agreed, in writing by duly authorized representatives of ABC and XYZ.


•Repayment of loan shall be effected by means of payroll deductions in accordance with the employee’s loan repayment schedule duly approved by COMPANY.


•This agreement cannot be changed or modified in any manner except as may be mutually agreed in writing signed by duly authorized representatives of the parties hereto.


・”AGREEMENT” shall mean this AGREEMENT, the Annextures thereto and any amendment thereof agreed, in writing by duly authorized representatives of ABC and XYZ. : 《契約書》「契約」とは、ABC社およびXYZ社の正当に権限が与えられた代表者が書面により作成した本契約書、その付属書、両当事者が同意した修正条項を意味する。


  1. 合理性

    1. adj; reasonable (合理性の要件)



The Company shall reimburse the Agent for all of its reasonable out-of-pocket expenses arising in connection with its activities hereunder.


reasonal を入れる場合と入れない場合では、例えば代理店役員の出張費用にチャーター機の費用が含まれるか否かという違いが生まれる。


  1. shall not be reasonably withhold or delayed ~ 不合理に~してはならない。

Party A may not consummate any Prohibited Transaction without the consent of Party B.



Party A may not consummate any Prohibited Transaction without the consent of Party B, which shall not be unreasonably withhold or delayed.



The other party shall not withhold such approval without reasonable grounds.



  1. 適切さ

    1. adj; 適切さ


accordingly それに応じて、しかるべく、それで


  1. adv: 適切、適合、用途、使途(~に合わせる)

ここでなるほどそうだよなと納得したのは、契約書などでよく出て来る “to remedy the breach withing a reasonable period” (相当の期間内に違反を是正する)というフレーズです。日本語で言う「相当の期間」がそうであるように、何をもって reasonable とするかは、いわばオトナの判断が要求されるわけで、世間的なものごとの道理をわかった上で、その道理にしたがって「このぐらい」と判断される期間が reasonable ということになります。他の言葉で置き換えるとすれば、実際にもよく使われている within an appropriate period of time というときの appropriate でしょう。


  1. 目的に適合する
    1. Appropriate (目的に合って)適当な、適切な、ふさわしい(格式ばった言い方)

appropriate to the occasion その場合にふさわしい.

Select music appropriate for a cocktail party. カクテルパーティー用の音楽を選んでください.

in an appropriate manner 適切な方法で

where appropriate 適切な場合には、必要に応じて


Appropriate: ラテン語のappropriatusを語源とする(一般にラテン語を語源とする語は、格式ばった感じがする)


 appropriate という単語には prop という部分が途中にありますが、この prop というのは「財産」を意味する property と語源を同じにしています。語の先頭にある ap という部分は ad が変形した形で「〜へ向かう」という感じですから、appropriate → ap + property というイメージから「財産に向かう」というようなイメージの語だと考えた方がよいわけです。そのように考えれば、「財産に向かう」→「自分のものにする」→「私物化する」「着服する」というようなイメージとしてこの語が使われたとしても、違和感は少ないんじゃないかと思います。


  1. suitable (appropriateと同義であるがappropriateと比較するとややくだけた表現)

suitable: 古フランス語のsiuteを語源とするsuiteの形容詞形です。


  1. well-suited(目的を達成するのに)


  1. proper (目的・状況などにかなって)適切な,ふさわしい; ちゃんとした

音節prop・er 発音記号/prάpɚ|prˈɔpə/音声を聞く



(more proper; most proper)


a(目的・状況などにかなって)適切な,ふさわしい; ちゃんとした.

用例 as you think proper しかるべく, 適宜に.

Do it the proper way. 適切な方法でやりなさい.

I can’t write with this; give me a proper pencil. これでは書けません, ちゃんとした鉛筆をください.


用例 He’s the proper person for the work. 彼こそその仕事にふさわしい人物だ.

This dress wouldn’t be proper for a ball. このドレスは舞踏会にはふさわしくないであろう.


  1. fitness for a particular purpose 特定目的への適合性






  1. applicable


  1. felicitous(状況などに)


  1. fit(物事が)


  1. ~ly sound ~上適正な

8. Each Party shall require that hazardous wastes or other wastes, to be exported, are managed in an environmentally sound manner in the State of import or elsewhere. Technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of wastes subject to this Convention shall be decided by the Parties at their first meeting.



  1. intended for ~向きの、~を対象とした

・This book is intended for the system administrator : この本は、システム管理者向けのものです。

・This transmission is intended only for the use of the individual or entity to which it is addressed, and may contain information that is privileged, or confidential. : この通信文は、宛名として記載されている個人または組織だけが読むことができるものであり、極秘内容が記載されている場合があります。


  1. geared toward~ ~に合わせた、調整した、~を対象とする


  1. しっかりと、確実に、堅固に


  1. securely 確実に

(i) The operation of said facilities shall be securely maintained during a specified operation time.

一 所定の運用時間中当該施設の運用を確実に維持すること。

The employer shall, as regards joint of rails, fix the rails securely by using joint plates, welding, etc.



  1. solidly 堅固に

The employer shall, in the case of a blasting work, and when it is impossible for workers to evacuate to a safe distance from the work site, provide an evacuation shelter with a solidly protected front and top.





  1. Subjective

    1. with ease /without effort

The smart student passed the test with ease. The gymnast did a back flip with ease.




The boss has reluctantly/unwillingly raised my wages.



as voluntary respondent 自発的対応として、

reluctantly しぶしぶ、不本意ながら





    1. 行為の順番

Successively, sequence


  1. Emphasizing ADV




  1. ACCOMPANIMENT (With whom/what?)

Mr. Bean was having lunch with his girl friend.

Salinas Floral Company is working with Hakui Studios to create a new logo.


  1. along with

Artrox Photography carries just-released products, along with lightly used equipment.




  1. SPEED (How Fast?)







  1. 義務・責任に関する形容

    1. 連帯して
      1. joint and several




  1. solidary

A term of civil-law origin, signifying that the right or interest spoken of is joint or common. A “solidary obligation” corresponds to a “joint and several” obligation iu the common law; that is, one for which several debtors are bound in such wise that each is liable for the entire amount, and not merely for his proportionate share. But in the civil law the term also includes the case where there are several creditors, as against a common debtor, each of whom is entitled to receive the entire debt and give an acquittance for it.



  1. 拘束力のある⇔非拘束的な(任意の)

•binding award 拘束力のある仲裁裁定

•Any award given shall be final and binding upon both parties. 《契約書》いかなる裁定も最終的かつ両当事者を拘束するものとする。


  1. 両立⇔非両立(排他的)

•Bluetooth-compatible 【形】Bluetooth対応の

•Windows-compatible 【形】ウィンドウズ互換の

•donor with a compatible blood type 同じ血液型の[血液型が適合する]献血者[血液提供者]


•exclusive right to sell 仲介特権、独占販売権

・XYZ understands that ABC shall be entitled to export the Agreement Products provided in the Agreement directly or indirectly to third countries where XYZ has no agreement to grant exclusive right to sell the Agreement Products provided in the said Agreement. : 《契約書》XYZ社は、XYZ社が契約品の独占販売権を認めていない第三国にABC社が間接的または直接的に契約品を輸出する権利があることを認める。


  1. 効果に掛かる要素

    1. 優先順位
      1. in preference to ~ ~に優先して、~よりむしろ

Claims on the estate shall be paid in preference to bankruptcy claims.  財団債権は、破産債権に先立って、弁済する。


優先権 (1) priority (2) right of priority

優先出資 preferred equity investment

優先的破産債権 priority/preferred bankruptcy claim

優先日 priority date


  1. prior to ~ ~の前に、~に先立って、

The oath shall be taken prior to interrogation.



  1. in priority to ~ ~に先立って、~に優先して

(5) A Registered Pledgee of Specified Equity may receive the Monies, etc. (limited to monies) set forth in the preceding paragraph and appropriate it as payment to satisfy his/her own claims in priority to other creditors.

5 登録特定出資質権者は、前項の金銭等(金銭に限る。)を受領し、他の債権者に先立って自己の債権の弁済に充てることができる。

(2) The statutory lien set forth in the preceding paragraph shall be ranked
in priority to the statutory lien set forth in Article 306, item (i) of the Civil Code (Statutory lien for expenses for common interest).

2 前項の先取特権の順位は、民法第三百六条第一号(共益費用の先取特権)に掲げる先取特権に次ぐ


  1. primarily (secondly, third(thirdly), forth…) まず、最初に、第一に、主として、本来、最初は(第二に、第三に、第四に・・・)

Universities are primarily for research. 大学は本来研究のために存在する.


  1. 比喩表現
    1. as if まるで・・・であるかのように

《★【用法】 as if 節の中では仮定法を用いるが, 《口語》 では直説法も用いる》.

I feel as if I hadn’t long to live. 私の命はもう長くはないような気がする.

She looks as if she were [she’s] dying. 彼女はまるで死にかけているように見える.

He looked at her as if he had never seen her before. 彼は今まで彼女を見たことがないような顔つきで(彼女を)見た.


  1. 効果発生の時点
    1. effective immediately upon its sending 通知後直ちに効果が発生する

(3) If either party shall fail to fulfill any of its material obligations under this Agreement and shall have failed or have been unable to remedy the said default within thirty (30) days after receipt of a notice of default from the non-defaulting party with respect to such default, the non-defaulting party may, at its option, terminate this Agreement by giving a written notice of termination to the defaulting party, effective immediately upon its sending.



  1. with immediate effect

Either party may, without prejudice to any other rights or remedies, terminate this Agreement by giving a written notice to the other party with immediate effect, if any of the following events should occur:



  1. 連帯・代理(~に代わって、代わりに)
    1. 連帯して Jointly and severally

Guarantors do hereby guarantee jointly and severally as and for their own obligation, under full payment and performance are effected by KVE in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Agreement, (1) the due and punctual performance by or on behalf of KVE, of all obligations under the Agreement, and (2) the payment when due of all sums which may become due on the part of KVE under the Agreement.


  1. 連帯して    in solidarity


  1. 代理して(~に代わって、~の代わりに)
    1. On behalf of ~, on someone’s half ~の代理人として


On behalf of and in the name of(…に代わりその名前において)という表現もよくある。


•Only those employees who have been appointed as an authorized signatory are permitted to sign correspondence, confirmations, payments, etc. on behalf of COMPANY.



  1. In place of / on behalf of

in place of:instead of someone or something

on behalf of:instead of someone, or as their representative

とLongman AA辞書にありますので、両者ともに「誰かの代わりに」という意味になります。

ただし、私の経験上、on behalf ofは「だれそれに成り代わりまして」といった、formalな場でのスピーチや文書では見ますが、普通の会話などではあまり使われません。


>「彼の代わりに参加します」という場合、I will join the meeting on behalf of him.


文章としては成り立ちますが、会話などではI will join/attend the meeting instead of himの方が一般的です。また相手に何か頼みたい時の丁寧語としての「誰かの代わりに」というのではアメリカではon one’s behalfを使います。例えば

Could you please attend the meeting on my behalf?




  1. 代わって(履行する)
    1. For or on behalf of ~ 

A person who acquires a claim from a revolving mortgagee before the principal is fixed may not exercise the Revolving Mortgage with respect to such claim. The same shall likewise apply to a person who made payment for or on behalf of an obligor before the principal was fixed.



  1. on one’s behalf

(2) If the mandatary has incurred any obligation found to be necessary for the administration of the mandated business, the mandatary may demand that the mandator perform the obligation on the mandatary’s behalf. In such cases, if the obligation has not yet fallen due, the mandatary may require the mandator to tender reasonable security.

2 受任者は、委任事務を処理するのに必要と認められる債務を負担したときは、委任者に対し、自己に代わってその弁済をすることを請求することができる。この場合において、その債務が弁済期にないときは、委任者に対し、相当の担保を供させることができる。



  1. 自動的に
    1. Automatically ~ by itselt 自動的に~となる。

•This Notification Letter of Approval shall be automatically null and void by itself if you don’t make any implementation for this plan within __ years since issuing date.






  1. 躊躇せず
    1. without hesitation


without further hesitation それ以上ためらうことなく

  1. 加えて、更に、同時に、一緒に
    1. Furthermore

7. Furthermore, each Party shall:



  1. S shall, together with ~, V Sは、~と同時に、Vしなければならない。

(2) The Prime Minister shall,
together with the Disposition Ordering Management, appoint one or several Insurance Administrators.

2 内閣総理大臣は、管理を命ずる処分と同時に、一人又は数人の保険管理人を選任しなければならない


  1. 適用関係
    1. As applicable, Where applicable
      1. Where applicable 使用され得る限り、実用に供され得る限り、可能な限り

Applicable: relevant, appropriate or suitable「ある事象に緊密に関係している」「状況に適切である」「適切である」

“where applicable”は、もし出来るとすれば、別に明確な理由がない限りは行なわなければならない、という強い意味


  1. as applicable可能であれば、該当する場合は



  1. 実際に⇔おそれがある、可能性がある

    1. 実際に
      1. Actually現に、実際に

•Notice under this Agreement will be in writing and will be deemed to have been fully given and received when actually received.



  1. in fact 実際に


  1. in reality 実際に、本当に、(ところが)実は

She looks young, but in reality she is past forty. 彼女は若く見えるが実は 40 を超えている.


  1. paracticably 実際上


  1. actual use実際に使用

prevent actual use of nuclear weapons•核兵器が実際に使用されることを防ぐ

be actually used in clinical practice 実際に医療現場で使用される


  1. おそれ
    1. anticipated 予期(予測)された

extent of anticipated damage 予想される被害[損害]の程度


  1. 形容詞

threatened ~の恐れがある、おそれがある

Cause (someone or something) to be vulnerable or at risk; endanger:

a broken finger threatened his career

one of four London hospitals threatened with closure


  1. 名詞

threat of

threat of a dispute 紛争のおそれ

risk of

when it is found that there is no risk of harm to an individual’s rights and interest: a risk of extreme impairment of public interest 個人の権利利益が害されるおそれがないと認められるとき: 公共の利益が著しく阻害されるおそれ




  1. できる(能力、可能性)


a(事を行なうのに) 《★【類語】

able は;

capable は;

competent は》.


  1. 能力


able to




I’m able to speak 4 languages.

capable of



I’m perfectly capable of looking after myself!

competent to




  1. 可能性



probable that ~の形のみ。

後ろにto 不定詞は使えない。

It is probable that it will rain tomorrow.



likely that ~

likely to 不定詞

It is likely that Liz will come to the party tonight.

Delivery of Documents to Beneficiaries, etc. when a Conflict of Interests is Likely to Occur利益相反のおそれがある場合の受益者等への書面の交付



possible for 人 to 不定詞

possible that ~

Is it possible for you to work until 10 o’clock?



  1. 強制的に, 義務的に



compulsive, compulsively, compulsorily, compulsory, forced, forcedly, imperative, incumbent, mandatory, obligately, obligatorily, obligatory


  1. whereby (関係副詞) 《文語》 (それによって,それに従って)…する(手段など).

a device whereby to make money 金もうけの手段.

a law whereby all schoolchildren are given textbooks free 全児童が教科書を無料でもらえる法律.






  1. COST/EXPENSE (How Much?)

    1. 費用負担

      1. at one’s expense (cost)

If the delivery is delayed __ days or more, Buyer has the right to cancel the delayed quantity or the right to demand remedy of such delays by airfreighting at Maker’s expense the merchandise ordered hereunder.《契》


  1. on the company(費用が)会社の負担で


  1. Chargeable on [to] ~ ~の費用負担で

The expense is chargeable on [to] him [his account]. その費用は彼に[彼の勘定に]つけられるべきものだ.


  1. リスク負担

    1. at owner’s risk(損害が) 荷主の負担で

risk avoidance:リスク回避

a risk-averse decision:リスク回避の意思決定


offset the risk with:~でリスクをヘッジする

We can offset the risk with our financial products.:我が社の金融商品でリスクをヘッジすることができます。


  1. 荷重をかける

•subject to weight bearing 《be ~》体重負荷を受ける、〔主語に〕加重をかける


  1. 税込み⇔税抜き

tax excluded•税抜きの

before-tax price•税抜き価格

tax included (e.g. price); before tax (e.g. salary)


  1. 有償の

    1. 有償支給品

on cost material supplies

Materials are supplied by the buyer on costs.


  1. For value

acquisition for value 有償取得

contract for value有償契約


  1. ~ of an onerous contract 有償(契約)で行う~
  2. onerous【法律, 法学】

an onerous contact 有償契約

insured transportation of an onerous contract有償で行う運送


  1. for a consideration

a juristic act done for a consideration有償行為


  1. For profit

That work is for profit. その作業は有償です。


  1. Paid-for??

Insurance for which the premium has been paid.



  1. 無償で/無報酬で without [with no] charge [compensation] / free of charge [cost]

Gratuitous contracts are those of which the object is the benefit of the person with whom it is made, without any profit or advantage received or promised as a consideration for it. It is not, however, the less gratuitous if it proceed either from gratitude for a benefit before received or from the hope of receiving one hereafter, although such benefit be of a pecuniary nature.

Onerous contracts are those in which something is given or promised as a consideration for the engagement or gift, or some service, interest, or condition is imposed on what is given or promised, although unequal to it in value. Civ. Code La. 1700, 1707; Penitentiary Co. v. Nelms, 05 Ga. 505, 38 Am. Rep. 793. Mutual interest, mixed, etc. Contracts of “mutual interest” are such as are entered into for the reciprocal interest and utility of each of the parties; as sales, exchange, partnership, and the like. “Mixed” contracts are those by which one of the parties confers a benefit on the other, receiving something of inferior value in return, such as a donation subject to a charge. Contracts “of beneficence” are those by which only one of the contracting parties is benefited ; as loans, deposit and mandate. Poth. Obi. 1, 1, 1, 2. A conditional contract is an executory contract the performance of which depends upon a condition. It is not simply an executory contract, since the latter may be an absolute agreement to do or not to do something, but it is a contract whose very existence and performance depend upon a contingency. Railroad Co. v. Jones, 2 Cold. (Tenn.) 584; French v. Osmer, 67 Vt. 427, 32 Atl. 254. Constructive contracts are such as arise when the law prescribes the rights and liabilities of persons who have not in reality entered into a contract at all. but between whom circumstances make it just that one should have a right, and the other be subject to a liability, similar to the rights and liabilities in eases of express contract. Wickham v. Weil (Com. I’l.) 17 N. Y. Supp. 518: Graham v. Cummings, 208 Pa. 516, 57 Atl. 943; Robinson v. Turrentine (C. C.) 59 Fed. 559; Hertzog v. Ilertzog, 29 Pa. 465




Law Dictionary: What is GRATUITOUS AND ONEROUS? definition of GRATUITOUS AND ONEROUS (Black’s Law Dictionary)




  1. 無償支給品

free material supplies

Materials are supplied by the buyer free of charge.


  1. gratuitous act無償行為


  1. gratuitously無償で

【例】自己の財産を無償で相手方に与えるgive his/her property to the other party gratuitously (民法549 条)

無償の供与gratuitous conveyance

【注】(出典)破産法161 条1 項1 号, 民事再生法127 条の21 項1 号, 会社更生法86 条の2第1 項1 号

  1. without compensation


  1. gratis


  1. without compensation [pay]


  1. for nothing



  1. Free of charge 無償で

In case Seller supplies replacement parts free of charge to Buyer, Buyer shall provide labor and afford inland cost for such replacement parts free of charge to correct malfunction of the Products.《契約書》


Confirmed orders may be cancelled by Buyer free of charge at a minimum of __ by written notice.《契約書》


If Buyer is responsible for the discrepancy, error or omission, it shall pay the Maker reasonable fees to remedy the same, otherwise work shall be done free of charge.《契》



  1. without charge



Unless otherwise mutually agreed to by the parties in writing, Maker shall either, replace defective Product without charge or refund the purchase price of defective Product provided the defect appears within __ years from the date of shipment of Product.《契》



  1. お返しに

    1. in return for






  1. PLACE (location & direction)




here, there, near, far, away, up, down, somewhere, abroad, anywhere, away, everywhere, inside, in, out, outside, underground, upstairs













Next to









on a lawn 芝生の上に



  1. PLACE DIRECTION (toward which?)



  1. TIME

    1. TIME Fundamentals

      1. Completed Action

I have finished my homework already. (before now)

After I had finished my homework, I started to cook dinner.

I will have finished my homework, when I start to cook dinner.


  1. SUBORDINATORS (Adverbial Clause) (Subordinators + S V)

    1. when(~するとき、~の場合には)時的に位置付けるだけ。when以下と主節の間に同時性はない。

When I opened the overhead locker, a big bag fell on my head.

I get nervous when I’m about to board a plane.


  1. while(~する間に)2つの出来事がクッキリ意識されている(コントラスト)。2つの出来事が同時に起こっている。

While I was driving to work, I felt a strange sense of déjà vu.

While he admitted he’d made some mistakes, he said he hadn’t broken the law.


  1. before(~の前)

I’ll just go to the bathroom before we leave.


  1. after(~の後)

I couldn’t move after I had spent 8 hours planting rice.


  1. by the time

By the time she’s finished getting ready, the concert will be over!


  1. as soon as ~ (~するとすぐ)

I felt queasy as soon as I got into the boat.

As soon as the automatic bottling machine is installed, the packaging phase of the production process should be more efficient.



  1. no sooner A than B (AするやいなやB)Aの直後Bを表す。倒置であり感情的抑揚を含む。小説などがメイン。

No sooner had I turned out the light than the baby started crying.


  1. once ~ (いったん~すると)ひとたち何かが起こればそれからは。

Once she makes a few friends, she’ll be fine.


  1. now that (今は~なので)

Now that we understand the causes of this problem, let us consider some solutions.


  1. as (と同時に)

As I bent down to tie my laces, my back went out!




OK: I had a great time when I was working in New York.

NG: I had a great time as I was working in New York.


The phone rang as I was going out the front door.

As the match was about to start, there was a power cut.

I found a \1000-note as I was cleaning the sofa.






  1. CONJ; AS (イメージは”=”。万能接続詞)

    1. 同時(時間的なイコール、同時進行の接触感)

I lost balance as I was trying to stand on my head.


  1. 理由(Aと同時にBが起きる⇒AはBの前提条件といえる⇒非常に弱い理由)

As the cost of air tickets has gone up so much, many people can no longer afford to travel.

As the hurricane hit the town, everyone ran for their lives.


  1. 比例(同時進行⇒「つれて」比例関係)

As time passed, his condition got better and better.

As the unemployment level rises, the crime rate also increases.


  1. 修飾(「=」⇒~として)

As your doctor, I have to advise you to quit smoking.

I regard my new job as a great challenge.

Do as I say, not as I do.

I paid my debts, as agreed.

As you know, it’s Tom’s birthday next week.


  1. like (~のような)

I can’t belive I got into this university. It’s like a dream!

We’re looking for someone exactly like you.

Fold the paper diagonally like this.


Like your parents, we have a duty to be there for you. (Weは両親ではない)

As your parents, we have a duty to be there for you. (Weは両親)



  1. When vs How Long



    How Long


    Specific point in time

    A period or length of time, with a beginning and ending point


    I moved here in 1997

    I bought it two months ago

    I’ve been married for three years.

    I’ve had the car since 1969.


    simple past tense

    present perfect tense


    action verbs (e.g. become, get married, die, learn, buy/purchase…)

    possession(e.g. be, be married, be dead, know, have)



    last night






    When/While/Once/Before/After/As soon as/By the time

    Until/Since/As long as




  1. During, While, For



to say when something happens

It does not tell us how long it happened.

“Nobody spoke during the presentation.”

“We get plenty of snow here during the winter.”


to talk about two things that are happening at the same time

The length of time is not important.

“The phone rang while I was watching TV.”

“I met him while we were studying in the library.”


used with a period to say how long something goes on

“Simon has been sleeping for 8 hours.”

“We waited for 30 minutes outside your house.”



  1. Order of ADVs of TIME

1: how long 2: how often 3: when

e.g. I worked in a hospital for two days
every week
last year.



any longer


  1. WHEN something happens? (TIME LOCATION, Specific point in time)



  1. 時を表すAT, ON, IN (,DURING)

on time, in time, at times(時間通り、間に合って、時折)



時刻(at 7:30, at noon, at midnight)

点と感じられる時間(at present, at the moment, at that time, at breakfast time, at night)

年中行事(at Christmas, at Easter)



日(on Monday, on October 13)

日が意識される場合(on Sunday afternoon, on the following evening)



1日の中の時間幅(in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, in the day, in the night)

週・月・季節・年(in the next week, in February, in (the) spring, in 2009)





At 7:00, at 8:30


day, date

On monday, on Dec.14, 2001


year, month

In 1989, in December.


decade, long time period

During the 1960s, during the 20th Century





At the time of disclosure







  1. Specific/unspecific Time





at noon

on June 25 at 10 p.m.

on Easter Day

in 2020

as we speak

when we meet

after that (later)

this month (sometime)


The first half of the year costs twenty dollars a month, and after that the rate is fourty dollars a month.



  1. upon the earlier of A, or B  AかBいずれか早く到来する時に

All notices will be effective upon the earlier of delivery or __ days after deposit in the U.S. mail.《契》すべての通知は、配達日もしくは投函の_日後のうち早い方に効力を発生したものとする。


The Purchase Order constitutes the sole and entire agreement between the parties. The Purchase Order shall be binding upon the parties upon the earlier of the receipt of Seller’s acknowledgment of Seller’s acceptance thereof or commencement of Seller’s performance of the work.


  1. 期限By when (Time Boundary)

Legal documents due at the main office by p.m.5:00 must be given to courier before noon.

To meet the audit deadline, accountants at Lyang Associates must submit all financial reports by tomorrow morning at the latest.

By the time afternoon rolls around, you’re in caffeine withdrawal. 午後になる頃には、あなたはカフェイン切れに見舞われることになる。

by the time Christmas comes クリスマスを迎えるまでには

by the time dawn breaks 夜が明ける頃には




  1. Nouns


  1. 色々な日

due date



However, First Party may request early delivery of Translation Deliverables in part in electromagnetic data and (or) written form on a date prior to the Due Date which is specified by First Party (hereinafter, “Date Specified by First Party”) following discussions with Second Party.


payment date


(3) When a special construction business operator makes a payment for subcontracting fees related to a subcontract in which said special construction business operator is the orderer, the special construction business operator shall not deliver negotiable instruments deemed unlikely to receive a discount from an ordinary financial institution (refers to an organization which receives deposits or savings and engages in financing) before the payment date for said subcontracting fees.

3 特定建設業者は、当該特定建設業者が注文者となった下請契約に係る下請代金の支払につき、当該下請代金の支払期日までに一般の金融機関(預金又は貯金の受入れ及び資金の融通を業とする者をいう。)による割引を受けることが困難であると認められる手形を交付してはならない。◆【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム

inspection date


“Inspection date” refers to the date which notification of acceptance or rejection has been provided within __ days calculated from the day following the due date prescribed in Section 5 after First Party has performed an inspection immediately following delivery of translation deliverables, either in whole or in part, from Second Party.


at the completion of the contract



the date of execution of this Agreement



the date of validation of this Agreement



the date hereof



the date of execution of this Agreement



the date of public notice


beginning of ~


prior to beginning of said scal year (介護保険法165 条)



ETD : estimated departure date

ETA: estimated arrival date



  1. anniversary    応答日

The price of ths Products for any subsequent year commencing on the annual anniversary of this Agreement shall be such as may be negotiated and agreed upon between the parties not later than thirty (30) days prior to the commencement of such year.


※any subsequent year commencing on the annual anniversary of this Agreementを直訳すると「本契約の1年後の応答日から開始する各年度」となる



  1. business dayとcalendar day



  1. due date

the due date (手形の)支払期日.

due date of premium保険料払込期日

due date of the unpaid annual fee未払年払手数料の支払期日



  1. 前年・前月・前日

the previous day



preceding day



EOM (End of Month)



the same month in the previous year


Industrial production data for May showed that output was down 4.2% compared to the same month in the previous year.


the working day immediately preceding the day


If it falls on holiday, it will be paid on the working day immediately preceding the day.





  1. 後日

subsequent day


It means a day that follows some other day, but it may not be ‘the next day’.

He called her on a subsequent day. This may not be the next day.

He called her on the subsequent day. The specific/definite article shows this is the next day.

Around the day




hereafter/ thereafter





following day



The date following the date of ~


(9) A Renewal of Certification of Needed Long-Term Care pertaining to an application as set forth in paragraph (3) shall be effective retroactively on the date following the date of expiry of the Effective Period of Certification of Needed Long-Term Care pertaining to said renewal application.

9 第三項の申請に係る要介護更新認定は、当該申請に係る要介護認定の有効期間の満了日の翌日にさかのぼってその効力を生ずる。


  1. Calender-day

Calender dayの表記の仕方


on Tuesday, April the 21st

in March, 1970



“May 3, 1981” is read as May the third nineteen eighty-one.

“May 3, 2001” is read as May the third two thousand (and ) one.


  1. Ealier, Current, Later


Time frame

Ealier, former

Current or Near

Later, future




After []


Specific time basis

○days in advance

In 1989

in December.

On Monday

on Dec.14, 2001

At 7:00

During the 1960s






last Sunday

that Sunday




this year


the day after tomorrow

(in) three days later

next Sunday

the coming Sunday

that year






earlier than






recently, just






back then








at a previous time

in advance of ~

in these days

【形式ばった表現】 of late


at present

at the moment

at this point

in those days

at the time

in the near future



  1. EALIER, Previous, Former, Old


  1. Prepositions(~より前に )

earlier than


in advance of


•__ days in advance _日前

•few days in advance 《a ~》数日前に

•call many days in advance 何日も前に電話をする

previous to



prior to


The Seller shall not deliver prior to the delivery date, deliver in portions or deliver lower or higher quantities than agreed (each a”Nonconforming Delivery”) without prior explicit written consent by the Buyer.

(3) Persons intending to form a religious corporation shall, by at least one month prior to filing an application for certification pursuant to the provisions of Article 13, give public notice to believers and other interested persons, by the method prescribed in the preceding paragraph, to the effect that they intend to form a religious corporation, while indicating the gist of the draft rules of incorporation.

3 宗教法人を設立しようとする者は、第十三条の規定による認証申請の少くとも一月前に、信者その他の利害関係人に対し、規則の案の要旨を示して宗教法人を設立しようとする旨を前項に規定する方法により公告しなければならない。









  1. Prior to ~



  1. BEFORE ~

This agreement shall remain in force for a period of __ years from the Effective Date, and thereafter on year basis, unless written notice is given by either party to the other __ months before the original or renewed expiration date.


By November 2009, several months before Hayabusa’s return to earth, three out of the four ion engines had failed either wholly or partially.


(2) The notification pursuant to the provision of Article 30, paragraph (1) of the Act shall be given pursuant to the procedure specified by an ordinance of the competent ministry within three months before the day when the conclusion of a technology introduction contract, etc. is intended to be made.

2 法第三十条第一項の規定による届出は、技術導入契約の締結等をしようとする日前三月以内に、主務省令で定める手続により、しなければならない。


  1. Ago / earlier (used to indicate the amount of time before the present)






_カ月前 _ months ago

_カ月前に _ months beforehand, _ months earlier

I called her two weeks ago.

She returned my call five minutes ago.




  1. 事前に、あらかじめ




arrange things beforehand 準備工作をする

(3) When the Adjudication Committee decides as provided for in the preceding paragraph, the Committee shall hear opinions from the third party and the relvant parties beforehand.

3 裁定委員会は、前項の決定をするときは、あらかじめ、その第三者及び当事者の意見をきかなければならない。

in advance


ahead of time



  1. At the time あの時

at the time







(more recently; most recently) 最近,近ごろ,このごろ

《★【用法】 現在完了か過去形の動詞とともに用い,通例 現在時制の動詞とは用いない》.

as recently as ってなんで「ほんの・つい~に」っていう意味なの?



最近,近ごろ 《★【用法】 特に 《主に英国で用いられる》 では通例否定文・疑問文で用いられ,肯定文では文頭に置かれるか only lately または as lately as の形になることが多い》.

by now





  1. LATER


after DATE

Subsequent to DATE ◆afterの硬い表現


Amounts still outstanding after Jun 19, 207 shall be assessed a 6% late fee.

within 30 days after B/L Date


within TIME of ~



Zoe O’Heir’s novel Hanalei Sunset experienced such success within six months of its release that it was subsequently translated into five languages.


•In the event that this Agreement shall be terminated as provided herein, Seller thereafter shall be under no obligation to deliver any of the Products for which it may have accepted an order from Buyer, whether such order be scheduled for delivery prior to, on or subsequent to the date of such termination.



  1. AFTER

(3) Even after the captain has delivered the freight to the consignee, the shipowner may exercise his/her right over the freight; provided, however, that this shall not apply when two weeks have elapsed from the date of the delivery or when any third party has taken possession of the freight. 3 船長カ荷受人ニ運送品ヲ引渡シタル後ト雖モ船舶所有者ハ其運送品ノ上ニ権利ヲ行使スルコトヲ得但引渡ノ日ヨリ二週間ヲ経過シタルトキ又ハ第三者カ其占有ヲ取得シタルトキハ此限ニ在ラス


A statutory lien which exists over shipped goods may not be exercised after the debtor has delivered them to a third party acquirer.



during or after the term of this agreement  《契約書》本契約の期間中または期間満了後



  1. 未来に、後で、事後に





  1. subsequent その次の、続いて起こる、その後の、(ラテン語「下に続く」の意)

subsequent events その後の事件.

a subsequent change その次の変化.

on the day subsequent to his arrival 彼が到着した翌日に.


  1. consecutive 連続した、連続的な、立て続けの、継続的な

The player hit homeruns in three consecutive games. : その選手は3試合連続でホームランを打った。

Our company has posted record profits for three consecutive years. : 当社は3年連続で最高益を記録しました。

Consumer price index fell for three consecutive months. : 消費者物価指数は3カ月連続で下落しました。

He carded three consecutive birdies starting on the fifth hole. : 5番ホールから3連続バーディをきめた。

“Epidemic Failure” shall be deemed to exist if 3% (three percent) or more of the Products delivered by Supplier within any consecutive 2 (two) months period to an Ordering Entity are non-conforming due to the same or substantially similar cause.


  1. 締切


on or by DATE


Goods must arrive in Korea by Oct 19, 2007.

Share will be issued by Dec 18, 2006.




no later than DATE


no later than November 15, 2007


by May 20, 2013と書けば、2013年5月20日を含まないなどという誤解が生じないとは言い切れません。

したがって、on or by May 20, 2013と書けば誤解が生じません。



  1. 条件・期限

  1. 条件・期限

provision or terms of this Agreementという表現があり、「本契約書の規定または条件」と訳されている。

provision とtermは違うのだろうか?



Conditions under which an action may be undertaken or agreement reached; stipulated or agreed-upon requirements:

a条件,制約 〔of,for〕.

the necessary conditions for… …に必要な条件.

the conditions of peace [employment] 講和[雇用]条件.

on this [that, what] condition この[その, どんな]条件で.

What are your conditions for accepting the offer? その申し出を受け入れる条件は何か.

I will let you go only on one condition. 条件を一つつけたうえで行かせるとしよう.

make it a condition that… …を条件とする.


用例 I’ll let you read this book on the condition that it should not be [is not] lent to anyone. だれにも貸さないという条件で君にこの本を読ませてあげよう.

c[複数形で] 支払い条件 〔for〕.

用例 the conditions for a loan 貸付金の支払い条件.


•condition of measurement 測定条件



    1. ~から○日以内 within ○ from ~

(2) A Member Commodity Exchange shall notify the competent minister of its establishment within two weeks from the day of establishment.

2 会員商品取引所は、成立の日から二週間以内に、主務大臣にその旨を届け出なければならない。

within 6 months from the day following告示の日の翌日から起算して6か月以内に


  1. 最初の一年以内に within the first twelve months after the date

Without prejudice to any of the KVE”s rights generally, KVE reserves the right to terminate this Agreement where ABC fails to sell or initiate within the first twelve months after the date of the scheduled broadcast of the first episode of ○○○ series in the Territory, at least US $100,000 in total gross contract values.



within ___ days of the date of ~

within period


Payment is due within 20 days of the date of this contract.

Share may be tendered for sale anytime within the purchase offer period: January 3, 2007-Jan 31, 2007.



  1. Within ___ days following the moment

•within __ days following the date of loss



  1. S shall, within ○ months of becoming ~ ~になった日から○ヶ月以内に

1. Each Party shall, within six months of becoming a Party to this Convention, inform the Secretariat of the Convention of the wastes, other than those listed in Annexes I and II, considered or defined as hazardous under its national legislation and of any requirements concerning transboundary movement procedures applicable to such wastes.



  1. when due 期日が到来

when due 期限がきたら、満期になったら

always pay when due 常に期日内に支払いをする、常に期日内に借金を返済する

Student account balances are expected to be paid in full by the due date. These charges, in accordance with University of Illinois Policy, apply to all customers billed through the Student Accounts Receivable system, and are subject to a LATE PAYMENT CHARGE of $1.00 or 1.5%, whichever is greater, per month on any amount not paid when due.


  1. to become due

If a bankruptcy claim is a claim with a due date that is
to become due after the commencement of bankruptcy proceedings, such bankruptcy claim shall be deemed to become due at the time of commencement of bankruptcy proceedings.


With respect to the final two years of Rent, etc. the term of which has become due, the Lessor has a statutory lien on the buildings that the Land Lease Right Holder owns on that land.





  1. いつでもOK (at any time, night or day)

MHL may perform unannounced construction site inspections at any time after the date of this contract, night or day.


  1. 基準時(~時点、~現在)

    1. as of the date ~ ~の日付における[おいて]

as of



・We had the following balances with you as of December 31st, 19__. : 貴社との勘定残高は19_年12月31日現在で以下の通りです。

・This agreement made as of September 4, 2002, by and between X and Y. : 本契約は2002年9月4日にX社とY社との間で締結された。



This Agreement is effective as of the date you accept its terms by purchasing a Legal Plan subscription or accepting a free trial thereof (the “Effective Date”).

Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, it is sufficient to register the change to the matter set forth in paragraph (2), item (v) of the preceding Article as of the last day of each business year within four weeks from said last day.



  1. as on the last day of the previous month 前月末日現在

(2) In the case where there is a change to the total number of issued shares or the number of voting rights of all shareholders by way of the conversion of the shares or the exercise of the rights to subscribe for new shares, the total number of issued shares and the number of voting rights of all shareholders may be deemed to be those as on the last day of the previous month.

2 株式の転換又は新株予約権の行使によって発行済株式の総数又は総株主の議決権の数に変更があった場合における発行済株式の総数又は総株主の議決権の数は、前月末日現在のものによることができる。


  1. as it is 現状で(も), 今のままでも(すでに).

The situation is bad enough as it is. 事態は今のままでもかなり悪い.

Don’t take on any more work. You have too much to do as it is. これ以上仕事を引き受けるのはよしなさい, 今でも手いっぱい(仕事を)かかえているのだから.

  1. ~の時に遡って
    1. retroactively as of [to / from] the time of ~

(5) The act set forth in the preceding paragraph shall become effective retroactively as of the time of the act, if it is ratified by the beneficiary.

5 前項の行為は、受益者の追認により、当該行為の時にさかのぼってその効力を生ずる。

(3) The person making a notification provided for in the provision in paragraph (1) shall acquire Japanese nationality at the time of the notification; provided, however, that if the former notification is made on or after January 1, 2003, Japanese nationality shall be acquired retroactively to the time of the former notification.

3 第一項の規定による届出をした者は、その届出の時に日本の国籍を取得する。ただし、平成十五年一月一日以後に従前の届出をしているときは、当該従前の届出の時にさかのぼって日本の国籍を取得する。

(2) When the designation pursuant to the preceding paragraph has been made, the Right to Demand an Injunction provided for in the same paragraph shall be succeeded to by the designated Qualified Consumer Organization at the time of the designation (if the designation is made after the termination or rescission of certification, retroactively from the time of the termination or rescission).

2 前項の規定による指定がされたときは、同項の差止請求権は、その指定の時において(その認定の失効又は取消しの後にその指定がされた場合にあっては、その認定の失効又は取消しの時にさかのぼって)その指定を受けた適格消費者団体が承継する。


  1. for now いまのところは、さしあたり



  1. Once, Repeated, Ongoing

WHEN an action happens


ONCE (single event)




last Sunday

every Sunday

several times



Mr. Banes is watching television now.



on graduation day


during the weekend

for 24 hours

since last Sunday


when I was born


While he was watching television, the phone rang.

He will be watching television tonight when his wife gets home.



  1. meanwhile


・We can go out tomorrow, meanwhile I’ll teach you how to play bridge. : 明日になれば外出できます。それまでの間ブリッジのやり方を教えましょう。







    at the “same” time (or nearly the same time)

    at the “different” times






    When I was in high school, I had a car.

    As soon as I got to the theater, I looked for a seat.

    Once I finish my geometry, I will start studying chemistry.

    The moment (that) I saw her, I knew who she was.

    Before my husband left, I had already packed his bags.

    After she eats her dinner, Ms. Warner will go shopping.

    By the time I get to Denver, I will have traveled 200 miles.

    I cleaned the house until my wife came home.



    1. at delivery 納入時

3. In so far as he has complied with the above, the Purchaser shall have no further obligations towards the Supplier concerning checking of the products at delivery and any notification resulting there from.

3. 購入者が上記に従う限り、納入時の製品検査及びその通知義務について、購入者はサプライヤーに対しこれ以上の債務は負わない。


  1. upon receipt受領時

Seller shall check the order and any other documents comprising the Purchase Order which are submitted to Seller by Buyer, upon receipt thereof.


immediately upon receipt of shipping advice 船積み通知を受け取り次第


  1. at the time of receipt 

Confirmation will take place at the time of receipt of full payment for the tickets.



When an Authorized Association is found to have already fallen under any of the categories specified in any of the items of Article 67-4, paragraph (2) at the time of receipt of the authorization of establishment, the Prime Minister may rescind its authorization.



  1. at the time when

ii) The contract shall cease to be effective at the time when an order of rescission of security has become final and binding.

二 担保取消しの決定が確定した時に契約の効力が消滅するものであること。


(c) In the cases other than A and B, at the time when the period of time has elapsed from the time of take off pursuant to the provisions of item (vii) of Article 203 (1).

ハ イ及びロ以外の場合は、離陸時刻から第二百三条第一項第七号の所要時間が経過した時刻


(7) The notice or demand in the preceding paragraph shall be deemed to have arrived at the time when such notice or demand would normally have arrived.

7 前項の通知又は催告は、その通知又は催告が通常到達すべきであった時に、到達したものとみなす。



  1. when, while, as



  1. 起算日の表現



  1. terms after the date of ~

Without prejudice to any of the KVE”s rights generally, KVE reserves the right to terminate this Agreement where ABC fails to sell or initiate within the first twelve months after the date of the scheduled broadcast of the first episode of ○○○ series in the Territory, at least US $100,000 in total gross contract values.



  1. terms from the day of ~

(2) A provisional remedy may not be executed when two weeks have elapsed from the day on which the order for the provisional remedy is served upon the obligee.

2 保全執行は、債権者に対して保全命令が送達された日から二週間を経過したときは、これをしてはならない。


  1. terms since the day

A debtor (or the bankrupt after an order of commencement of bankruptcy proceedings is made; hereinafter the same shall apply in this Section, except for paragraph (4)) who is an individual, within a period from the day on which a petition for commencement of bankruptcy proceedings is filed until one month has elapsed since the day on which an order of commencement of bankruptcy proceedings becomes final and binding, may file a petition to the bankruptcy court for grant of discharge.




daytime, during the day






The moon grows sickly in the daytime. 昼間、月はうっすらとしている。

loaf around during the day 昼間からブラブラする



By around 6:00 in the evening, the surrounding streets are completely blocked with barricades




  1. HOW LONG something goes on? (TIME DURATION) ONGOING???

    1. Fundamentals










I have been here since 1999.

I have been here for two years.

I was in California for three weeks.

I will be there for a month.




As long as


I’ve felt much better since we had that chat. Thank you!

Since it rained hard, I got wet.

No problem. I’ll look after the kids until you get back.




  1. NOUNS


ぐるぐる行ったりきたり繰り返しのある「はじまりとおわり」のようなイメージの「期間」。 はじまりからおわりまでの時間の長さという意味です。


「はじまりからおわりまでの時間の長さ」なのですが、期間は期間でも特に公式に定められた期間です。 任期とか契約期間とか、懲役年数とか、そういった期間です。term の語源は「端っこ」「境界」「限界」の意味で、determine が「境界をはっきり決める」という意味合いであったように、termも「はっきり定められた」という意味を含む「期間」です。


durは「持続する」という意味です。 durabilityは「耐久性」、endureは「持続する」。 during (~の間) をイメージするとわかりやすいですが、「持続する間」という意味の期間です。 「持続期間」「存続期間」。


  1. Grace period 猶予期間

1.〔ローンや借金の支払い〕猶予期間◆利子や延滞金などがかからない期間。◆【同】period of grace

2.〔保険の〕猶予期間◆毎月の保険料の支払いが期限より遅れても保険が有効な期間。◆【同】period of grace



  1. additional period 付加期間

LOCKER RENTAL FEE 0 TO 1/2 hour $1.00 Each add’l 1/2 hour or portion of $1.00 24 hour maximum $6.00 Pay balance due, if any, upon return. $6.00 each additional 24 hours period or portion thereof. YOU MUST PAY EACH TIME YOU LOCK THE LOCKER




Article 7.1.5 (Additional period for performance)

(1) In a case of non-performance the aggrieved party may by notice to the other party allow an additional period of time for performance.

(2) During the additional period the aggrieved party may withhold performance of its own reciprocal obligations and may claim damages but may not resort to any other remedy. If it receives notice from the other party that the latter will not perform within that period, or if upon expiry of that period due performance has not been made, the aggrieved party may resort to any of the remedies that may be available under this Chapter.

(3) Where in a case of delay in performance which is not fundamental the aggrieved party has given notice allowing an additional period of time of reasonable length, it may terminate the contract at the end of that period. If the additional period allowed is not of reasonable length it shall be extended to a reasonable length. The aggrieved party may in its notice provide that if the other party fails to perform within the period allowed by the notice the contract shall automatically terminate.

(4) Paragraph (3) does not apply where the obligation which has not been performed is only a minor part of the contractual obligation of the non-performing party.









This Article deals with the situation where one party performs late and the other party is willing to give extra time for performance. It is inspired by the German concept of Nachfrist although similar results are obtained by different conceptual means in other legal systems.

1. Special characteristics of late performance

The Article recognises that late performance is significantly different from other forms of defective performance. Late performance can never be remedied since once the date for performance has passed it will not occur again, but nevertheless in many cases the party who is entitled to performance will much prefer even a late performance to no performance at all. Secondly, at the moment when a party fails to perform on time it is often unclear how late performance will in fact be. The commercial interest of the party receiving performance may often therefore be that a reasonably speedy completion, although late, will be perfectly acceptable but that a long delayed completion will not. The procedure enables that party to give the performing party a second chance without prejudicing its other remedies.

2. Effects of granting extension of time for performance

The party who grants the extension of time cannot terminate or seek specific performance during the extension time. The right to recover damages arising from late performance is not affected.

The position at the end of the period of extension depends on whether the late performance was already fundamental at the time when the extension was granted. In this situation, if the contract is not completely performed during the extension, the right to terminate for fundamental non-performance simply springs into life again as soon as the extension period expires. On the other hand, if the late performance was not yet fundamental, termination would only be possible at the end of the period of extension if the extension was reasonable in length.



1. A agrees to construct a special bullet-proof body for B’s Mercedes. The contract provides that the body is to be finished by 1 February so that the car can be shipped to B’s country of residence. On 31 January the car is needed but not yet quite finished. A assures B that it will be able to complete the work if given another week and B agrees to a week’s extension of time. If the car is finished within the week B must accept it but may recover any damages, for example extra shipping charges. If the work is not finished within the week, B may refuse to accept delivery and terminate the contract.

2. A, a company in country X, concludes a contract with B, a company in country Y, to build 100 km. of motorway in the latter country. The contract provides that the motorway will be finished within two years from the start of the work. After two years, A has in fact built 85 km. and it is clear that it will take at least three more months to finish the motorway. B gives A notice to complete within a further month. B is not entitled to terminate at the end of the month because the additional period of time is not reasonable; it shall be extended to the reasonable period of three months.


  1. 追加期間(あと○日)

30-day trial period can be extended for another 30 days by calling into our Technical Support and requesting a special password.



  1. The Duration of ~ ~の存続期間

The duration of the Land Lease Right shall be thirty years; provided, however, that if a period longer than this is prescribed by contract, that period shall apply.



duration of copyright 著作権の存続期間


  1. extended period 長期間





    1. 現在を基準に(これまで、今まで)

so far

= thus far


So far he has done nothing to speak of. 今までのところ彼はこれといった働きはしていない.

until now

今までに, 現在までに


till [up to] this day



to date




until DATE

to and through DATE



This Agreement continues in force until May 19, 2010.

ABC Corporation shall maintain legal possession of the items until their arrival in Japan.




    Wholly in the past

    Ongoing at the present


    How long were you in Florida.

    I arrived there in May.

    I left there in July.

    I was there for two months.

    How long have





  1. temporary vs permanent

TEMPORARY (changeable)


just for today temporarily

right now

this week

for the time being






  1. for the time being 差し当たり(は)、当分(の間)◆【略】FTTB





    1. 期間中 during the term of ~ /

During the term of this agreement, the Licensor grants to the Licensee an exclusive and non-assignable right to use the Licensor’s trademarks.


(2) During the term of office, commissioners shall not be an officer of a political party or other political bodies nor shall engage in political movements actively.

2 委員は、在任中、政党その他の政治的団体の役員となり、又は積極的に政治運動をしてはならない。


  1. 本契約の有効期間中(常に) (at all times) during the term of this Agreement

The territory of this Agreement shall be restricted to Australia, and Seller undertakes not to appoint another distributor in any form in the territory for the Products during the validity of this Agreement.《契》



KVC shall at all times during the term of this Agreement;

1) maintain an adequate stock of the Products so as to enable it to meet the requirement and supply promptly all orders reasonably anticipated in the Territory; and,

2) maintain an adequate spare parts and adequately trained staff and qualified mechanics to provide qualified customer and repair services.



1) 合理的に予想される本地域内の需要に応えられるように、またすべての注文に速やかに対応できるようにするために、十分に対象製品の在庫を有し(維持し)なければならないものとする。

2) 良質の顧客および修理サービスを提供するため、十分なスペアパーツ(予備部品)、十分に訓練されたスタッフ、資格を有する技術者を有し(維持し)なければならないものとする。


all the time (1) その間中ずっと.(2) いつも, 常に.

all day (long)=all the day 一日中, 終日.



  1. While

…する間,…するうち,…と同時に 《★【用法】 「動作や状態の継続している時間[期間]」を表わす副詞節をつくる; while の節中に進行形が多く用いられる; cf. when 【接続詞】 1a 【用法】》.

用例 We kept watch while they slept. 彼らが眠っている間私たちは見張りをした.



  1. AからBまでの期間

length of time between A and B

period between A and B

time interval between



  1. 発注から到着までの間 from order placement to receipt

Please allow 7-10 days from order placement to receipt of items.



  1. ~があった日から○日を経過する日までの間 until ○ days have passed since the date of ~

(2) In a case under the preceding paragraph, the court must not allow the party who performed the procedure for the request under the same paragraph to conduct an inspection, etc. of the portion of the record that represents the secret until two weeks have passed since the date of the request (if a petition for a protective order against the person who performed the procedure for the request was filed on or before such date, until the date on which the decision on the petition becomes final and binding).

2 前項の場合において、裁判所書記官は、同項の請求があった日から二週間を経過する日までの間(その請求の手続を行った者に対する秘密保持命令の申立てがその日までにされた場合にあつては、その申立てについての裁判が確定するまでの間)、その請求の手続を行った者に同項の秘密記載部分の閲覧等をさせてはならない。


  1. ○月以上○月未満

(5) In the case referred to in the preceding paragraph, if the Minister of Justice deems it necessary, the validity period for re-entry with a refugee travel document may be limited to not less than 3 months and less than 1 year.

5 前項の場合において、法務大臣が特に必要があると認めるときは、三月以上一年未満の範囲内で、当該難民旅行証明書により入国することのできる期限を定めることができる。

  1. AS LONG AS ~ / SO LONG AS ~ ~する限り(時間的な長さを問題にしている)ある状態、条件、行動が続く間

I’ll love you as long as I live.

As long as you don’t go anything stupid, you’ll be fine.


continuing paymentsと関連することが多い。

  1. during との違いは?

during は定まった特定の持続する時間を表すが、so long as のようにその時間が無期限に継続することはない。

  1. examples


as long as the matters subject thereto (shall) exist 対象事象の存する限り

Customer discounts will be available during the entire month of March.

Kamakura Trading Corp. agrees to pay a late fee of $USD 1,000 daily so long as its goods shipped to Pacific Imports LA are overdue.

Regular payments are due on the 1th of each month as long as Machida LLP continues to provide legal consulting services for American HiOptics Japa.

Employees can obtained more than one type of loan as long as the installments do not exceed the % of after tax base salary.

就業規則 分割払いの1回分が税引後給与の %を超えない限り、2種類以上の貸付金を受けることができる。



【AS LONG AS】は、一定の条件下のみという意味です。「~している間」という意味もあるので注意してください(時の副詞節参照)。

I will go tomorrow as long as it is warm.




  1. FOR (丸一年、一日中)

for a whole year.

for the day


  1. for the first _ months 最初の_ヶ月間

We’re offering new customers high-speed Internet access for just twenty dollars a month for the first six months!


  1. for the rest of ~ ~の残りの間(ずっと)

for the rest of the week 来週までの間


  1. for the last six days ここ6日間

For the last six days, Apple has been waging the legal fight of its life over a phone used by alleged San Bernardino attacker Syed Farook. The case centers on whether the government can compel Apple to rewrite the phone’s security protections to allow the FBI access to the data inside. But while the phone itself is still the center of the legal fight, this weekend’s conversations focused on data that’s already been pulled off the phone to Farook’s iCloud account.




    1. throughout the day

Conference attendees must wear their name badges throughout the day.



  1. 長い間⇔少しの間

for a while

He stopped here briefly on his way to Tokyo. 彼は東京に行く途中しばらくここに逗留(とうりゅう)した.


  1. for long periods of time 長時間

If you sit for long periods of time, it might be smarter to start using a standing desk instead.


  1. In + Amount of time

refer to the future

I will see you in two days (from now).

indication of a length of time

I finished the job in two hours.



  1. PROMPTNESS (IN TIME) 直ちに、速やかに、遅滞無く

    1. Immediately / instantaneously / forthwith ただちに

•The party involved in a case of force majeure shall immediately take reasonable steps to limit or minimize the consequences of such an event.


•Upon the expiry of the above assistance period, __ shares held by XX shall be immediately transferred as described to paragraph __.


•Seller shall undertake to repair or replace the Products immediately.



  1. As soon as ~ ~したとき、直ちに

Both parties shall confirm the commercial production date, in writing, as soon as it is achieved.《契約書》



  1. Promptly 速やかに



Ex) Following the Lender’s request, the Company shall promptly, but in any event within 30 days, provide the Lender with appraisals of the Specified Real Estate.



(1) Alternative dispute resolution procedures shall, as legal procedures for settling disputes, be executed in a fair and appropriate manner while respecting the voluntary efforts of the parties to the dispute for dispute resolution, and be aimed at achieving prompt dispute resolution based on specialized expertise and in accordance with the actual facts of the dispute.

1 裁判外紛争解決手続は、法による紛争の解決のための手続として、紛争の当事者の自主的な紛争解決の努力を尊重しつつ、公正かつ適正に実施され、かつ、専門的な知見を反映して紛争の実情に即した迅速な解決を図るものでなければならない。


  1. Without delay 遅滞無く

The party who wishes to plead force majeure is under obligation to inform in writing the other party without delay of the event, of the time it began and its probable duration.《契》



  1. Shortly まもなく

It will be ready for print shortly.



  1. SIMULTANEOUSLY (at the same time)


  1. Simultaneously – At the same time

at the same time,  simultaneously







    1. punctually適時に、タイムリーに、気後れ無く



  1. On timely 適時に


  1. in a timely manner タイムリーに


表現パターンin a timely fashion [manner]

•on a timely manner タイムリーに


  1. from time to time 時々

Other terms and conditions, not provided for in this Agreement, shall, from time to time, if necessary, be deliberated and agreed upon by the parties hereto on the basis of mutual respect and understanding.《契約書》本契約に定めないその他条項は、相互の尊重および理解を基本として、必要に応じて両当事者が検討し同意するものとする。



    1. 使用に際して

      1. when ordinary use is made of the goods

(4) The term “configuration of goods” as used in this Act means the external and internal shape of goods and the pattern, color, gloss, and texture combined with such shape, which can be perceived through the human senses by consumers when ordinary use is made of the goods.

4 この法律において「商品の形態」とは、需要者が通常の用法に従った使用に際して知覚によって認識することができる商品の外部及び内部の形状並びにその形状に結合した模様、色彩、光沢及び質感をいう。

  1. The use shall not

(6) The use of small arms and light weapons or more powerful weapons pursuant to the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 3 above shall not inflict injury on any persons, except in either of the cases under the provisions of Article 36 or 37 of the Penal Code (Act No. 45 of 1907).

6 第1項から第3項までの規定による小型武器又は武器の使用に際しては、刑法(明治40年法律第45号)第36条又は第37条の規定に該当する場合を除いては、人に危害を与えてはならない。

This means that the same protocol for administering the test drug and placebo, taking blood samples and collecting the ECG data should also be used when giving the positive control.



  1. 過程において、業務において/業務上

    1. In the course of ~ ~の過程において

For the purpose of reporting current events by means of photography, cinematography, broadcast or otherwise, it shall be permissible to reproduce a work involved in such event or a work seen or heard in the course of the event, and to exploit any such work in conjunction with the reporting of such event, in each case to the extent justified for purposes of news reporting.



  1. in the ordinary course of business 通常の業務において

“In the ordinary course of business”は”Except”との併用により、Prohibitions(Blocked action)において、慣例的且つ典型的行為を例外として許容する機能がある。



The Issuer may not incur any contingent liability in respect of surety bonds, except for those obtained in the ordinary course of business.

発行人は、通常の業務において取得したものを除き、Surety bondsに関する一切の保証責任を負ってはならない。


  1. In a manner consistent with past practice 過去の実務に基づいて


Guarantor shall not make capital contributions to its foreign subsidiaries, except in a manner consistent with past practice.



  1. In the ordinary course of businessとIn a manner consistent with past practiceとの違い


(a) Guarantor shall not make capital contributions to its foreign subsidiaries, except in the ordinary course of business.

(b) Guarantor shall not make capital contributions to its foreign subsidiaries, except in a manner consistent with past practice.












  1. 最初から、途中から、最後に


  1. at the halfway point

The trains in question don’t necessarily stop at stations listed here in all time zones, since some trains run only in specified sections or become rapid trains at the halfway point.ここに載せている駅には、全時間帯において当該列車が運行されるわけではなく、区間運転や途中から快速運転するものもある。


  1. from the middle of ~

He also published ‘Futari Nyobo’ (Two Wives) in which he tried the vernacular style with ‘dearu’ ending of sentences from the middle of the story, and these achievements made him one of the leaders of literary circles during the Meiji Period along with Rohan KODA, so, this period was called Ko-Ro Jidai (the era of Koyo and Rohan).このほか「である」の言文一致を途中から試みた「二人女房」などを発表、幸田露伴とともに明治期の文壇の重鎮となり、この時期は紅露時代と呼ばれた。


  1. ~している間に、~しているときに

I had my passport stolen while (I was) traveling in Italy last year.「去年イタリアを旅行していた間に、(私は)パスポートを盗まれた」

It’s dangerous (for you) to read a book while (you are) walking on the street.「道を歩いているときに本を読むのは危険である」

NG: It’s dangerous to read a book, walking on the street.

OK: It’s dangerous to walk on the street reading a book.「本を読んでいる状態で道を歩くのは危険である」


  1. EXPECTATION; to expess a connection between events and expectation

already, still, no longer







  1. Slow or Fast 主観的な表現、EXPECTED COMPLETION (on time?_ASPECT)




late, lately, later
















  1. 【IF】CONDITION/OCCASION/CONTINGENCY (a particular time when something happenes)


[接続詞] if,provided that,in case,,in case that,unless,so long as,as far as

[副詞・副詞句] supposing that,on the condition that,oherwise

[節] {Assume,Suppose} that [A]. {Let us,We will} {assume,suppose} that [A].



  1. Fundamentals


    Real conditional sentence

    if clause & the result clause.

    If you drive north for three miles, you will get to Colombus.

    Unreal condition


    Unreal Past condition



    1. Real conditional sentence

IF clause

RESULT clause

indicating the choice (can be either positive or negative)

in presente tense

indicating the consequence or possible consequence

in future tense or with modals can, could or might

If you study hard

If you don’t study hard,

you will pass the test.

you could fail.



Choice and possible result

If you study hard you will pass the test.

Implied opposite choice and result

If you don’t study hard, you could fail.

to indicate the consequence or possible consequence

If you eat your spinach, you will grow stronger.

If you quit my job, I can spend more time with the kids.

If Troy moves to Hollywood, he might become a movie star.




  1. 仮定・条件

if, provided that,  in case,

in case that,  unless,  so long as,

as far as,  once,supposing that,

on the condition that,  otherwise,

Assume(Suppose) that ・・・ ,

Let(We will) assume(suppose) that ・・・


  1. CONJ; Conditions①(条件)

conditional clauseは一種のtrigger


  1. Conditionsと時制






The athletic meeting will be held outdoors unless it rains.

As soon as we get tickets, we’ll send them to you.


  1. Conditionsの使い分け

    1. IfとWhen, Where

IF: ~であれば(起きるかわからないけれど起きるかもしれない条件を表す。ifは『適用されない』可能性も大いにあるというニュアンスを含む)。『大きくなったら~したい』などの文にifは使えない。

When, Where:~である場合、である限り(ほぼ起きるであろうことがら)


  1. IFとProvided

「provided that」と「providing that」は「ある場合に限って」や「という条件で」という意味であり、「if」のように接続詞の働きをします。しかしこれらのフレーズを使うと、「if」より強いニュアンスになります。


If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, let’s have a picnic.    もし明日雨が降らなかったら、ピクニックしようね。

Provided that it doesn’t rain tomorrow, let’s have a picnic.    明日は雨が降らなかった場合だけ、ピクニックしようね。


「providing」と「provided」 は違う時制のように感じるかもしれませんが、実際両方の単語の使い方は全く同じです。しかし、providingはprovidedよりくだけた単語になります。日常会話でネイティブはよく「that」を抜きます。


Provided it doesn’t rain tomorrow, let’s have a picnic.    明日は雨が降らなかった場合だけ、ピクニックしようね。


I will tell you a secret, provided you tell no one.    誰にも言わないって条件なら、君に秘密を教えてもいいよ。


1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 4 paragraph 5, Parties may enter into bilateral, multilateral, or regional agreements or arrangements regarding transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes with Parties or non-Parties provided that
such agreements or arrangements do not derogate from the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes and other wastes as required by this Convention. These agreements or arrangements shall stipulate provisions which are not less environmentally sound than those provided for by this Convention in particular taking into account the interests of developing countries.



  1. IF(二択)

If you wait a few minutes, I’ll give you a ride.

I know I can win if I play my best.


  1. if: 特定の条件や状態、行動が発生する場合

If payment is 60 days overdue, a 5% late fee may be assessed.

If the bearings have a defect ratio of more than 1%, GTI may receive either a 5% discount on this shipment or on future shipments.

If this Agreement is terminated on account of Licensor’s default under the Paragraph __ hereof, Licensee may continue to practice the right granted hereunder.《契約書》ライセンサーの第_条の義務不履行により本契約が終了した場合、ライセンシーは本契約に基づき許諾された権利の実施を続行できるものとする。



  1. 主節の時制の違いによるニュアンスの変化

If you say that again, I’ll go home. (もう一度それを言ったら、帰りますからね。)

If you say that again, I go home.(もう一度それを言ったら、絶対帰る!)

If you say that again, I’m going home. (もう一度それを言ったら、帰る!)


If you don’t pay up, I go straight to the police.【脅迫】

If you exercise more, you’ll feel much healthier.【アドバイス】

What if we went on a safari this summer?【意見・提案】


  1. 譲歩

I don’t care if you have no money――I just like you.(あなたにお金がなくても気にしない。)

I don’t care even if you have no money.(たとえあなたにお金がなくても気にしない)


  1. (if and) only if ~ (~である場合に限り)

I’ll accept the job, if and only if I’m allowed to do things my way.


  1. if only ~ (もし~でさえあったなら)


  1. as if (あたかも~のように)



  1. if any、if possible, as the case maybe などの処理の仕方

if any は、「それが存在するかどうかは明確ではないが、もしもあるとしたら」

if possible は、「それが可能かどうかはここで問題にはしないが、可能であるならば」という意味です。

こう書いておかないと、if any の場合ならこれを挿入した条文があることによって、存在することを暗に示した、黙示した、と相手方に主張されてしまうかもしれませんし、if possible も同じで、「それが可能だという前提で話をしている」と言われてしまう恐れが有ります。

【例文1】Licensor’s aggregate liability and that of its affiliates and suppliers under or in connection with this agreement shall be limited to the amount paid for the Software, if any.


例文のif any は、if there is any amount paid for the Software の略です。

if any の部分の訳としてよく見られるのは、



ここはやはり、上手く訳文のなかにif anyの意味をを盛り込んで、多少語句を補って自然な文章にした方がいいでしょう。,/p>



If the second Party fails to appoint an arbitrator or the two arbitrators fail to agree on the selection of a third arbitrator, the second or the third arbitrator, as the case may be, shall be selected by the President of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization, established in Geneva, Switzerland.





if any やas the case maybe のような挿入語句を訳す時に注意したいのは、挿入する場所と表現です。





例文1の1行目、that of its affiliates and suppliers を、もしも「その関連会社およびサプライヤーのそれ」と訳してしまったら、意味が分かりにくくなりますね。

that は、aggregate liabilities を指しており、its は Licensor を指しています。

同様に、冒頭で解説した宿題文でも、non-defaulting party’s written notice thereof の thereof を、「それらの」とせずに、「それら」の中身を言い直して訳しています。



  1. IN CASE ~ / IN THE EVENT ~  ~するといけないから(~の場合に備えて、事前の用心として)

Bring an umbrella with you just in case it rains.

In case you need help, here’s my cell phone number.


  1. In the case that +完全文 は間違い(?) 正しくはIn the case where +完全文

Nativeが作った(と思われる)規約は、”in the case where”を用いており、”in the case that”は用いていない。

“in the case when”もあまりみない。この場合ストレートに”when”だけでOK


In the case where there is any change or correction to the ID Information and the subject matter of the Representation, the Client shall promptly notify the Bank of such details.

In the case where the immediately preceding paragraph conflicts with the provisions set forth in the Transaction Agreement, the provisions set forth in the Transaction Agreement shall override the immediately preceding paragraph to the extent of such conflicts.

Article 2 (Priority Order of the Conditions)

Unless expressly stated otherwise in the Conditions, in the case where the provisions set forth in the Conditions conflict with the provisions set forth in the agreement regarding the Individual Transactions between the Client and the Bank (the “Transaction Agreement”), the provisions set forth in the Conditions shall override such provisions in the Transaction Agreement to the extent of such conflicts.


  1. ifのフォーマルな言い方


ifで済むものを重々しく言うためのツールがin the event thatとin the event ofで、アメリカ英語では前者が好まれ、イギリス英語では後者が好まれるというだけの違いです。


【IN CASE】【IN THE EVENT THAT】は、殆んどその条件が実現する可能性はないが、もしあった場合はという意味。SHOULDが副詞節で使われると、話し手の確実性が下がります。

In case it rains, I bring an umbrella.

In the event that it should rain, I bring an umbrella.


  1. In the event that [of] ~

In the event that payment is more than 90 days overdue, a 5 % late fee shall be assessed by X Corporation.

In the event this Agreement is terminated for any reason caused by Buyer, Seller shall not be liable to Buyer for compensation or damages of any kind whatsoever, including direct, incidental, or consequential damages, incurred by reason of such termination.《契》買い手が引き起こした事由により本契約が終了した場合、売り手は、かかる終了から直接的、付随的、または結果的に生じる損害を含む一切の損害について賠償責任を負わないものとする。

In the event of the cancellation of this Agreement under the preceding Article, the fee for the Commissioned Business shall be settled upon consultation between both parties, considering the progress of the Project up to the time of cancellation. :


In the event of any of the following events, this Agreement may be canceled by prior written notice before the completion of the Project.



  1. in case, in the case [接続詞的に用いて] もし…なら, …の場合には.

In case I forget, please remind me of [about] it. 私がその件を忘れた場合には注意してください.

If bankruptcy occurs に代えて In case of bankruptcy と言えますが、契約書ではこうしたin case of を見た覚えがありません。

In the case of はif/in the eventのように法律効果を生じさせる法律要件を論じるというのでなく、In the case of these defective products, the manufacturer is required to…のように、事実関係を取り上げるときに使うのが普通だと思います。


  1. Even in cases~の場合であっても

(2) In addition to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the performance requirement of the floating piers in the place where there is a risk of having serious impact on human lives, property, and/or socioeconomic activity by the damage to the mooring buoys concerned shall be such that the structural stability of the floating pier is not seriously affected even in cases when the function of the mooring buoys concerned is impaired by tsunamis, accidental waves, and/or other actions.

2 前項に規定するもののほか、当該浮桟橋の被災に伴い、人命、財産又は社会経済活動に重大な影響を及ぼすおそれのある浮桟橋の要求性能にあっては、津波、偶発波浪等の作用による損傷等が、当該浮桟橋の機能が損なわれた場合であっても、当該浮桟橋の構造の安定に重大な影響を及ぼさないこととする。


  1. Also in the case ※ほとんど使わない

(2) In addition to the cases provided for in the preceding paragraph, also in the case where the number of partners who are certified public accountants becomes no more than four and the number of partners who are certified public accountants fails to become five or more for six consecutive months from such date, an audit corporation shall dissolve when said six months have elapsed.

2 監査法人は、前項の規定による場合のほか、公認会計士である社員が四人以下になり、そのなった日から引き続き六月間その公認会計士である社員が五人以上にならなかった場合においても、その六月を経過した時に解散する。


  1. PROVIDED / PROVIDING (that) ~ もし~なら(ある条件があたえられれば)「その場合に限り」という限定的な条件

Provided she can control her nerves, she has an excellent chance of winning.


  1. 「なんで提供するの意味のprovideが、仮定の意味になるんですか?」

pro-(前に) + videは、ラテン語videreが由来で、「見る」





He can come with us, provided he pays for his own meals.




ifと同じような機能を果たすこのprovided は、どう説明するのか。





  1. ON CONDITION THAT ~ / AS CONDITION ~という条件で(ある条件がみたされれば)


  1. on condition that : ある状態、事件、行動によって定められる


(7) The term “Basic Contract for a Revolving Credit Loan” as used in this Act means a loan contract which is based on a promise that Loans shall be made for a customer who is a person seeking funds upon his/her request, within the limit of the maximum amount, on the condition that the customer shall repay the Loans according to the predetermined terms.

7 この法律において「極度方式基本契約」とは、貸付けに係る契約のうち、資金需要者である顧客によりあらかじめ定められた条件に従つた返済が行われることを条件として、当該顧客の請求に応じ、極度額の限度内において貸付けを行うことを約するものをいう。


  1. As a condition to the effectiveness of ~ (~が発効する条件として)

As a condition to the effectiveness of this Lease, the Lessee shall execute and deliver a solvency certificate substantially in the form of the solvency certificate delivered by the Lessee to XYZ Realty Co. on September 20, 2005.




  1. GIVEN (THAT) ~ ~を考えると(考慮にいれれば)

Given the circumstances, a tie is a brilliant result.


  1. SUPPOSE / SUPPOSING ~ ~と仮定すると(~と考えると)

Suppose she turns you down, what will you do?


  1. FOR FEAR THAT ~することを恐れて⇒~しないように

I stuck very close to my big brother, for fear that I should get lost.


  1. LEST ~ (SHOULD) 

Naoko tiptoed from her bedroom to the front door, lest her parents (should) hear her.

Lest we (should) forget.


  1. Shouldで始まる文 = If ~ should

Should you have any questions, もし質問があれば


“If you should have any questions,”



If の後ろにshould を入れると「万が一」というような意味合いが出てきます。

If ~should という形のとき、should を前に持って来てifを消しても同じ意味を表すことができます。




“Should it be necessary,” 「必要であれば」

“Should there be any problems,” 「何か問題があれば」



  1. when : (通常未来の)ある時点で

This Letter of Credit is payable to Shinagawa Corporation when all goods debark the Port of Yokohama.



Q, in forceとavailableは違うのか?


  1. Upon

    1. Upon the occurrence of~ ~が発生した場合は


  1. Upon termination/ expiration

Upon termination of this Agreement due to Licensee’s default of its obligations hereunder or for reasons of Paragraph __, Licensee shall have no further right granted hereunder.《契》ライセンシーの義務不履行または第_条の理由により本契約が終了した場合、ライセンシーは本契約に基づき許諾された権利を剥奪されるものとする。


  1. 事由が生じた場合 or when any other event that

(4) The security money shall be returned upon the conclusion of the proceedings connected to the incident, or when any other event that makes its retention unnecessary arises.

4 担保金は、事件に関する手続が終結した場合等その保管を必要としない事由が生じた場合には、返還する。


  1. where ~のときは

Without prejudice to any of the KVE”s rights generally, KVE reserves the right to terminate this Agreement where ABC fails to sell or initiate within the first twelve months after the date of the scheduled broadcast of the first episode of ○○○ series in the Territory, at least US $100,000 in total gross contract values.



  1. ・・・がなければ




in the absence of


  1. Multiple Conditions (multiple if/ multiple criteria)

    1. 「とき」と「場合」(IF⇒Where⇒In the case)

大きい条件には「場合」(in the case)

小さい条件には「とき」(where / when)



  1. In the case of A where B are: C1; C2; C3. BであるAの場合において、BがC1のときは、BがC2のときは、BがC3のときは

5. In the case of a transboundary movement of wastes where the wastes are legally defined as or considered to be hazardous wastes only:

(a) By the State of export, the requirements of paragraph 9 of this Article that apply to the importer or disposer and the State of import shall apply mutatis mutandis to the exporter and State of export, respectively;

(b) By the State of import, or by the States of import and transit which are Parties, the requirements of paragraphs 1, 3, 4 and 6 of this Article that apply to the exporter and State of export shall apply mutatis mutandis to the importer or disposer and State of import, respectively; or

(c) By any State of transit which is a Party, the provisions of paragraph 4 shall apply to such State.

5. 特定の国によってのみ有害であると法的に定義され又は認められている廃棄物の国境を越える移動の場合において

(a) 輸出国によってのみ定義され又は認められているときは、輸入者又は処分者及び輸入国について適用する9の規定は、必要な変更を加えて、それぞれ輸出者及び輸出国について適用する。

(b) 輸入国によってのみ又は輸入国及び締約国である通過国によってのみ定義され又は認められているときは、輸出者及び輸出国について適用する1、3、4及び6の規定は、必要な変更を加えて、それぞれ輸入者又は処分者及び輸入国について適用する。

(c) 締約国である通過国によってのみ定義され又は認められているときは、4の規定を当該通過国について適用する。


  1. if …, in the case where ~ ~の場合において、・・・のときは、

(c) Parties shall prohibit or shall not permit the export of hazardous wastes and other wastes if the State of import does not consent in writing to the specific import, in the case where that State of import has not prohibited the import of such wastes.



  1. When ~, S shall V, if …  ~の場合において、・・・のときは、

Article 8  Duty to Re-import

When a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes to which the consent of the States concerned has been given, subject to the provisions of this Convention, cannot be completed in accordance with the terms of the contract, the State of export shall ensure that the wastes in question are taken back into the State of export, by the exporter, if alternative arrangements cannot be made for their disposal in an environmentally sound manner, within 90 days from the time that the importing State informed the State of export and the Secretariat, or such other period of time as the States concerned agree. To this end, the State of export and any Party of transit shall not oppose, hinder or prevent the return of those wastes to the State of export.

第8条  再輸入の義務


  1. 他方当事者のアクション

    1. 同意、承諾、意見

      1. 同意を得て

(c) Parties shall prohibit or shall not permit the export of hazardous wastes and other wastes if the State of import does not consent in writing to the specific import, in the case where that State of import has not prohibited the import of such wastes.



  1. 許可無く、同意無く
    1. without your permission

No information will be given to any other person under any circumstances without your permission. いかなる場合も、許可なく情報を他者に開示することはございません。


Each party hereto shall have the right to assign this Agreement and to assign its rights and delegate its duties under this Agreement, either in whole or in part, at any time upon notice to the other party and without the other party’s consent, to any present or future direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of such assigning party.



  1. 承諾を得て

with someone’s agreement

with someone’s consent


(3) A director may, pursuant to the provisions of a Cabinet Order, send the notice by Electromagnetic Means with the consent of the Specified Equity Members in lieu of sending the written notice referred to in the preceding paragraph. In this case, said director shall be deemed to have sent the written notice set forth in that paragraph.

3 取締役は、前項の書面による通知の発出に代えて、政令で定めるところにより、特定社員の承諾を得て、電磁的方法により通知を発することができる。この場合において、当該取締役は、同項の書面による通知を発したものとみなす。


  1. 意見を聴いて


The court may, if a party resides in a remote place or in any other cases where the court finds it to be appropriate, conduct the proceedings on the date for scheduling conference by a method that enables the court and both parties to communicate simultaneously with one another by audio transmissions, after hearing the opinions of the parties; provided, however, that this is limited to cases where either of the parties appears on said date.


  1. 【カウンター】同意・承諾を条件とする場合、相手方の不承諾に備えてのカウンター

The other party shall not withhold such approval without reasonable grounds.相手方は、合理的な理由なく承諾を拒否してはならない。

The other party shall not reject the request without reasonable grounds.相手方は、合理的な理由なく申し出を拒否してはならない。


  1. 同意済みの

    1. agreed-upon 同意済みの、承諾済みの、取り決められた



  1. 協議・合意

    1. 協議の上
      1. through mutual consultation

Any matter not stipulated herein shall be determined through mutual consultation at the Executive Meeting.《契約書》この規約に定めない事項については、幹事会で協議の上決定するものとする。


  1. upon consultation

Any question arising out of, or in connection with, this Agreement or any matter not stipulated herein shall be settled each time upon consultation between both parties.《契》この契約に関する疑義が生じたとき、または、この契約に定めのない事項については、その都度甲乙協議の上決定するものとする。


In the event of the cancellation of this Agreement under the preceding Article, the fee for the Commissioned Business shall be settled
upon consultation between both parties
, considering the progress of the Project up to the time of cancellation.《契約書》前条の規定により本契約が解約されたとき、甲が契約時に支払った委託金は、解約時までの進捗状況に応じて、甲乙協議の上精算する。


  1. following discussion

However, First Party may request early delivery of Translation Deliverables in part in electromagnetic data and (or) written form on a date prior to the Due Date which is specified by First Party (hereinafter, “Date Specified by First Party”)
following discussions with Second Party



  1. After discussion

(Note 14) The term “agreement” means that the material intentions of both parties coincide, and that the counterparty has accepted the terms and conditions and agreed to them after sufficient discussions between the parties. The same applies to the concept of an “agreement” in regard to the “return of goods” (IV. 3(2)).



  1. ~を前提とした議論 discussion based on ~

discussions based on what has not occurred yet at this point




  1. 協議の上合意する(協議が調う)

Where, with respect to compensation for a loss under the preceding Article, the Electricity Utility and the person who has suffered the loss have failed to consult or reach an agreement through consultation, the Electricity Utility or the person who has suffered the loss may apply for an award by the prefectural governor who has jurisdiction over the Land, etc. or the place where the land or the plants causing interference are located.



  1. 合意した場合を除き

Unless otherwise agreed, the following amounts shall be applied to the delay penalty.《契約書》別途に合意した場合を除き、遅延損害賠償の金額は以下の通りとする。

except to the extent expressly agreed in writing by the parties to the contrary 当事者全てが書面で反対の内容に明示的に合意した場合を除き

This agreement cannot be changed or modified in any manner except as may be mutually agreed in writing signed by duly authorized representatives of the parties hereto.《契約書》本契約書は、正式の権限を有する当事者の代表者が署名した文書で相互に合意した場合を除き、いかなる方法によっても変更不可能とする。


  1. 協議がととのわないとき

In the case where the conference set forth in the preceding paragraph does not reach any conclusion, the Sea-area Fisheries Adjustment Commission may file an application to decide the matter with the Governor who supervises the commission. In this case, if different Governors supervise the respective Sea-area Fisheries Adjustment Commissions, the matter shall be decided by the conference between the Governors.



  1. 了知・了解(相手が知っていれば足りる。相手の意思表示までは不要)

  2. 確認

    1. until it has received written confirmation that:

3. The State of export shall not allow the generator or exporter to commence the transboundary

movement until it has received written confirmation that:

(a) The notifier has received the written consent of the State of import; and

(b) The notifier has received from the State of import confirmation of the existence of a contract between the exporter and the disposer specifying environmentally sound management of the wastes in question.

3. 輸出国は、次の事項を書面により確認するまでは、発生者又は輸出者が国境を越える移動を開始することを許可してはならない。

(a) 通告をした者が輸入国の書面による同意を得ていること。

(b) 通告をした者が、廃棄物について環境上適正な処理がされることを明記する輸出者と処分者との間の契約の存在につき、輸入国から確認を得ていること。


  1. 事前に通知して、事前通知により、事前の通知により

    1. Upon notice to

Each party hereto shall have the right to assign this Agreement and to assign its rights and delegate its duties under this Agreement, either in whole or in part, at any time upon notice to the other party and without the other party’s consent, to any present or future direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of such assigning party.


In Borrowr shall breach any covenant in Article 6, Lender may terminate the Loan Commitments upon notice to Borrower.


  1. By prior notice to

Borrower shall pay accrued interest on the last business day of each month. Notwithstanding the foregoing, on up to three occasions during the term of this agreement, Borrower may, by prior notice to Lender, delay such payments by a period not to exceed in each case 5 business days.




  1. 予め文書で通知することにより、

In the event of any of the following events, this Agreement may be canceled by prior written notice before the completion of the Project.



  1. 通知がない場合


If there has been no notification from the co-owners under the provisions of the preceding paragraph, it is sufficient for the Trustee of the Trust with Certificates of Beneficial Interest to send any notice that the Trustee is to give to the co-owners of the Beneficial Interest or any demand that the Trustee is to make to the co-owners of the Beneficial Interest, to any one of them.





  1. ~が主張された場合

    1. Where a demand is made,

(2) Where a demand under the provision of the preceding paragraph is made, if the bankruptcy creditor fails to give a definite answer within the period specified under the provision of said paragraph, the bankruptcy creditor may not assert the effect of the set-off with his/her bankruptcy claim in relation to the bankruptcy proceedings.

2 前項の規定による催告があった場合において、破産債権者が同項の規定により定めた期間内に確答をしないときは、当該破産債権者は、破産手続の関係においては、当該破産債権についての相殺の効力を主張することができない。


  1. If a claim is made

(2) If a claim for damages under the provisions of Article 25 is made in court proceedings for the purpose of effecting a set-off, the provisions of the preceding paragraph apply mutatis mutandis.

2 前項の規定は、第二十五条の規定による損害賠償の請求が、相殺のために裁判上主張された場合に、これを準用する。


  1. 授権通知により

    1. Upon (prior written) authorization 事前の授権通知により

Buyer or any of its Subsidiaries may authorize its subcontractors to purchase Products from Supplier at any time upon reasonable prior written authorization to Supplier, provided that all purchases are strictly limited to use for Products directly or indirectly delivered or provided to Buyer or Buyer’ Subsidiaries, but not for subcontractor’s own use and distribution (hereinafter referred to as “Authorized Subcontractor”).




  1. 指示に従い

    1. as instructed by ~ ~の指示に従い

Customs shall, as instructed by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry, confirm that a person who intends to export goods has obtained permission under Article 48, paragraph (1) of the Act or approval under Article 2, paragraph (1) or is not required to obtain said permission or approval.





  1. 顧客指定の○○    ○○of your request

You can either request home delivery of your order or have the order sent to the affiliated bookstore of your request so that you won’t be charged for shipping and you can also enjoy Internet shopping much more casually without having to settle your payments on credit over the Net.



  1. 記名押印した場合

(v) in cases where an agent (limited to a privately appointed agent), in cases where an application is filed by a subagent, signed on the document certifying the authority of the subagent.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

五 復代理人によって申請する場合における代理人(委任による代理人に限る。)が復代理人の権限を証する書面に記名押印した場合



  1. 主観的判断

    1. ~を予期して

      1. in anticipation of~ ~を予期[期待・予想]して、



  1. in consequence of~ ~のために、~のゆえに、~の影響で、~の結果、~の結果として



  1. 判断した場合


If any defect in material or workmanship or failure to conform to such Specification is suspected in any such Product by Buyer, Buyer shall ship suspected defective samples of the Product to Maker following Maker’s instructions regarding the return.




If the product was considered having no problem at the time, the shipping fee will be paid by the customer.




  1. 希望する場合

Please note that if you request for a refund, you have to pay the shipping even though we refund for the price of the product.




  1. 故意・重過失・過失があった場合はこの限りでない

    1. unless caused by an intentional or gross negligence act of ~

In the event either party causes damage or incurs additional expenses to the other party for reasons attributable to the relevant party, the relevant party shall be liable to pay damages and compensation to the other party within the scope of the remuneration amount of Second Party pursuant to this Agreement, unless caused by an intentional or gross negligent act of First Party or Second Party.



  1. ~しようとするときは

    1. When S intend to V, S shall notify ~ SがVしようとするときは、~に通知しなければならない

(2) Except in the case referred to in the preceding paragraph, when a Foreign Investment Corporation intends to dissolve the corporation, it shall notify the Prime Minister to that effect, in advance.

2 外国投資法人は、前項に定める場合を除くほか、解散しようとするときは、あらかじめ、その旨を内閣総理大臣に届け出なければならない


  1. When モノ is intended to be Vpp

When an intermediate is intended to be transferred outside the control of the manufacturer’s material management system and an expiry or retest date is assigned, supporting stability information should be available (e.g. published data, test results).



When a drug is intended to treat a serious illness for which there is no satisfactory treatment, especially if the new drug is seen as promising on the basis of theoretical considerations, animal data, or early human experience, there may be understandable reluctance to perform a comparative study with a concurrent control group of patients who would not receive the new treatment.




  1. S shall, when they seek to V, receive one’s approval  SがVしようとするときは、・・・の承諾を得なければならない

(2) A Corporation or the incorporators of a Corporation shall,
when they seek to
consent to any proposal made under the preceding paragraph, receive approval at an Organizational Meeting or General Representative Members’ Council Meeting of the Corporation.

2 機構の発起人又は機構は、前項の規定による申出があった場合において、当該申出を承諾しようとするときは、機構の創立総会又は総会でその承認を得なければならない


  1. 見込みがないと認めるとき


With regard to a dispute that is under mediation, if the Mediation Commissioners find that the dispute is unlikely to be settled through mediation, they may discontinue the mediation.




  1. When S finds O C  SがO=Cと認めたとき

(2) The Commissioner-General of the National Police Agency, when he/she finds
a request under the preceding paragraph to be reasonable, shall provide the claim management and collection company with advice and any other necessary assistance.

2 警察庁長官は、前項の申出相当認めるときは、債権回収会社に対し、助言その他必要な援助を行うものとする。


  1. S, when he/she finds it necessary, may V Sは、(S)が必要と認める場合、Vすることができる

(2) A firefighter or a police official, when he/she finds it particularly necessary for prevention of fire involving conveyance of hazardous materials, may stop a mobile tank storage facility while in transit and request the hazardous materials engineer who is riding on said mobile tank storage facility to present his/her hazardous materials engineer’s license. In this case, a firefighter and a police official shall maintain close contact with each other when performing their duties.

2 消防吏員又は警察官は、危険物の移送に伴う火災の防止のため特に必要があると認める場合には、走行中の移動タンク貯蔵所を停止させ、当該移動タンク貯蔵所に乗車している危険物取扱者に対し、危険物取扱者免状の提示を求めることができる。この場合において、消防吏員及び警察官がその職務を行なうに際しては、互いに密接な連絡をとるものとする。


  1. S shall V when … deems it necessary ・・・がその必要があると認めたときにSがVする

The urgent aftercare of discharged offenders shall be performed only when the director of the probation office deems it necessary on the basis of a petition submitted by persons listed in the respective items of paragraph (1) of the preceding Article.



  1. 客観的判断






  1. 該当する場合

In this Act, the term “Organization” means a continuous association of persons, or a federation of such associations, organized to achieve any particular common objective. Any branch, chapter or subsidiary body of an Organization, in case it comes within the purview of this definition, may be subject to control under this Act.



People in those countries and regions can apply to enter Japan without obtaining visas (that is, with a No Visa) in the case of being eligible for short stays for the purpose of sightseeing and/or recuperating.



When designated as one of these preservation zones, the area is subject to quite specific regulations: the shapes of roofs must ‘be the kirizuma (gable-style), the yosemune (hip-style), or the irimoya (combination of the kirizuma and the yosemune)’; the roofs must be covered ‘with either Japanese roof tiles or copper sheets;’ and the ratio of the angle of roofs must fall between a specified range.



This factor should, where appropriate, influence the choice of reference compound(s) and be included in the integrated risk assessment.




  1. ~が認められた場合、…が~と認める場合

    1. Whenever ~ appear ~が認められた場合には

(2) The fact that the parties have their places of business in different States is to be disregarded whenever this fact does not appear either from the contract or from any dealings between or from information disclosed by, the parties at any time before or at the conclusion of the contract.

(2) 当事者の営業所が異なる国に所在するという事実は、その事実が、契約から認められない場合又は契約の締結時以前における当事者間のあらゆる取引関係から若しくは契約の締結時以前に当事者によって明らかにされた情報から認められない場合には、考慮しない。



  1. ~が明らかな場合/~が明らかな場合を除き

    1. When it is evident that~ ~が明らかな場合

(2) No one shall discriminate in employing a foreign national for failure to show or submit the certificate set forth in the preceding paragraph, when it is evident that the person concerned is authorized to engage in activities related to the management of business involving income or activities for which he/she receives remuneration.

2 何人も、外国人を雇用する等に際し、その者が行うことができる収入を伴う事業を運営する活動又は報酬を受ける活動が明らかな場合に、当該外国人が前項の文書を提示し又は提出しないことを理由として、不利益な取扱いをしてはならない。


  1. When it is clear that ~ ~が明らかな場合は

The final appellate court shall, on a judgment, reverse the judgment of the court of first or second instance when there are grounds as prescribed in the items of Article 405; provided, however, that this shall not apply when it is clear that this would not affect the judgment.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕



  1. Unless they are clear from ~  それら(they)が~から明らかな場合を除き

(2) When offering documentary evidence by submitting a document, the offer shall be made by clarifying the title of the document and the facts to be proved, unless they are clear from the contents of the document.

2 文書を提出して書証の申出をするときは、文書の記載から明らかな場合を除き、文書の標目及び立証趣旨を明らかにして、これを行わなければならない。


  1. ~を証明した場合 the cases where A have proven that ~

In cases where compulsory execution against the assets of such Membership Company has not been successful (except for the cases where the partners have proven that such Membership Company has financial resources to pay and that the compulsory execution can be effected at ease).



  1. 評価的判断

    1. 困難な場合/困難であるとの認定を行った場合

      1. If it is difficult to ~ ~することが困難な場合には、

Notwithstanding the provision of the preceding paragraph, if it is difficult to calculate the market price as of the quarterly balance sheet date, a statement to that effect, the reason therefor, the outline of said Financial Instruments, and the amount reported on the quarterly balance sheet may be stated in lieu of the matters specified in that paragraph.

2 前項の規定にかかわらず、四半期貸借対照表日における時価を算定することが困難な場合には、同項に定める事項に代えて、その旨、その理由、当該金融商品の概要及び四半期貸借対照表計上額を記載することができる。


  1. When S has granted recognition to the effect that it is difficult for ~

When a Fund has granted, under the provisions of the preceding Article, recognition to the effect that it is difficult for a Notifying Financial Instruments Business Operator to smoothly perform the obligation pertaining to refund of Customer Assets, it shall promptly specify the period and place of notification set forth in paragraph (1) of the following Article and other matters specified by Cabinet Order and give a public notice thereof.



  1. When S finds it difficult for ~

When the Conciliation Committee finds it difficult for the two parties to reach an agreement, it may prepare a conciliation proposal, taking all the circumstances into consideration, and recommend the parties to accept the proposal during a designated period of not less than 30 days, if the Committee finds it appropriate.



  1. In the case of finding it necessary when it becomes difficult for ~ to do

The Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare shall, in the case of rescinding the Designation or orders to suspend all or part of the Services for Employment Management Improvement Projects for Part-Time Workers, or in the case of finding it necessary when it becomes difficult for the Part-Time Working Assistance Center to perform the Services for Employment Management Improvement Projects for Part-Time Workers, perform said services by him/herself.



  1. When it is determined to be difficult or inappropriate for ~ to be performed

When it is determined to be difficult or inappropriate for Supervision or Inspections to be performed by national government officials due to particular professional knowledge or skills being required or for other reasons, a Contract Officer, etc., may delegate a person other than a national government official to perform the Supervision or Inspections, pursuant to the provisions of Article 29-11, paragraph (5) of the Public Accounting Act.



  1. 適切な場合、適切に

    1. Where appropriate 適切な場合(ある程度の自由度がある)

ISO9001規格では区別され、”where appropriate”はある程度の自由度を認めている。


  1. 適切に



  1. 正当な・相当な・やむを得ない理由がある場合etc.

    1. ※理由のいろいろ

Reason, ground, cause, excuse



  1. 正当な理由がある場合を除き

2 前項の規定により解任された者は、その解任について正当な理由がある場合を除き、投資法人に対し、解任によつて生じた損害の賠償を請求することができる。

(2) Any person who has been dismissed under the preceding paragraph may, except in the case where there are justifiable grounds for such dismissal, demand compensation for damages arising from his/her dismissal from the Investment Corporation.


  1. 相当な理由がある場合には

5 債権については、その取得価額が債権金額と異なる場合その他相当の理由がある場合には、適正な価格を付すことができる。

(5) With regard to claims, an appropriate price may be recorded in the case where the acquisition cost thereof is different from the amount of claims or where there are other reasonable grounds.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕


  1. やむを得ない理由がある場合

The family care leave benefits shall not be paid to a person who has received or attempted to receive payment of the family care leave benefits by means of deception or other wrongful conduct, as from the day on which he/she received or attempted to receive payment of said benefits. Provided, however, that in the case where there are unavoidable reasons, the whole or a part of the family care leave benefits may be paid.



(iii) When the Bank Agent failed to commence Bank Agency Service within six months from the day of obtaining said permission (excluding the case where there is an unavoidable reason and the approval of the Prime Minister has been obtained in advance).

三 当該許可を受けた日から六月以内に銀行代理業を開始しなかったとき(やむを得ない理由がある場合において、あらかじめ内閣総理大臣の承認を受けたときを除く。)。



  1. 明確な理由がある場合


Only in circumstances where there is a significant cause for concern for carcinogenic risk should the study results be submitted to support clinical trials.〔


  1. 適切な理由がある場合


Generally, the production cells are obtained by expansion of the Working Cell Bank; the Master Cell Bank could be used to prepare the production cells with appropriate justification.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕


  1. 妥当な理由がある場合


Alternative approaches can be used when there are scientifically justifiable reasons.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕


  1. その他

    1. 応じて

      1. 求めに応じて、要求があった場合
        1. following the [sb]’s request 求めに応じて

Following the Lender’s request, the Company shall promptly, but in any event within 30 days, provide the Lender with appraisals of the Specified Real Estate.



  1. at the request of one / upon one’s request (…之求,于…之求)

※at the request of はtheを用いるが、upon requestは用いない。なんで?


•Licensee shall keep accurate and complete records of all data relating the manufacture, use and sale of the Product to show the accuracy of its royalty calculation hereunder, and shall, at the request of Licensor, permit such records as well as any other pertaining records to be audited by Licensor’s representative or an independent certified public accountant appointed by Licensor at any time during regular business hours.


The Bank will, at the request of the Borrower, issue one or more letters of credit in a form satisfactory to the Bank.



  1. according to the request of ~

(1) A prefecture, according to the request of a Municipality which intends to implement a Municipal Mutual Fiscal Stabilization Project, shall conduct the necessary coordination among said Municipalities. 1 都道府県は、市町村相互財政安定化事業を行おうとする市町村の求めに応じ、市町村相互間における必要な調整を行うものとする。


  1. whenever so requested

(3) The juridical person for offenders rehabilitation shall submit the documents of the preceding paragraph for inspection whenever so requested.

3 更生保護法人は、第一項の書類について、請求があったときは、これを閲覧に供しなければならない。◆【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム


  1. 必要に応じて、必要ならば、必要を認めた場合、都合により
    1. where necessary / If necessary 必要ならば、必要に応じ

Other terms and conditions, not provided for in this Agreement, shall, from time to time, if necessary, be deliberated and agreed upon by the parties hereto on the basis of mutual respect and understanding.《契約書》本契約に定めないその他条項は、相互の尊重および理解を基本として、必要に応じて両当事者が検討し同意するものとする。


make changes where necessary 必要な個所を変更する

provide [offer] advice where necessary 必要であれば助言する

take appropriate actions where necessary 必要に応じ適切な行動をする


  1. where relevant

Where relevant, microbial challenge testing under testing conditions that, as far as possible, simulate patient use should be performed during development and documented in this section.




  1. as needed

(2) The Institute shall, periodically or as needed, report to the Prime Minister the results of the investigation set forth in the preceding paragraph.

2 協会は、定期的に、又は必要に応じて、前項の調査の結果を内閣総理大臣に報告するものとする。


  1. when it finds it necessary to ~ これを~する必要を認めたとき

The National Personnel Authority, in addition to what is provided for in Article 28, paragraph (2) shall regularly conduct necessary investigations and research concerning the particulars as provided for in the Act on Remuneration and shall, when it finds it necessary to revise them, prepare revision proposals without delay and make recommendations to the Diet and the Cabinet.



  1. for one’s own convenience/ for personal circumstances 自己都合により

one’s own convenience

personal circumstances


quit one’s company on one’s own

resign for one’s own reasons


  1. in response to ~に応えて

・In response to your message, we will send your items as soon as possible. : 伝言通りに、できるだけ早くあなたの物を送ります。

・The program starts running in response to Start button. : 開始ボタンに応じてプログラムが開始されます。


  1. if not all 全部ではないとしても

He has spent most, if not all, of the money.

彼はその金を全部ではないとしても, 大部分は使ってしまった.


  1. 場合によっては as the case may be



  1. そうでない場合 or if no hearing is held

3. Co-Lead Counsel are awarded attorneys’ fees in the amount of $21,480.25 to be paid from the United Aircargo settlement one year after the Fairness Hearing of the United Aircargo settlement, or if no hearing is held, one year after Final Approval of the United Aircargo settlement.


  1. 蓋を開ければas it turned out

As it turned out, the woman was an expert, and the massage was very good. 蓋を開ければ、その女性は達人でマッサージが本当に上手でした。


  1. 逆だったら Suppose the situation had been reversed and say that

Suppose the situation had been reversed and say that, for the sake of self-defense, guns were in circulation in Japan. A white American is gunned down, and on top of that the perpetrator is adjudged innocent. Wouldn’t Americans be screaming mad?  もしこれが逆だったら--日本に銃が出回っていて正当防衛であろうとも白人のアメリカ人が射殺され、その上犯人が無罪とされたら、アメリカ人は怒り狂うに違いないでしょう。


  1. If this was the other way around

It would have been nice if our jobs were the other way around. 私たちの仕事が、逆だったらよかったのに。


  1. 事態発生

    1. ~の事由があったとき

When a settlor and a beneficiary have terminated a trust at a time that is detrimental to the trustee, the settlor and the beneficiary shall compensate the trustee for any damages; provided, however, that this shall not apply if there was a compelling reason for the trust to be terminated at that time.



  1. ~の事由が生じた場合

    1. Where the grounds occur ~の事由が生じた場合

(4) Where the grounds set forth in paragraph (1), item (iii) occur, if the trustee’s duty as trustee does not terminate pursuant to the provisions of the proviso to said paragraph, the bankrupt shall perform the duties of the trustee.

4 第一項第三号に掲げる事由が生じた場合において、同項ただし書の定めにより受託者の任務が終了しないときは、受託者の職務は、破産者が行う。

  1. Unless the circumstances under which ~ ~の事由が生じた場合を除き

(ii) The foreign national has not entered Japan directly from a territory where his/her life, body or physical freedom was likely to be persecuted on the grounds prescribed in Article 1, paragraph A- (2) of the Refugee Convention, unless
the circumstances under which he/she may have become a refugee arose while he/she was in Japan.

二 本邦にある間に難民となる事由が生じた場合を除き、その者の生命、身体又は身体の自由が難民条約第一条A(2)に規定する理由によつて害されるおそれのあった領域から直接本邦に入ったものでないとき。


  1. When any cause has arisen 事由が生じた場合

(3) When, by the day immediately prior to the day of submission of a Report of Possession of Large Volume or Change Report, any cause which requires a person to submit another Change Report has arisen, said Change Report shall be submitted to the Prime Minister at the same time as the submission of said documents which have not been submitted, notwithstanding the provision of the main clause of paragraph (1).

3 大量保有報告書又は変更報告書を提出する日の前日までに、新たに変更報告書を提出しなければならない事由が生じた場合には、当該変更報告書は、第一項本文の規定にかかわらず、提出されていないこれらの書類の提出と同時に内閣総理大臣に提出しなければならない。


  1. When circumstances that compel ~ have arise ~しなければならない事由が生じた場合

3 銀行議決権保有届出書又は変更報告書(以下この節において「提出書類」という。)を提出する日の前日までに、新たに変更報告書を提出しなければならない事由が生じた場合には、当該変更報告書は、第一項本文の規定にかかわらず、提出されていない当該提出書類の提出と同時に内閣総理大臣に提出しなければならない。

(3) When circumstances that
compel a person to submit another Change Report have arisen by the day preceding the day of submission of a Written Notice of Holding the Bank’s Voting Rights or a Change Report (hereinafter referred to as “Documents Required” in this Section), that Change Report shall be submitted to the Prime Minister at the same time as the submission of that Documents Required that have yet to be submitted, notwithstanding the provisions of the main clause of paragraph (1).


  1. When unavoidable circumstances arise やむを得ない事由が生じた場合

(4) An Insurance Administrator may, when unavoidable circumstances arise, receive approval from the Prime Minister and change or abolish the plan set forth in paragraph (1).

4 保険管理人は、やむを得ない事情が生じた場合には、内閣総理大臣の承認を受けて、第一項の計画を変更し、又は廃止することができる。


  1. When circumstances that prevent A from doing have arisen, AがDoできない事由が生じた場合、

A witness shall, when circumstances that prevent him/her from appearing on the appearance date have arisen, notify such fact immediately while clarifying the circumstances.



  1. If such event occurred during ~ その事由が~中に生じた時は

A passenger transportation contract shall be terminated on the occurrence of any of the events listed in Article 760, paragraph (1), item (i) to item (iii). If such event occurred during the voyage, passengers shall pay the freight charge in proportion to the transportation.



  1. 紛争が発生した場合

    1. In the event a dispute arises,

In the event a dispute arises from this Agreement, First Party and Second Party shall hold discussions and determine a response in good faith.



  1. もし何か起きたら If anything else comes up 他に何かが起きたら


  1. 違反した場合

⑧Other than the events provided in each preceding items, when the Client breached any of the provisions of the Conditions.



  1. 前提条件

precondition for something ~の前提条件

condition(s) precedent… 前提条件


  1. ~した上で、・・・する

Where the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry imposes, pursuant to Article 24, paragraph (1) or (2) of the Act, on a resident the obligation to obtain permission for conducting the specified capital transactions, he/she shall do so designating the specified capital transactions that require permission after clarifying, in advance, by a public notice, the provision, among these provisions, based on which the obligation to obtain permission is imposed.



  1. ~を考慮した上で・・・できるように

The performance requirements for canals shall be such that the requirements specified by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism are satisfied for the sake of securing the safe and smooth navigation of ships in harbors by taking into consideration the traffic characteristics in the port including navigating ships and others.



(2) The government shall, for the purpose of reflecting public opinion on formulation of policies for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ensuring fairness and transparency of the process thereof, ask for the opinions of diversified bodies, including businesses, private bodies and persons who have expert knowledge about conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and aim at utilization, etc. of a mechanism to form policies after sufficiently considering such opinions.

2 国は、生物の多様性の保全及び持続可能な利用に関する政策形成に民意を反映し、その過程の公正性及び透明性を確保するため、事業者、民間の団体、生物の多様性の保全及び持続可能な利用に関し専門的な知識を有する者等の多様な主体の意見を求め、これを十分考慮した上で政策形成を行う仕組みの活用等を図るものとする。


  1. ~をした上で、・・・するものとする

(3) For the maintenance of port facilities subject to the technical standards, necessary maintenance work and other activities shall be executed appropriately upon a comprehensive evaluation based on the results of inspection and diagnosis of the damage, degradation, and other changes in the state of the facilities concerned in its entirety.

3 技術基準対象施設の維持に当たっては、当該施設の損傷、劣化その他の変状についての点検及び診断並びにその結果に基づく当該施設全体の維持に係る総合的な評価を適切に行った上で、必要な維持工事等を適切に行うものとする。


(iv) a document stating that private financial institutions other than the designated financial institution will provide loans or contributions to the business operator based on the contributions by said designated financial institution or will take measures equivalent thereto, and thereby will cooperate and engage in realizing the approved plan.

四 指定金融機関による出資を前提として、当該指定金融機関以外の民間金融機関が事業者に対して融資又は出資を行うことその他これに準ずる措置を講ずることにより、協調して認定計画の実現に取り組む旨を記載した書類


  1. 仮定・想定条件

on the presupposition that… ・・・という想定条件で

assuming/presuming that… ・・・と仮定・想定すれば



  1. 以下の条件で

    1. under the following conditions 以下の条件で

•This License Agreement is made and entered into by and between XX and YY as of May 1, 2008 under the following terms and conditions.



  1. Subject to ~を条件として、~を条件に(=conditionally upon)

subject to the following conditions 以下の条件に従って

subject to reply within __ days _日以内の回答を条件として

subject to one’s receiving someone’s firm order by _月_日までに(人)の確定注文を受け取ることを条件として

subject to payment within __ weeks _週間以内に支払われることを条件として

subject to bankruptcy court approval, the company expects to begin liquidation of its inventory’


Article 8  Duty to Re-import

When a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes to which the consent of the States concerned has been given, subject to the provisions of this Convention, cannot be completed in accordance with the terms of the contract, the State of export shall ensure that the wastes in question are taken back into the State of export, by the exporter, if alternative arrangements cannot be made for their disposal in an environmentally sound manner, within 90 days from the time that the importing State informed the State of export and the Secretariat, or such other period of time as the States concerned agree. To this end, the State of export and any Party of transit shall not oppose, hinder or prevent the return of those wastes to the State of export.

第8条  再輸入の義務



  1. on the premise that~ ~という前提で

on the premise that 〔that以下〕を前提として

based on the premise that 《be ~》〔that以下〕を前提とする

stand on the premise that 〔that以下〕という建前に立つ

Human rights laws are based on the premise that everyone is equal. 人権法はすべての人は平等であるという前提に基づいている。



  1. 確認的条件



  1. いかなる場合も

    1. in no event / in any event,___ shall not いかなる場合も~しない

A shortened statutory period for reply is set to expire 2 months from the mailing date of this communication. Extensions of time may be available under the provisions of 37 CFR 1.136(a). In no event, however, may a reply be timely filed after SIX (6) MONTHS from the mailing date of this communication.




  1. たとえ~としても

    1. EVEN IF

【EVEN IF】は、ある条件下であっても、結果は同じという意味です。


Even if it rains, I will go.

I will go even if it rains.


Even if you receive it as God’s words, you have to judge it by yourself. 例え神の言葉でも自分で一応考えて、審神する事が重要である。


  1. 論理的条件

    1. ~が矛盾する場合は、

      1. In case of inconsistency between ~

In case of inconsistency between the documents Seller will revert to Buyer for written clarification prior to acceptance.



  1. THEME/RELATIONSHIP (About what?) (関連性、主題提示)(DISCOURSE MARKER)

Mr Bean kept quiet about his torn shorts.



  1. Fundamentals

When to use ‘with regard to’ and when to use ‘regarding’

I am completely confused by the following relationship terms. Would you please give me a precise explanation and some proper examples? Are they the same or similar in meaning and in use?

1. in relation to / with relation to

2. with regard to / regarding

3. in connection with

4. concerning


They are very similar in meaning and use. The key issue, as you suggest, is to know when and how to use them.

These expressions are sometimes known as ‘discourse markers’. ‘Discourse’ is the term used to denote pieces of speech or writing that are longer than a sentence. They are ‘markers’ because they help to point out the structure of discourse. They make clear the connection between what we are going to say and what has come earlier. They are used to focus attention and to signal what we are going to talk about.

Such discourse markers will often be found at the beginning of a sentence. They are all fairly formal in tone and characteristic of formal or written discourse.

    For an example, let us eavesdrop on this business meeting. The personnel manager of a company is responding to questions from members of staff.

‘There are two major issues on today’s agenda which we should move on to before lunch. One is the question of non-taxable allowances and the other is bonus or productivity payments. Now, with regard to/in connection with/concerning the former, the position of this organisation is quite clear…’

    You could also add ‘with reference to’ as a further alternative and this would perhaps be most formal of all. This expression is frequently used at the beginning of business letters:

‘Dear Ms Irvine,

With reference to your fax of yesterday, I am pleased to inform you that…’

    Note that expressions like as far as… is/am/are concerned and as regards link discourse in a similar way, but these are slightly less formal and more characteristic of spoken discourse:

‘There is no doubt that in this country infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and diphtheria are on the increase, but as far as whooping cough is concerned / as regards whooping cough, there are clear signs that it is on the wane.’

    The expression As far as I’m/we’re concerned,… is also used colloquially to indicate that you are stating your own position on something:

‘As far as we were concerned, there was no point in remaining at the site any longer.’

‘As far as I’m concerned, you can go to Italy for Christmas. I shall be quite happy here at home.’

    A final note about use of concerning. When placed later in a sentence, it is sometimes used as an alternative to about or regarding:

‘He refused to answer any questions concerning his private life.’

‘There was much discussion in Parliament concerning the admission of homosexuals to the armed forces.’


  1. regardingとabout(違いはフォーマルかどうか)

1. regardingはaboutよりフォーマルな場で使われる。


2. レターやスピーチの導入部分でよく使われる。

⇒I want to ask you regarding ~.




  1. 主題提示(~については)










It is cooler in autumn than in spring. 秋は春よりも涼しい。(気象を表す it の用例)

Autumn is cooler than spring. でいいではないか?


主題提示のin は、「 は 」と訳す。

日本語では主格を表すのに、「 は 」や「 が 」などの助詞が使われる。


  1. As forは日本語の直訳?(主題提示の「は」)








As for gases, their volume changes depending on the temperature.


どこに日本語の影響があるかというと,文頭の「As for〜」である。文法上は間違いではないが,この表現の使用される頻度はネイティブが書いた英文よりも日本人が書いた英文,または和文の英訳文のほうがはるかに高い。これは,日本語と英語の間に根本的な違いがあるからである。




日本語には「〜は」という形で主題から始まる文が多いので,日本語で考えながら英文を書くと「As for 〜」,「With regard to 〜」,「In the case of 〜」など主題を表す表現を多用しがちである。これらの表現は「正しい英語」ではあるが,使いすぎると「英語らしくない英文」になってしまう。


主題表現の多い直訳調の英語を避けるには,文を主語から始めれば良い。例えば,「気体は温度によって体積が変化する」を英訳するならば,「The volume of gases changes depending on the temperature.」とすれば自然な英語になる。





日本語のような英文:With regard to interstellar matter, there are many unknown aspects.

英語らしい英文:Interstellar matter has many unknown aspects.

または,Much is unknown about interstellar matter.



日本語のような英文:Concerning animal embryonic stem cells, research has been conducted for more than a decade.

英語らしい英文:Research on animal embryonic stem cells has been conducted for more than a decade.

または,Animal embryonic stem cells have been studied for more than a decade.

日本語の主題を無理に英訳すると,主題の言葉が不要に繰り返されることがある。例えば,「As for gases, their volume changes depending on the temperature.」では,「gases」と「their」が同じこと(「気体」)を指している。下手な英訳文には,「With regard to interstellar matter, interstellar matter has many unknown aspects.」のような無駄な反復さえ見かけることがある。このような冗長な文は極力避けたい。





放射された電子のエネルギースペクトルの観測をした。A: We did an observation of the energy spectra of the emitted electrons.B: We observed the energy spectra of the emitted electrons.ここでは,二通りの英訳を付けてみた。訳Aでは,下線の「観測」(名詞)と「した」(動詞)を「did」(動詞)と「an observation」(名詞)として,品詞を変えないで日本語を英語にしている(品詞の順だけが逆になっている)。一方,訳Bでは,「観測をした」というフレーズが動詞だけ(observed)になっている。


次の例では,「測定」という名詞を訳Aでは名詞(measurement),訳Bでは動詞(to measure)として英訳した。


この装置は加熱温度の測定を可能にする。A: This device enables the measurement of the heating temperature.B: This device enables us to measure the heating temperature.もう一つ例を見てみよう。


この発見の実用化の研究を行っている。A: We are conducting research on the application of this discovery.B: We are studying how to apply this discovery.この訳Aでは,「研究を行っている」を「are conducting research」で,日本語と同じく名詞と動詞として英訳した。訳Bでは,同じフレーズを動詞だけ(「are studying」)にした。名詞の「実用化」も名詞「the application」(訳A)と動詞「to apply」(訳B)にした。








さらに英語の感覚では,名詞は変化のない,意味の固定された概念を指す。動詞はダイナミックで,変化していることを表す。そのため,「make preparations」よりも「prepare」,「reach a conclusion」よりも「conclude」,「carry out a revision」よりも「revise」を使った方が,生き生きとした,英語らしい英語になるのである。


  1. 文頭で「~に関して(いえば)、」と言いたいとき:”As for” , “Regarding”, “With regard to”, “About”など。


例「死に関してもアメリカ人は全く格式ばらず実際的な国民だ.」”Even concerning death, Americans are truly informal and practical people.”

“As for the journey, we will decide that later.”「旅行のことはあとで決めよう.」

As for myself, I’m not satisfied. 「(他人はどうか知らないが)私は不満です.」


文の途中で使うとき:”regarding”, “with (in) regard to”, “about”など。(As forは通常文頭のみ)

例:「私はその事に関しては何も知らない.」”I know nothing about it.”

「この件に関して何かご意見がおありでしょうか.」”What do you have to say in [with] regard to this matter?



  1. 対象を限定する用法「~に関して」(=「~における」「~は」「~の」「~での」)



“There were no treatment-related changes in clinical signs”「一般状態に関しては投薬に関係する変化は観察されなかった。」(直訳すると「一般状態における投薬に関係する変化はなかった」”change”に続くのは”in”で、”about”など他の前置詞ではない)

“A clinical study of (Drug A) in patiens with hypertention”「高血圧患者を対象とした薬剤Aに関する臨床試験」(「薬剤Aの臨床試験」と一言で表せますが、「関する」と表現する人もいます)

“Recent assay data for M1 and M2″「M1及びM2に関する最近のアッセイデータ」(”data”に続くのは”for”で,





  1. In terms of

“in terms of”は、個人的な意見ですが、「~に関して」というよりも、「~の見地から」「~の点から」という意味合いが強いように思います。だから、「~に関連して」「~について」と言いたいときは、”in terms of”を使ってません。


『In terms of』の使い方は、注意したいと思います。


RegardingとAs forは文頭で使う場合、例えば頂いた文例で

As for the journey, we will decide that later.

Regarding the journey, we will decide that later.


As for myself,というのには、Regarding myselfという表現は感覚的に合わない気がするのですが、、、


  1. メールではregardingかin this regard

英文メール例『この件に関しては』という意味で英文メールの中では regarding と同様に in this regard がよく使用されます。

In this regards, I would appreciate it if you could visit our office.

In this regard, could you please inform me of a few dates and times that are conveinient for you?


「RegardingとAs forは文頭で使う場合、例えば頂いた文例で

As for the journey, we will decide that later.

Regarding the journey, we will decide that later.


As for myself,というのには、Regarding myselfという表現は感覚的に合わない気がするのですが、、、どうでしょうか?」



“As for”は、すでに話題になっていることに対しある事柄を対照的に取り上げるとき用いられるそうです。



  1. As for と regarding

As for myself, I’m not satisfied. 「(他人はどうか知らないが)私は不満です.」



『Regarding new technology,』を『As for new technology,』と修正を受けたご経験があるそうですが、ひょっとすると、先行の文章ですでに取り上げられた事象について、対比するような文章と受け取られたことから、そのような訂正が入ったのかもしれません。





  1. According to (伝え聞いた)ところによると

私は Acoording to  ~によれば 彼によると、ニュースによると、伝説によるとという感じで情報の出所に言及すると同時に~に関して、についていうと、伝え聞いたところによると、という話題、情報の提供のニュアンスもあり、幅広く使用可能だからです。 お試しあれ。


  1. Reffering to について言い及ぶと

Reffering to名詞、動名詞  も に関してという幅広い対応語です。


  1. As to ~,

As to the State’s or a public entity’s liability for damages, if Acts other than the Civil Code provide otherwise, such Acts shall take priority.



As to the validity of the rescission of the manifestation of an intention to offer or accept a Consumer Contract and the validity of a clause in a Consumer Contract, the provisions of the Civil Code and the Commercial Code shall apply in addition to this Act.




At Ortega Agriculture Consulting, we look beyond conventional farming techniques to find innovative solutions for our clients.


  1. 関連性⇔独立性

    1. about

Dr. Charles Lim, a renowned biologist, has written extensively about marine life in the Gulf of Mexico.



  1. 「関する」と「係る」



第十四条  (協議会の事務)


一  国会の発議に係る日本国憲法の改正案(以下「憲法改正案」という。)及びその要旨並びに憲法改正案に係る新旧対照表その他参考となるべき事項に関する分かりやすい説明並びに憲法改正案を発議するに当たって出された賛成意見及び反対意見を掲載した国民投票公報の原稿の作成













2  前項の規定にかかわらず、介護休業をしたことがある労働者は、当該介護休業に係る対象家族が・・・(以下省略)



2  前項の規定にかかわらず、育児休業(当該育児休業に係る子の出生の日から起算して八週間を経過する日の翌日まで・・・(以下省略)







  1. Related

•related party transaction 《法律》関連(当事者)間取引

•partially-related 【形】部分的に関連した

•housing-related materials 住宅関連部材[建材]



  1. Relevant

1(当面の問題にとって)適切な,妥当な,関連のある (⇔irrelevant).

用例 a relevant question 適切な質問.

collect all the data that are relevant 関連のあるデータをすべて集める.

2【叙述的用法の形容詞】 〔当面の問題・主題に〕関連して,関係があって 〔to〕.

用例 What you say is not relevant to the matter in hand. あなたの言うことは現在考慮中の問題には関連がない.



The work shall be carried out as per HPPWD/ IPH specification relevant IS/BIS- code & CPHEEO Manual to be satisfaction of the Engineer-in-charge.


  1. associated with

1.《be ~》~と関係がある、~と関連している

・He pretended to be associated with the school. : 彼は学校関係者のふりをした。

・This is the treatment for pain and dysfunction of the muscle associated with the temporomandibular joint. : これは顎関節と関係している筋肉の痛みと機能障害に対する治療です。

2.《be ~》~を連想させる

3.《be ~》《コ》〔ファイルタイプが〕~と関連付けられている



  1. Irrelevant 関連しない



  1. independent of… [副詞句を導いて] …から独立して, …と無関係で.

A wife can have property independent of her husband. 妻は夫から独立して財産を所有しうる.


  1. in connection with:~に関連して、~に伴う

・A situation has arisen in connection with the contract with ABC Company. : ABC社との契約に関連して、ある事態が発生しました。

In connection with the exploitation of a derivative work, the author of the original work shall have exclusive rights of the same types as those possessed by the author of the derivative work under the provisions of this Subsection.


(3) Where a Withdrawal/Cancellation has been effected, the seller or Service Provider may not claim damages nor demand the payment of any penalty in connection with the Withdrawal/Cancellation.

3 申込みの撤回等があった場合においては、販売業者又は役務提供事業者は、その申込みの撤回等に伴う損害賠償又は違約金の支払を請求することができない。


  1. regarding, with respect to, with regard to, interms of

It’s common doubt most people have how to distinguish those usages of “Regarding, with respect to, with regard to, in terms of”. The phrases that you have referred to are formal and should preferably only be used in formal business letters.


“With regards to””with respect to”

“regarding.””In terms of”

used to mean

“concerning something or somebody.”

“concerning,” but it is specifically used to show what aspect of a subject you are talking about or how you are thinking about it.


The two groups were similar with respect to income and status.

The Company’s position with regards to overtime is made clear in the contract.

The job is great in terms of salary but it has its disadvantages.



  1. Regarding …に関して(は), …の点では.

用例 Regarding your enquiry of June 17… 6月 17 日付のあなたのご質問に関しては….


  1. (matters) Regarding which ~に関する(事項)

(3) Any matters regarding which notification has been made pursuant to the provisions of the preceding two paragraphs shall, on the effective date, be deemed to be subject to notification pursuant to paragraph (1) of Article 30 of the New Attorney Act; provided, however, that this shall not apply to the notification pursuant to the provision in the latter part of the previous paragraph.

3 前二項の規定による届出のあった事項については、施行日に新弁護士法第三十条第一項の規定による届出があったものとみなす。ただし、前項後段の規定による届出があったものについては、この限りでない。

(2) A director shall have no voting right for matters regarding which he/she has special interests. In this case, unless otherwise set forth in the articles of incorporation, if the number of directors having a voting right falls below the majority of the fixed number of directors, temporary directors numbering more than the number to reach the said majority shall be appointed pursuant to the provisions of the articles of incorporation.

2 責任役員は、その責任役員と特別の利害関係がある事項については、議決権を有しない。この場合において、規則に別段の定がなければ、議決権を有する責任役員の員数が責任役員の定数の過半数に満たないこととなったときは、規則で定めるところにより、その過半数に達するまでの員数以上の仮責任役員を選ばなければならない。

(6) A director shall not hold representative authority in matters regarding which there is a conflict of interest between the medical corporation and said director. In this case, the prefectural governor shall appoint a special agent ex officio or at the request of an interested party.

6 医療法人と理事との利益が相反する事項については、理事は、代理権を有しない。この場合においては、都道府県知事は、利害関係人の請求により又は職権で、特別代理人を選任しなければならない。

A representative director shall have no right to represent for matters regarding which his/her interests conflict with those of the religious corporation. In this case, a temporary representative director shall be appointed pursuant to the provisions of the articles of incorporation.


(3) If no request is made for the return of a retained or seized object regarding which a public notice has been issued pursuant to the preceding paragraph after six months have elapsed since the fay of the public notice, the object belongs to the national treasury.

3 前項の公告に係る領置物件又は差押物件について、公告の日から六月を経過しても還付の請求がないときは、これらの物件は、国庫に帰属する。




  1. with respect to :~について、~に関して、~の割には、~に対して◆【略】WRT

•Any transaction between the parties with respect to Development and sale of the Product shall be governed by these Terms and Conditions.


•This Agreement constitutes the entire and only agreement between the parties hereto with respect to the subject matter hereof, and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous commitments or understandings.


•Licensor agrees to assume the same obligations as set forth in Paragraph __ with respect to any information disclosed by Licensee hereunder regarding Licensee’s improvements, except that Licensor may disclose the same to its sub-licensee for the purpose of granting a sublicense under Paragraph __ thereof.


•Seller hereby agrees to render to Buyer the technical assistance as herein provided with respect to the sale, installation, operation and maintenance of the Products.

《契約書》売り手は、製品の販売・据え付け・操作・保守に関して、以下に規定する技術援助を買い手に提供することに同意する。◆【使い方に注意】render 〈文〉



  1. With regard to ~

(vii) With regard to the distinction of limit order, market order, and other orders, the document shall be prepared by recording the price and expiration of the order in the case of a limit order, and the date the transaction was carried out (in the case of a transaction on a Commodity Market, including the session) in the case of a market order.

七 指値又は成行その他注文の種類の別については、指値の場合にあっては、その価格及び注文の有効期限、成行の場合にあっては、取引を行う日(商品市場における取引にあっては場節を含む。)を記載すること。


(2) A registered verification body may, when performing the inspections set forth in the preceding paragraph on any meteorological instruments that have been granted the type certification set forth in Article 32, paragraph (1), omit the inspection as to whether or not to conform to the same paragraph, item (i).

2 登録検定機関は、第三十二条第一項の型式証明を受けた型式の気象測器について、前項の検査を行う場合には、同項第一号に適合するかどうかの検査を行わないことができる。


(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 6 of the Act on Concurrent Operation of Trust Business by a Financial Institution, a Financial Institution Engaged in Trust business shall not, with regard to an Investment Trust Managed Without Instructions from the Settlor, conclude a contract providing that if the principal incurs a loss it is to be compensated for or that shortfalls in the predetermined amount of profit are to be made up in advance.

2 信託業務を営む金融機関は、金融機関の信託業務の兼営等に関する法律第六条の規定にかかわらず、委託者非指図型投資信託について、元本に損失を生じた場合にこれを補てんし、又はあらかじめ一定額の利益を得なかった場合にこれを補足する契約を締結してはならない。


With regard to a fixed-term labor contract, an employer may not dismiss a worker until the expiration of the term of such labor contract, unless there are unavoidable circumstances.



(3) The employer shall, as regards the transporting vehicle on a rough terrain (limited to the one subject to paragraph (1) of Article 48 of the Road Transportation Vehicle Act) used for the travelling, in the case when having checked pursuant to the provisions of the same paragraph, not be required to carry out the self-inspection set forth in Article 151-53 for the parts where the said checkup has been carried out.

3 事業者は、運行の用に供する不整地運搬車(道路運送車両法第四十八条第一項の適用を受けるものに限る。)について、同項の規定に基づいて点検を行った場合には、当該点検を行った部分については第百五十一条の五十三の自主検査を行うことを要しない。


  1. in respect of :~については、~に関する限りでは、~の点では

・Employer may have a claim to damages against the worker in respect of the failure to perform work obligations. : 使用者は労働者に対し、債務不履行責任を問うことができる。

Details in respect of the enforcement of this Act shall be prescribed by an Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. この法律の施行に関する細目は、厚生労働省令で、これを定める。


  1. In terms of ~



  1. Concerning 【preposition】 …に関して(は)

Concerning his financial standing, I know nothing. 彼のふところ具合については私は全然知りません.


  1. A out of or in relation to B    Bに関連してAが生じたとき

All disputes, controversies or differences which may arise between the parties hereto, out of or in relation to or in connection with this Agreement shall be finally settled by arbitration in (name of city), in accordance with the Commercial Arbitration Rules of The Japan Commercial Arbitration Association.



Any question arising out of, or in connection with, this Agreement or any matter not stipulated herein shall be settled each time upon consultation between both parties.《契》



  1. As to ~に関する

•This Agreement contains the complete understanding between the parties as to the matters herein referenced and supersedes all previous understandings, whether express or implied, written or oral, regarding the matters herein referenced.



  1. pertaining to にかかるに係る


  1. in step with


・Tuition on credit has grown in step with people’s increasing use of plastic. : クレジットカードの使用者の増加とともに、クレジットカードによる授業料の支払いも増えてきている。









  1. regardless of ~ / without regard of ~ ~に関係なく

regardless of the means の態様を問わず

“Confidential Information” as used in this Agreement means any and all knowledge and information that can be communicated and/or documentary material, samples or software, regardless of its physical form or characteristics disclosed by one Party to the other, regardless of being marked as “confidential” or not.


  1. without reference to ~に関係なく、~をかまわず[全く考慮せずに]、~と無関係に


  1. irrespective of ~に関わりなく、~に関係なく

This obligation applies to all states, irrespective of whether they have signed up to the relevant human rights treaties, and to all forms of involuntary transfer.



  1. Whether or not ~ ~か否かを問わず

•Neither party shall be liable for any default or delay in performance of any obligation under this Agreement caused by Act of God, war, riot, fire or any other event, whether or not of the class enumerated herein, beyond the reasonable control of such party, of labor trouble, strike, lockout or injunction.


People who worked in those environments, whether smokers or not, had higher levels of cigarette chemicals in their bodies.



  1. whether ~ or not / whether or not ~ はどちらもOK

Ditto. Make it “whether or not any such approach works” (or, “whether any such approach works or not …”)


  1. whether ~ or otherwise: ~であるかその他であるかを問わず

Affiliate” means: A person that directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, is controlled by or is under common control with the Person specified. For the purpose of theis definition, the term “control” of a Person means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to (1) vote fifty percent or more of the voting stock of such Person or (2) direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such Person, whether by contract or otherwise.



  1. whether as A or B: AかBかを問わず

Ticket is not subject to transfer, whether as a gift or for profit.



  1. irrespective of whether or not

Any and all property that the bankrupt holds at the time of commencement of bankruptcy proceedings (irrespective of whether or not it exists in Japan) shall constitute the bankruptcy estate.



  1. 【←】On What basis?判断の根拠 (~に鑑みて、~を考慮すると)How come?Why?

Judging from ~:~から判断すると

According to~:~によると


  1. 判断要素

    1. taking into consideration ~を考慮に入れる◆【同】take account of

•If the delivery is delayed owing to force majeure, or because of an act or omission of Buyer, the time of delivery shall be extended as considered reasonable taking into consideration all pertinent circumstances.


•The consideration of the shares to be transferred mentioned in the above shall be decided by DAVID on reasonable grounds taking the net book value in the balance sheet into consideration.



  1. in light of ~を考慮すると、~を踏まえると◆【同】in the light of

・In the light of new evidence, we will have a new trial. : 新しい証拠を踏まえて、新たな審理が始まるだろう。


The State shall promote public awareness activities with respect to consumers such as the provision of information and the dissemination of knowledge relating to consumption, and in light of the fact that consumers widely seek opportunities to learn about consumption throughout their lives, shall take necessary measures, such as improving education relating to consumption in schools, localities, homes, work and various other venues, in order to support the self-reliance of consumers.



  1. enter into consideration of ~の考慮に入る、~を考慮する


  1. owing to

Where prosecution is deemed unnecessary owing to the character, age, environment, gravity of the offense, circumstances or situation after the offense, prosecution need not be instituted.




  1. derived from ~ ~由来の

Historically the legal definition of marriage, derived from the Roman-Dutch law, was limited to monogamous marriages between opposite-sex couples.



  1. Origin






    1. ~により、~に基づいて

classify into __ categories depending on~により_分類する

be further divided according to~によりさらに分けられる

be grouped into classes by~により分類されグループにまとめられる


  1. ~に基づいて

in dependence upon

on (the) ground of〔複数形のgroundsが使われることもある。〕

on the basis of


  1. 「対応する」の類語





This new product uses UL-approved parts.この新製品は、UL対応の部品を使用している。(UL = Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.)

We sell FDA-approved supplements.当社は、FDA対応の栄養補助食品を販売している。(FDA = Food and Drug Administration)



It has been determined that Gebew Corporation will discontinue operations effective April 30, 2005, and I will be available for anything you may need until that date.


compatible with


This new series is also compatible with our conventional accessories. この新シリーズは、当社の従来の付属品にも対応しています。

HD-compatible TV sets have been sellig well these days. ハイビジョン対応のテレビが最近よく売れている。



I bought a telephone for the L-mode.私はLモード対応の電話機を買いました。

The online game “Star Kit” for Windows is enjoying a burst of popurarity.  Windows対応のオンラインゲーム「スターキット」は、爆発的人気を博している

A power cord for 240V is required to use your PC in a hotel in Europe. 欧州のホテルでパソコンを使うには、240V対応の電源コードが必要です。





With the advent of 16:9 TV pictures, more and more camerapersons will demand wider angle lenses. We have addressed this demand in the HK-112 super wide lens.


cope with


*We are very busy coping with this quality problem.我々はこの品質問題の対応に追われている。

*We have taken every possible measure to cope with the Y2K issue.当社は、2000年問題こ対応するあらゆる可能性の方策を取った。

*It is the best way to enhance our brand awareness in order to cope with the low price offensives of our competitors. 競合他社の安値攻撃に対応するには、ブランド知名度を上げるのが一番だ

*In order to cope with the rapid yen evaluation, we have moved our production facilities to China. 急激な円高に対応して、生産拠点を中国に移しました。


move with


We have no choice but to cancel our order unless you promptly move with the delayed delivery.


react to


The government decided to reinforce its military force to react to the wide-spreading activities of antigovernment guerrillas.


respond to/ response


* Please respond to email inquiries from abroad within the same day. 海外からのEメールによる問い合わせには、その日の内に対応して下さい

* Please hold on a second. Mr. Tanaka will respond to this matter.しばらくお待ち下さい。この件につきましては、田中が対応させていただきます

* He got angry at the poor response of the staff of the firm. 彼はあおの会社のスタッフのお粗末な対応に腹を立てた。

take care of


* I was told by Manager to take care of overseas visitors. 私は海外からの来客を対応するよう課長に指示された。


  1. on the basis of… ~


    1. (法律、ルール)に従って、従い、準じて※



pursuant to

must follow some other action.

“Pursuant to the new regulations recently passed regarding bubble gum-blowing, no bubbles may be blown that exceed 3 inches in diameter.”

according to

citing a reference

“According to the Bible, in the beginning was the Word.”

in accordance with

“in line with”, “in agreement with”

“in accordance with your wishes, I will no longer quote the Bible while blowing bubbles


前項の規定により   pursuant to the provision of the preceding paragraph

の規定により   pursuant to the provision of



  1. comply with/ compliant    法律・規制に適合・順守して

The Thai Government has announced that it has banned import of electrical appliances that do not comply with the ICE standard.


*For marketing electronic products in EU, they are required to comply with EU Directive 2002/95/EC. EUで電子製品を販売するには、EU指令書2002/95/ECに対応すること。

*Buyer is entitled to audit Supplier’s factory where RoHS compliant equipment are manufactured. 買主は、RoHS対応の製品を製造する供給社の工場を監査する権利がある。(RoHS = Restriction of Hazardous Substances)


  1. in accordance with (IAW)

in accordance with that set forth in


・The Trademark shall be used strictly in accordance with the Licensor’s instructions. 《契約書》商標はライセンサーの指示に厳密に従って使用しなければならない。

・The pre-production samples shall be tested in accordance with the Specification. 《契約書》試作サンプルは仕様に従って検査するものとする。

・Maker shall test and deliver the commercial samples, together with complete test reports, in accordance with the Development Program. 《契約書》メーカーは、開発計画に従って、商品サンプルを検査し、それを完全な検査報告書とともに納品するものとする。

in accordance with the law : 法に従って、定法通りに、法に基づく形で


  1. according to the letter of the law 法にのっとって

•be duly organized and existing under the laws of



•juridical person duly registered under the laws of



  1. based on



  1. pursuant to

Pursuant to Law No.__, we hereby inform you that the President of ~ has given the approval of above-mentioned application, as mentioned in Letter of Approval No.__ dated 10 January, 1998.



2) When the Individual Transaction has been terminated pursuant to the immediately preceding paragraph, the Bank shall be released from any and all obligations owed by the Bank pursuant to the Individual Transactions. In such a case, upon such termination, any and all obligations of the Client owed to the Bank shall become due and payable and the Client shall immediately repay such obligations upon demand from the Bank.



  1. as provided for by /


  1. 要求、仕様、規格に適合する

    1. to conform to/ conforming要件・仕様書・規格に適合・合格して

We must change the expression of this catalog to conform to the requirements of the Pharmaceutical Law. 我々は、このカタログの表現を、薬事法に対応する表現に変更しなければならない。


「This applies both to the case where the seller acted fraudulently at the time of the conclusion of the contract and to the case where he was aware of the non-conforminity at such a point in time that he, without unreasonable sacrifices, could have obtained and delivered conforming goods.」とあるように、




  1. to meet 要件・要求・要請・需要・ニーズ・仕様書をかなえて、に応じて

* We have developed a new product that meets diversified needs of customers. 多様化した顧客のニーズに対応できる新製品を開発しました。

* We must promptly work out the specifications that will meet the performance requirements of Gebew Corporation. 我々は、ゼビュー社の性能要件に対応する仕様書を至急策定せねばならない


  1. 契約に従い

    1. UNDER
      1. Under the contract契約に従い

If the delivery is delayed __ days or more, Buyer has the right to cancel the delayed quantity or the right to demand remedy of such delays by airfreighting at Maker’s expense the merchandise ordered hereunder.《契》



  1. Under subparagraphs (a) to (d) of the preceding paragraph

(2) Except where the parties have agreed otherwise, the goods do not conform with the contract unless they:

(a) are fit for the purposes for which goods of the same description would ordinarily be used;

(b) are fit for any particular purpose expressly or impliedly made known to the seller at the time of the conclusion of the contract, except where the circumstances show that the buyer did not rely, or that it was unreasonable for him to rely, on the seller’s skill and judgement;

(c) possess the qualities of goods which the seller has held out to the buyer as a sample or model;

(d) are contained or packaged in the manner usual for such goods or, where there is no such manner, in a manner adequate to preserve and protect the goods.

(3) The seller is not liable under subparagraphs (a) to (d) of the preceding paragraph for any lack of conformity of the goods if at the time of the conclusion of the contract the buyer knew or could not have been unaware of such lack of conformity.

(2) 当事者が別段の合意をした場合を除くほか、物品は、次の要件を満たさない限り、契約に適合しないものとする。

(a) 同種の物品が通常使用されるであろう目的に適したものであること。

(b) 契約の締結時に売主に対して明示的又は黙示的に知らされていた特定の目的に適したものであること。ただし、状況からみて、買主が売主の技能及び判断に依存せず、又は依存することが不合理であった場合は、この限りでない。

(c) 売主が買主に対して見本又はひな形として示した物品と同じ品質を有するものであること。

(d) 同種の物品にとって通常の方法により、又はこのような方法がない場合にはその物品の保存及び保護に適した方法により、収納され、又は包装されていること。

(3) 買主が契約の締結時に物品の不適合を知り、又は知らないことはあり得なかった場合には、売主は、当該物品の不適合について(2)(a)から(d)までの規定に係る責任を負わない。


  1. その他

    1. As per ~の通り

The work shall be carried out as per HPPWD/ IPH specification relevant IS/BIS- code & CPHEEO Manual to be satisfaction of the Engineer-in-charge.

As per his will, his remains were buried in a temple by Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture, one of his favorite places.


As per our telephone conversation last Thursday the 1st of February, I wish to confirm the details of the meeting discussed.




  1. Depending on ~ ~によって

the PP “in the drain” is functionally ambiguous, depending on the process type.






  1. 【←】From WHAT

result ofは、~の結果、~の成果、~のたまもの、という意味

product resulting from ~から生じる生成物




You are certainly right. Perhaps I’m wrong.





I’m 100% sure/certain about it.




This is definitely the best pizza I’ve ever tasted.






He is certainly capable of doing the job.

There has surely been some misunderstanding. Let me look into the matter.




They’ll probably think I’m cray for turning down the job.






Maybe it would be a good idea to take a short break.

Perhaps we could get together for a drink this weekend. What do you think?




We believe sales will rise by 5% this year, possibly even more.

This is possibly the best movie he’s ever made.






  1. as stated

    1. as stated elsewhere  別項記載のごとく


  1. as stated below (as [described, mentioned, remarked] below)



(2) The persons stated below shall serve as the commission members of the Pacific Ocean Wide Sea-area Fisheries Adjustment Commission.

2 太平洋広域漁業調整委員会の委員は、次に掲げる者をもつて充てる。

(3) The persons stated below shall serve as the commission members of the Sea-of-Japan/Kyushu West Wide Sea-area Fisheries Adjustment Commission.

3 日本海・九州西広域漁業調整委員会の委員は、次に掲げる者をもつて充てる。

(2) The safety and health committee shall be composed of the members stated below, and the number of the members under item (i) shall be only one.

2 安全衛生委員会の委員は、次の者をもつて構成する。ただし、第一号の者である委員は、一人とする。


  1. described on ~ ~に定める

Mortgagor will use its best effforts (without being required to pay and additional fees, premiums or other mounts) to cause each of its insurance policies to be modified to contain the endorsements described on Exhibit 5.



  1. prescribed in ~ ~に規程

前項に規定 prescribed in the preceding paragraph

前項の as provided for in the preceding paragraph


  1. 定める stipulate, determine, set forth, provide for, prescribe, establish, appoint, specified

•The payment of such remuneration, as well as the reimbursement of the expenses specified in Paragraph __, shall be made within __days after the receipt by Licensee of Licensor’s bill therefor.




  1. 次のとおり、以下に定める

set forth below



  1. 次に掲げる事項を


(2)In Individual Contract, the following particulars are to be specified.

(2)Individual Contract shall prescribe the following matters.

(2)Individual Contract shall provide for the following matters.



  1. 別途定める prescribed separately, set forth separately, specified separately



  1. 前項に定める prescribed in the preceding paragraph

(2) If and to the extent that the Prime Minister finds it necessary for the public interest in light of examination standards prescribed in the preceding paragraph, he/she may impose conditions on the license referred to in Article 3, paragraph (1) or change such conditions.

2 内閣総理大臣は、前項に定める審査の基準に照らし公益上必要があると認めるときは、その必要の限度において、第三条第一項の免許に条件を付し、及びこれを変更することができる。


  1. 各号に定める

    1. 各号に定める set forth [specified in] each of the following items



  1. 当該各号に定める行為

(3) In the cases listed in the following items, the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry may impose, pursuant to the provisions of Cabinet Order, on a person who intends to carry out the acts prescribed respectively in said items the obligation to obtain permission with regard to the acts.

3 経済産業大臣は、次の各号に掲げる場合には、当該各号に定める行為をしようとする者に対し、政令で定めるところにより、当該行為について、許可を受ける義務を課することができる。


  1. 次の各号に該当する場合

    1. In the event of any of the following events

In the event of any of the following events, this Agreement may be canceled by prior written notice before the completion of the Project.《契約書》



  1. 次の各号に該当する

The flight training supervisor shall not permit the flight trainee to undertake his/her first solo flight training unless each of the following item applies to the training.




  1. 次の一にでも該当する事由が発生した場合

    1. When…; or when…

(1) This Convention applies to contracts of sale of goods between parties whose places of business are in different States:

(a) when the States are Contracting States; or

(b) when the rules of private international law lead to the application of the law of a Contracting State.

(1) この条約は、営業所が異なる国に所在する当事者間の物品売買契約について、次のいずれかの場合に適用する。

(a) これらの国がいずれも締約国である場合

(b) 国際私法の準則によれば締約国の法の適用が導かれる場合


  1. (a) if…; (b) if, in cases …; (c) in other cases…

Article 31

If the seller is not bound to deliver the goods at any other particular place, his obligation to deliver consists:

(a) if the contract of sale involves carriage of the goods – in handing the goods over to the first carrier for transmission to the buyer;

(b) if, in cases not within the preceding subparagraph, the contract relates to specific goods, or unidentified goods to be drawn from a specific stock or to be manufactured or produced, and at the time of the conclusion of the contract the parties knew that the goods were at, or were to be manufactured or produced at, a particular place – in placing the goods at the buyer’s disposal at that place;

(c) in other cases – in placing the goods at the buyer’s disposal at the place where the seller had his place of business at the time of the conclusion of the contract.



(a) 売買契約が物品の運送を伴う場合には、買主に送付するために物品を最初の運送人に交付すること。

(b) (a)に規定する場合以外の場合において、契 約が特定物、特定の在庫から取り出される不特定物又は製造若しくは生産が行われる不特定物に関するものであり、かつ、物品が特定の場所に存在し、又は特定の場所で製造若しくは生産が行われることを当事者双方が契約の締結時に知っていたときは、その場所において物品を買主の処分にゆだねること。

(c) その他の場合には、売主が契約の締結時に営業所を有していた場所において物品を買主の処分にゆだねること。


  1. The event provided in any of the following items have occurred, (①When~; ②When~; ③When~.)

If the events provided in any of the following items have occurred, XXX may ~:

①When ~

②When ~


  1. Sample: termination

Article 6 (Termination of the Individual Transaction)

(1)Other than the cases provided in Article 9, Paragraph 4 or the Transaction Agreement, if the events provided in any of the following items has occurred, the Bank may terminate the Individual Transaction by notifying the Client:

①When it is found that the nominee of the Individual Transaction does not exist or it is found that the Transaction Agreement was entered into without any intention of the nominee of the Individual Transaction;

②When the cash account of the Client (the “Client Account”) or other Individual Transaction was used by the person who is not the one registered by the Client;

③When (i) the Client does not submit the ID Information or notify the changes, (ii) there is any false statement or deception in the ID Information submitted by the Client, or (iii) the Bank requested the Client to confirm the ID Information or cooperate otherwise suspecting that there is possibility of such false statement or deception and the Client has not immediately cooperate with the Bank as requested by the Bank;

④When (i) the Client does not make the Representation, (ii) the Representation proves to be false or deceptive, or (iii) the Client does not immediately confirm the Representation or cooperate otherwise with the Bank as requested by the Bank suspecting the Representation false or deceptive;

⑤Other than the events provided in each preceding two items, when doubt of the existence or authenticity regarding the notifications or representations made by the Client to the Bank has arisen in the Bank’s judgment;

⑥When it is evaluated that the Client Account or other Individual Transaction is utilized for the activities which violate the Laws and Regulations or the public order and morality, or there is any potential for such circumstances in the Bank’s judgment;

⑦When the Bank determines it is practically difficult to cure the non-performance of the Bank’s obligations as set out in Article 7 due to prospect of unreasonable burden or other challenges upon the Bank; or

⑧Other than the events provided in each preceding items, when the Client breached any of the provisions of the Conditions.



第6条 (個別取引の解約)




③(i) お客様が取引時確認事項を提出せず、若しくはその変更を通知しない場合、(ii) お客様から提出された取引時確認事項に誤り若しくは偽りがあった場合、又は、(iii) その可能性があると当行が判断しお客様に確認等の協力を求めたにも拘らず、お客様から直ちに当行が要請する協力を得られなかった場合

④(i) お客様が適法性確認を行わない場合、(ii) お客様の行った適法性確認の内容に誤り若しくは偽りがあった場合、又は、(iii) その可能性があると当行が判断してお客様に確認等の協力を求めたにも拘らず、お客様より直ちに当行の要請する協力が得られなかった場合







  1. XXX fall under any of the following categories
    1. Sample:


Article 9 (Exclusion of Anti Social Forces)

(1)The Client represents, warrants and covenants to ensure that the Client or its guarantor is not a person who has fallen under any of the following categories through (1) to (6) in the last five (5) years (such person referred to as the “OCGs”) and that the Client shall not fall under any of OCGs:

①an organized crime group;

②a member of an organized crime group;

③a quasi-member of an organized crime group;

④a related company or association of an organized crime group;

⑤a corporate racketeer; or

⑥other equivalent person of any category above.

The Client further represents, warrants and covenants to ensure that the Client or its guarantor has not fallen under in the last five (5) years and shall not fall under any of the following categories through (ⅰ) to (ⅴ):

i a person having such relationship with the OCGs that shows the OCGs’ control over the person’s management;

ii a person having such relationship with the OCGs that shows the OCGs’ substantial involvement in the person’s management;

iii a person having such relationship with the OCGs that shows reliance on the OCGs for the purpose of unfairly benefiting itself or third parties, or of damaging third parties;

iv a person having such relationship with the OCGs that shows provision of funds, benefits or services from the person to the OCGs; or

v a person where any of the board members or other personnel substantially involved in its management is engaged in socially condemnable relationship with the OCGs.

For the purpose of this Article 9, the “Anti Social Forces” means a person that falls within OCGs or any categories of Item (ⅰ) through (ⅴ) above.

第9条 (反社会的勢力の排除)















  1. basket clause

Clause that can be included in a business contract to provide comprehensive cover over all aspects of the contract. Using a basket clause makes it easier to deal with any issue that arises when the contract is implemented.


Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/basket-clause.html#ixzz31CvQnete


(ii) In addition to the above, persons specified by the Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare according to the kind of license.

二 前号に掲げる者のほか、免許の種類に応じて、厚生労働省令で定める者



  1. その他上記に準ずる事由がある場合(準じる事由がある場合)

However, for each instance below, when it is appropriate to recognize multiple proper translations depending on certain standards, the multiple translations will be affixed with numbers such as (1) (2), and within [ ] the standards for proper use will be indicated. For this, the translator must follow the standards for proper use in selecting the proper translation.

i. When there is precedent for using an expression in a specific field.

ii. When there is a need to differentiate the translation word usage based on how a single term is used because it has several meanings.

iii. When there are other circumstances equivalent to i or ii above.

ただし,次の各場合のように,一定の基準の下,複数の訳語の使い分けを認めるのが適切な場合には,(1)(2)という番号を付して複数の訳語を示し,[ ]内に使い分け基準を示す。この場合,翻訳者は,使い分け基準に従って訳語を選択する必要がある。

i. 慣例上,特定分野において使用される表現がある場合

ii. 単一の用語ではあるが複数の意味を持つため,使用される場面によって訳語


iii. その他,上記i.ii.に準ずる事由がある場合


The term “Commodity Contract” as used in this Act means a contract for a Commodity Futures Business Operator to perform an act set forth in one of the items of paragraph (22) with or on behalf of a customer.




  1. 他の文書の取り込み


incorporated by reference

《be ~》参照することにより組み込まれる[盛り込まれる・援用される]


hereby incorporated by reference

《be ~》参照することにより本書に含まれる[の一部を構成する・と一体になる]◆契約書などに添付されている書類が、参照することにより契約書の一部と見なされるという意味。


incorporated herein by reference

《be ~》参照することにより本書に組み込まれる[盛り込まれる・援用される]


  1. 各号列挙




  1. 前号に準ずる事由

Reasons equivalent to those contained in the preceding two items that are provided for by Cabinet Order. 前二号に準ずる事由であつて、政令で定めるもの

if there was reasons equivalent to those contained in the preceding two items 前二号に準ずる事由があったとき



  1. 外延を定義する表現(並列、列挙、包含、除外など)

  1. A and/or B


—used as a function word to indicate that two words or expressions are to be taken together or individually <language comprehension and/or production — David Crystal>

For example, the sentence “He will eat cake, pie, and/or brownies” indicates that although the person may eat any of the three listed desserts, the choices are not exclusive; the person may eat one, two, or all three of the choices.


Criticism:Some references on English usage strongly criticize it. Fowler’s English Usage describes it as “ugly”,[2] Strunk and White say that it “damages a sentence and often leads to confusion or ambiguity”,[3] and the Chicago Manual of Style calls it “Janus-faced”.[4]



and/or という表現は便利なのですが、自分ではなるべく使わない方がよいでしょう。


今回は、機能語編の最初として並立接続詞 and と or のお話をします。私は講習会などでよく and の話だけで丸一日かかると話しますが、この簡単なテーマでもそんなに沢山の内容があるのです。まず、英語の and や or は、名詞を始めとする単語、句、節、文をつなぐことができます。


つなぐべき語句が沢山ある場合は、A, B, C and D と最後の語句の前にだけ and を入れます。このスタイルは、現在は英語その他のヨーロッパ語だけでなく、新しく文章語が成立したアジア・アフリカの多くの言語でも採用されています。その場合、普通は C の後にコンマを入れませんが、実務文では関係をはっきりさせるためにコンマを入れることもよくあります。or も全く同じです。





SPONSOR acknowledges that such rights must de used by SPONSOR at all times in a manner consistent with the good name, goodwill, reputation and image of the OCP, POC and the GAMES.




ここで問題となるのは、どの語句とどの語句が並立しているかを判断することです。しかも、英語では、and や or の前後の共通な語句は一度しか書かないので、翻訳の際には補って訳す必要があります。



Each of the defendants infringes these patents by importing, selling or offering to sell in the United States IC devices made by or for it using various Auto ID methods that infringe the method claims of the listed patents.


この文では for it の後に using が出てきてそれが importing などと並立しているように見えて私も惑わされましたが、it は each of the defendants を意味し、made by it or made for it が省略形で書かれています。つまり、by or for です。





Unless the context otherwise requires, words importing the singular include the plural and vice versa, words importing the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter and vice versa, and references to persons include incorporated and unincorporated bodies.




ただし、各要素が簡単な場合は、and を訳さずに単に名詞を列挙する方が簡潔になります。落語の「茶、栗、柿、麩」の類です。たとえばsuch as A, B, C, and Dは「A、B、C、Dなど(の)」となります。なお、such as A and B は「AやBなど(の)」とします。


  1. as well as ;andの強調形

A as well as B と言う表現がよく使われます。これは、ほとんどの辞書では「Bと同様にAも」「BのみならずAも」と後ろから訳すやり方しか載っていないのですが、現代の実際の英語では「AならびにB」「Aと同様にBも」と前から訳す方が適切な場合が圧倒的に多いのです。ドイツ語の sowohl als、フランス語の aussi bien que と形も意味も同じです。ところが独仏語の辞書には昔から前から訳す訳し方が出ているのに、何故か英語の辞書には出ていないのです。これは and の強調形と見なすことができます。かつ and とは違って as well as の前後には通常は修飾関係が及ばないので、これを使うと修飾範囲を明確にすることができます。



Electronic components in use typically generate significant heat, which unless cooled, can result in damage to the components themselves as well as damage to adjacent components.


この例では、the components themselves が話題の焦点になっているので、adjacent components よりも前に訳すべきです。





The invention can be adapted particularly well to radars for automobiles as well as to all types of continuous-wave transmission radars.





As used herein, the phrase “multichip structure” generally refers to multichip “stacks” or “cubes”, as well as to conventional multichip modules.






  1. as well asの重点


A as well as Bは、Aに重点を置くのが原則、と説明されてきた。


The President noted that all TPP countries need to be prepared to meet the agreement’s high standards, and he welcomed Prime Minister Noda’s statement that he would put all goods, as well as services, on the negotiating table for trade liberalization.



   She was intelligent as well as beautiful. 



There was a couch as well as a bed in the room.





  1. together with ~:~と共に

•If the Licensee fails to make any payment under Paragraph __, the Licensee shall pay to the Licensor __% annum of the unpaid amount as liquidated damages together with principal from the date payment becomes due until the date payment is made.



  1. neither A nor B




an officer
a staff member of an Information Management Entity
a person who held one of those positions shall divulge confidential information that comes to be known to them in relation to the Information Management Business.



(1) Neither an director nor an employee (meaning in this Article a person other than directors engaged in the business of a corporation on a regular basis) of a corporation shall hold at the same time a position as an director of another corporation where the effect of such an interlocking directorate may be substantially to restrain competition in any particular field of trade.

1 会社の役員又は従業員(継続して会社の業務に従事する者であつて、役員以外の者をいう。以下この条において同じ。)は、他の会社の役員の地位を兼ねることにより一定の取引分野における競争を実質的に制限することとなる場合には、当該役員の地位を兼ねてはならない。◆【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム


If a person who is neither an obligor nor a mortgagor has possessed the Mortgaged Immovable Properties in complete conformity with the requirements for acquisitive prescription, the mortgage shall be extinguished thereby.



  1. 接続詞の繰り返し










A gain control circuit comprising: a comparator circuit, which compares voltage levels from a reference voltage and an input signal; at least one switch coupled to the output of the comparator circuit, the at least one switch switching according to whether the input signal is above or below the reference voltage; an operational amplifier coupled to the at least one switch, said operational amplifier outputting a control signal; and a first variable resistor changing resistance according to the control signal, the first variable resistor coupling an input to the operational amplifier to a second reference voltage.




  1. 入れ子構造

















次に、各要素自体が並立構造になっている場合があります。その場合、英語では通常、一組の並立構造毎に最後の要素の前に and が付きます。したがって、A and B and C and Dでは、(A+B)+(C+D) の構造が考えられますが、その他に ((A+B)+C)+D、A+(B+(C+D)) もあり得ます。A, B and C and D では、(A+B+C)+D の構造が考えられますが、その他に A+B+(C+D)、A+(B+C)+D もあり得ます。どれが正しいかは、各要素の意味や品詞、機能を見て判断します。それが対応するものだけが並立できるわけです。この構造の把握が1つの問題です。and の数と位置がその手がかりになります。


この入れ子式表現をどう訳すかですが、日本語では、より小さい単位をつなぐ場合は「および」、より大きな単位をつなぐ場合は「と」を使い、さらに大きな単位がある場合は「ならびに」を使って階層的に表します。or の場合は、より小さい単位をつなぐ場合は「もしくは」、より大きな単位をつなぐ場合は「または」を使い、さらに大きな単位がある場合は「あるいは」を使うのが標準です。これは本来法律を書く場合の規則です。





“GAMES” means the Winter Pacific Game, scheduled to be held in New Zealand in November 1999, including the Opening and Closing Ceremonies thereof and all competitions and social and cultural programmes scheduled during or around the said Winter Pacific Games.


この文章の and 構造を分析すると、Opening and Closing で1セット、social and cultural も1セットであり、during 以下は competitions と programmes にかかるので、(Opening & Closing) Ceremonies + [ competitions + (social & cultural) programmes ] となります。





“SITES” means locations of the GAMES and includes the competition and controlled access training areas, their controlled parking spaces, the official hotels, the press and television centers, VIP areas, the Athletes Village, the Media Village, any other area which requires either accreditation or a GAMES ticket to gain access and other official areas which are under the control of the OCP or POC, as the case may be.





  1. A, B, C and D

ポイントは、最後と最後から2番目の間のみ and や or を入れるということです。

” A, B, C, and D “と書くこともあります。ただしアメリカ英語では” A, B, C and D “の方が多く、 C and D を1つのまとまりのように誤読しやすいので注意が必要です。


The Seller and the Buyer agree as follows:



The Seller may terminate this Agreement if:

( ⅰ ) ;

( ⅱ ) ;

( ⅲ ) ; or

( ⅳ ) .

このような並列表現では、”;”(セミコロン)を使うこと、最後と最後から2番目の間のみ and や or を入れること(全部に入れても構いません)がポイントです。


ABC shall make a payment; provided, however, that… (ただし、…である。)

ABC shall make a payment, provided that… (…であることを条件として)

両者の違いは相対的なものです。「セミコロン provided, however, that 」は便利な表現で、非常によく使います。


  1. serial comma

andの前に置かれるコンマはserial commaとよばれます。serial commaを用いない “A, B and C”と、serial commaを用いる”A, B, and C”の両方とも、文法的に正しい表現です。

serial commaの用法には専門家の間でも議論があり、明確になっていない部分が多いのですが、serial commaを使うかどうかは、イギリス英語とアメリカ英語の違いによります。イギリス英語では基本的にserial commaを使わない用法が一般的です。一方、アメリカ英語では文中での意味をより明確にするために、好んでserial commaを用います。次の二つの文章を比べてみてください。


A: For breakfast, I ate eggs, mashed potatoes, cheese and bread and bacon.

B: For breakfast, I ate eggs, mashed potatoes, cheese and bread, andbacon.



しかし、serial commaを使ったBだと、 “cheese and bread”が「チーズののったパン」という一皿の料理としてみなされていて、朝食には4品目を食べたということがはっきり示されています。このように、serial commaを使うことで、混乱を避けることができます。


【例文】(Any and all) (costs and expenses) arising in connection with this Agreement shall be exclusively borne by the Company, including but not limited to {(legal, consulting, tax and accounting) (costs and disbursements) and any other external advisors (costs and expenses)}



Any and all  「すべての」



  1. 動詞の接続

and が動詞、形容詞、節などをつないでいる場合、日本語では連用形で既に表されています。「~し、~し、そして~する」などと and をそのまま訳す人がよくいますが、この「そして」は普通は不要です。


なお、動作の並立を強調したい場合は、「かつ」「しかも」を使って、「~し、かつ~する」などと訳します。ただし、サ変の漢語動詞やカタカナ動詞の場合は「送信および受信する」のように語幹を「および」でつなぐことも場合によっては許容されます。もちろん、or の場合は、名詞と動詞で訳語に区別はありません。


また次の例のような場合も、もちろん and は訳しません。言い換えれば、日本語では and が入らないと思われるケースで、英文では and が必要となる場合があります。hence の他、thus (~、したがって)、therefore (~、したがって)、then (~、次いで)、in particular (~、特に)などがあります。


その他、more than ~、and less than ~など、and の訳を省略した方がよい場合も沢山あります。



The frequency and hence the spectral position of this signal are perfectly known and independent of the external environment.





実務文書では、and/or と言う表現がよく出てきます。これは名詞をつなぐ場合は「Aおよび/またはB」動詞などの場合は「Aし、かつ/またはBする」とそのまま訳すことができます。



Further, no external wires or handshaking signals are required to communicate a busy state between the DRAMs and/or the memory controller.




ただし、/を使わずに訳すべき場合もあり、その場合は名詞なら「A、またはB、あるいはその両方」「A、およびB、あるいはそのいずれか一方」などと訳します。動詞の場合は、「Aし、またはBし、あるいはその両方を行う」と訳します。この表現は、英語では A, B, or both と言い変えることができます。and/or が繰り返し出てくる場合には、「A、またはB、またはC、あるいはその組合せ」「Aし、またはBし、またはCし、あるいはその組合せを行う」などと訳すことになります。


  1. orの他の訳し方

or は文脈によっては「または」以外の形で訳すべき場合があります。命令形の後では「さもないと」と訳すことは御存知でしょう。まず、言い換えの or があります。普通は「すなわち」と訳しています。ただし、普通の or も誤って「すなわち」と訳す人がよくいます。言い換えであると確信できない場合は、誤訳となるのを避けるため、「または」としておく方が無難です。言い換えを「または」と訳すのは不十分な表現ではあっても誤訳とまでは言えませんが、選択のorを「すなわち」と訳すのは明らかな誤りだからです。


次に、whether の後など選択を求める or は、「それとも」と訳すべきです。



It is sometimes difficult to determine whether a material is in a crystal or liquid crystal state.




最後に、条件分けの場合や、複数の可能性を表す場合は、「また」と訳せば十分です。つまり、日本人の考え方では、and 扱いになります。



A simple solution to the aforementioned problem is to either replace the lamp if it is damaged or properly connect it to the inverter circuit if that remains to be done.





The network can be local in nature, or can be further connected to other systems.




  1. 包括的並列(その他、その他の、その他一切の、等)


「その他の」にはinclude, including,または including, without limitation

「その他」にはor otherまたはand other






Α including α,β,γ


α,β,γ or otherη


α,β,γ or otherwise


(7)では、or other、(8)では、and otherが使用されています。orやandは、対等、同等、あるいは等位を表現することばですから、orやandの前後にくる語のいずれかの一方が他方の例示になったり、包摂している働きはないでしょう(例えば、Cambridge Grammar of English, p.262, p.315, p.557)。or other, やand otherとも、「その他」に対する英語表現であることは明らかです。(4)の日本文を訳した翻訳者は、「金銭」と「財産」を同等あるいは対等として、つまり並列関係と解釈して、そこで使用されている「その他の」を林修三「法令用語の常識」17頁の「その他」であると解釈して英語に訳しています。金銭の法律上の概念の特異性(潮見佳男『民法総則講義』468頁)を顧慮し、翻訳者は、「その他の」を「その他」と解釈したことによるものと思われます。(4)の「その他の」は、「その他」の意味と読むべきでしょう。


(9)(10)については、「その他」が「その他の」の代わりに使われていることはすでに指摘しました。翻訳者も同じように解釈しているようです。A including, without limitation Bは、英文契約書等の法律文書でよく見かける表現ですが、Black’s Law Dictionary, p.777; A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage, p.431p;A Manual of Style for Contract Drafting, p.247によれば、A including, without limitationBは、includingと同じ意味であって、Bに出てくることばは、Aに出てくる一層意味内容の広いことばの一部をなす(partial)ものとして、その例示的 (illustrative)な役割を果す趣旨で使われていますので、「その他」とincluding, without limitationとは、それらの前後にあることばが逆になっているだけで、まさに同じことを表現していると思われます。





  1. Examples

(11)In determining the intent of a party or the understanding a reasonable person would have had, due consideration is to be given to all relevant circumstances of the case including the negotiations, any practices which the parties have established between themselves, usages and any subsequent conduct of the parties. (ウィーン売買条約8条3項)







(14)Licensor retains the right to approve Licensee’s distribution scheme for the Licensed Products, including, without limitation, the pricing and revenue structures of distribution agreements under which Licensed Products are sold or distributed, and, in this connection, Licensor reserves the right to direct withdrawal of the Licensed Products from any distribution scheme which does not meet reasonable minimum revenue requirements.



  1. and (or) other (otherwise) ~ その他

•All notices, reports and other communications shall be made in writing to the following addresses.


•Seller shall, if requested by Buyer in writing, subject to the laws of Japan and of the territory, provide Buyer with the services of trained engineers and other trained personnel for the purpose of instructing personnel of Buyer in the sale, operation and maintenance of the Products.


The author shall have the exclusive right to translate, arrange musically or transform, or dramatize, cinematize, or otherwise adapt his work.


For the purpose of reporting current events by means of photography, cinematography, broadcast or otherwise, it shall be permissible to reproduce a work involved in such event or a work seen or heard in the course of the event, and to exploit any such work in conjunction with the reporting of such event, in each case to the extent justified for purposes of news reporting.


Second Party may not assign or otherwise transfer in whole or in part or in any manner its rights, obligations, or any interest in or under this Agreement without First Party’s prior written consent.


The Buyer shall not disclose or otherwise impair the privacy of the bondholders.



  1. “A, including but not limited to ,a, b, c” (a,b,cその他の~)

 Including but not limited to/including without limitation…は、日常用語と意味が異なるということではありませんが、英文契約書に頻繁に登場します。

 Including but not limited to…またはincluding without limitation…という表現が英文契約書で使用された場合、「…を含むが、これらに限定されない」という表現です。



限定列挙(exhaustive list, limitative list)

例示列挙(not exhaustive)





Exhaustive mean to encompass the entire range.

Not exhaustive mean not to encompass the entire range.

a single roll of a six-sided die

1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

1 and 4


In probability theory and logic a set of events is jointly or collectively exhaustive if at least one of the events must occur. For example, when rolling a six-sided die, the outcomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are collectively exhaustive, because they encompass the entire range of possible outcomes.



  1. Whatsoever 一切の/その他一切を含む



 類似の場面で、or any other (e.g. cause)…などという表現も良く使いますが、whatsoeverはこれよりも広い概念と考えられています。

 簡単に説明しますと、or any other…とした場合、orの前に列挙されている事由・事象などに類似したものに限られると、原則として解釈される(この原則をejusdem generis ruleと呼びます)のに対し、whatsoeverが挿入されている場合は、「類似性に関係なくおよそ何があっても」という趣旨に原則的には解釈されます。




  1. for any reason whatsoever 理由の如何を問わず

•Buyer shall not have the authority to obligate Seller in any manner whatsoever without the prior written consent of Seller.


•In the event of the Tenant terminating this Tenancy for any reason whatsoever at any time before its expiry by effluxion of time, the aforesaid deposit shall be forfeited by the Landlord absolutely but without prejudice to the Landlord rights to claim in addition thereto damages against the tenant for breach of this Tenancy.


•assume no responsibility whatsoever for any direct or indirect damage, loss, prejudice or emotional distress caused by use of



  1. Whatever

    1. whatever 名称の如何を問わず

Employers shall not exploit an apprentice, student, trainee, or other Worker, by whatever name such person may be called, by reason of the fact that such person is seeking to acquire a skill.



  1. and all other

(4) The term “wage” as used in this Act means the wage, salary, allowance, bonus and all other payments to the worker from the business operator as remuneration for labor under whatever name such remuneration is known (excluding wages that are paid in anything other than currency and are outside the scope specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare).

4 この法律において「賃金」とは、賃金、給料、手当、賞与その他名称のいかんを問わず、労働の対償として事業主が労働者に支払うもの(通貨以外のもので支払われるものであつて、厚生労働省令で定める範囲外のものを除く。)をいう。◆


  1. その他の事項、その他事項 and other matters

A written departure order delivered pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (2) of the preceding Article shall contain the full name, age and nationality of the foreign national who has been given the departure order, the reason for the departure order, the time limit for departure, the date of issuance of the departure order, and other matters provided by Ordinance of the Ministry of Justice, and the name and seal of a supervising immigration inspector shall also be affixed thereto.




  1. その他重要な事由があるとき

(4) When the trustee has caused a substantial detriment to the trust property through a breach of the duties or where there are other material grounds, the court may, upon the petition of a settlor or a beneficiary, dismiss the trustee.

4 受託者がその任務に違反して信託財産に著しい損害を与えたことその他重要な事由があるときは、裁判所は、委託者又は受益者の申立てにより、受託者を解任することができる。


  1. その他必要な事項、必要事項

(5) The Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry shall, when he/she has NITE conduct an on-site inspection or ask questions pursuant to the preceding paragraph, give instructions to NITE with respect to the site to be inspected and any other necessary matters.

5 経済産業大臣は、前項の規定により機構に立入検査又は質問を行わせる場合には、機構に対し、当該立入検査の場所その他必要な事項を示してこれを実施すべきことを指示するものとする。



  1. in other cases

3. The color of beacon light shall be white or red in the case of a parallel installation with an airway beacon, or white in other cases.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

(三) 灯光の色は、航空路灯台と併置する場合は航空白又は航空赤、その他の場合は航空白であること。

Detailed patient narratives should be provided for all serious cardiac adverse events, as would be the case for any serious event or events leading to discontinuation.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕



  1. …等 

    1. … etc. [見出し中に用いられる場合や、定義がなされている場合など、「等」の内容が別の場所に明示されている場合]

【例】(定義等) (Denitions, etc.)

【例】船舶又は航空機(以下「船舶等」という。) vessel or aircraft (hereinafter referred to as “vessel, etc.”)


  1. such as … [例示列挙など「等」の内容が明示されていない場合]

such matters as the Agency’s name, purpose and scope of business



  1. and other (things) with/of similar nature


  1. or the like

In this Act, “drug offense proceeds or the like” means drug offense proceeds, property derived from drug offense proceeds or any other property in which any drug offense proceeds or property derived from drug offense proceeds is mingled with other property(麻薬特例法2 条5 項)

【例】この法律において「薬物犯罪収益」とは, 薬物犯罪収益, 薬物犯罪収益に由来する財産又はこれらの財産とこれらの財産以外の財産とが混和した財産をいう


  1. 例示

Malaysia implemented some education reforms like
the scrapping of two examinations at the primary level; and it recently imposed a moratorim on medical schools to address the oversupply of doctors and housemen.





  1. 条件付並列

    1. A or B or, if necessary, C  A若しくはB又は必要なときはC

3. In the case of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes deemed to be illegal traffic as the result of conduct on the part of the importer or disposer, the State of import shall ensure that the wastes in question are disposed of in an environmentally sound manner by the importer or disposer or, if necessary, by itself within 30 days from the time the illegal traffic has come to the attention of the State of import or such other period of time as the States concerned may agree. To this end, the Parties concerned shall co-operate, as necessary, in the disposal of the wastes in an environmentally sound manner.



  1. earlier of A or B

The Purchase Order shall be binding upon the parties upon the earlier of the receipt of Seller’s acknowledgment of Seller’s acceptance thereof or commencement of Seller’s performance of the work.


  1. or any other equivalent ~

(ii) where the Issuer is a person other than a company (excluding the case prescribed in the preceding item): a Business Year or any other equivalent period.

二 当該発行者が会社以外の者である場合(前号に掲げる場合を除く。) 事業年度又はこれに準ずる期間



  1. 選択的並列


  1. いずれか小さいほう

(ii) The value of allowable shearing stress of steel materials shall be 38 % or less of whichever is the smaller value of the yield strength of said steel materials or three quarters of the value of the tensile strength.

二 鋼材の許容せん断応力の値は、当該鋼材の降伏強さの値又は引張強さの値の四分の三の値のうちいずれか小さい値の百分の三十八の値以下とすること。◆【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム


Student account balances are expected to be paid in full by the due date. These charges, in accordance with University of Illinois Policy, apply to all customers billed through the Student Accounts Receivable system, and are subject to a LATE PAYMENT CHARGE of $1.00 or 1.5%, whichever is greater, per month on any amount not paid when due.



  1. 順序的並列


  1. followed by

もう一つ、and の拡張表現として followed by という形があります。これは前後の語句が意味上では同等の重みを持つので、直訳するのではなく、慣用表現と見なして「~と、その後に続く~」と解釈した方が自然です。つまり順序指定付きの and です。次の文例の ending with など、前後、上下、その他の相互関係を表す表現も慣用句ではありませんが、同様に扱えます。



The manufacturing of VLSI chips typically involves the repeated patterning of photoresists, followed by etch, implant, deposition, or other operation, and ending with the removal of the exposed photoresist to make way for the new photoresist to be applied for another iteration of this process sequence.




なお、involve はよく使われるが訳しにくい言葉で、「巻き込む」が元の意味ですが、「含む」「関係する」「必要とする」「使用する」などと訳されています。実際のニュアンスはそれらの概念の混ざったものと考えられ、私は次のように訳しています。




次の文例のoverlaid by も同様です。つまり、実際には surface layer にも oxidation layer と同等の重みがあるわけです。



This dielectric layer may be a stack, i.e. comprised of a first oxidation layer overlaid by a thin surface layer.




この他、with、along with も、形の上では後の語句が前の語句に従属していますが、意味上は and と同じく前後の語句を同等に扱うべき場合があり、逆に bread and butter のように and が with の意味になる、つまりの後の語句が従属的な関係になることもあります。


respectively は「それぞれ」と訳しますが、まれに or と同じく「または」の意味で使われることがあります。ドイツ語の respective の影響でしょうか。



  1. enumerate 〈…を〉挙げる,列挙する.

用例 He enumerated the advantages of air travel. 彼は飛行機旅行の長所を一つ一つ挙げた.

The errors are too many to enumerate. 間違いが多すぎて列挙することができない.




  1. AS

    1. ADJ as S V

To me, it seems quite normal to use “young as he is” to mean “even though he is Emotion: football young” — i.e. concessive.



  1. 内容説明・定義・規程・詳細説明・説明チックな

    1. ~が記録された

      1. (Documents) with ~ ~が記録された書面

database with __ names of terror suspects テロ容疑者_人分の名前が記録されたデータベース


  1. ~を内容とする、~に定める

    1. [sth], stipulating that ~ ~を定める[sth]

(2) When a qualified consumer organization has appointed an Inspector pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the qualified consumer organization shall, without delay, enter into a contract (hereinafter referred to in this Article as “Inspection Contract”) with the Inspector, stipulating that the organization will submit to inspections as provided in Article 31, paragraph (2) of the Act and receive inspection reports that include the methods and results of the inspections.

2 適格消費者団体は、前項の規定により調査実施者を選任したときは、遅滞なく、当該調査実施者との間で、法第三十一条第二項の調査を受けること並びに当該調査の方法及び結果が記載された調査報告書の提出を受けることを内容とする契約(以下この条において「調査契約」という。)を締結しなければならない。


  1. A to the effect that ~  ~を内容とするA/ ~の旨のA

(3) Provisions of the articles of incorporation providing to the effect that directors and administrative instruments other than a general meeting of members may determine matters which require a resolution made at a general meeting of members pursuant to the provisions of this Act, shall not be effective.

3 この法律の規定により社員総会の決議を必要とする事項について、取締役その他の社員総会以外の機関が決定することができることを内容とする定款の定めは、その効力を有しない。


letter to the effect that 〔that以下〕という意味の手紙、〔that以下〕という趣意の手紙

(b) A statement to the effect that losses could be incurred due to fluctuations in the financial indicators and the reason therefor.

ロ 当該指標に係る変動により損失が生ずるおそれがある旨及びその理由


  1. A setting out ~ ~を内容とするA

In July 2006, the Committee on JP established the basic principles for the preparation of the JP 16th Edition, setting out the roles and characteristics of the JP, the definite measures for the revision, and the date of the revision.〔【出典】第十六改正日本薬局方(平成23年3月24日 厚生労働省告示第65号)〕



  1. A wherein ~ ~を内容とする

(b) in addition to what is listed in sub-item (a), a contract wherein one of the parties is fully or partly entrusted by the other party with the discretion in making Investment Decisions based on analysis of Values, etc. of Financial Instruments and is also entrusted with the authority necessary for making investment on behalf of the other party based on such Investment Decisions (such a contract is hereinafter referred to as a “Discretionary Investment Contract”).

ロ イに掲げるもののほか、当事者の一方が、相手方から、金融商品の価値等の分析に基づく投資判断の全部又は一部を一任されるとともに、当該投資判断に基づき当該相手方のため投資を行うのに必要な権限を委任されることを内容とする契約(以下「投資一任契約」という。)


l. A semiconductor memory device comprising :

an NVRAM cell structure;

a DRAM cell structure; and

an SRAM cell structure;

wherein said NVRAM cell structure, said DRAM cell structure, and said SRAM cell structure are on the same substrate.

[請求項1] NVRAMセル構造と、




この場合は、主題語 semiconductor memory device に直接かかる修飾語がないので、普通のやり方で訳せます。wherein は、追加説明をする場合によく使われる特許独特の表現で、よく「ことを特徴とする」と訳しますが、characterized in that との違いをはっきりさせるために、wherein は訳さないというやり方も増えているようです。


  1. as follows

•NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the mutual covenants herein contained the Parties agree as follows.



  1. 規定する

    1. specified by

apply trademarks of someone to ~ as specified by


  1. by means specified in




  1. as indicated in ~ ~に示すように

All documentation shall show, in a suitable legend block, the Purchase Order number and equipment reference number as indicated in the order.

As indicated in Source E, however, the overwhelming majority of companies are passive about introducing a leave from work to do volunteer work.



  1. ・・・として(職務として、優先事項として、法律問題としてetc…)

    1. As a matter of ~ ~の事項として

as a matter of duty 職務として、

as a matter of high priority 最優先事項として

as a matter of law 法律問題としては

investigate the matter as a case of theft  盗難事件として捜査する




  1. ~に代えて

    1. in lieu of~ に代わる(にかわる)

submission of written statements in lieu of examination「尋問に代わる書面提出」

record in lieu of written decision調書決定

order in lieu of settlement和解に代わる決定


without affecting performance




be subject to NOUN ~を受けやすい



  1. 含む・除く

    1. including

We would appreciate receiving more detail information about your products and the latest catalog as well as your export prices including packing and shipping, and terms of payments.


In the event this Agreement is terminated for any reason caused by Buyer, Seller shall not be liable to Buyer for compensation or damages of any kind whatsoever, including direct, incidental, or consequential damages, incurred by reason of such termination.《契》



•Buyer shall pay all of its own expenses, including but not limited to, office, communication, transportation, hotel, and meal expenses.


•Except as stated above, this Software is provided without warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and noninfringement of third party rights or arising from a course of dealing, usage or trade practice.



without limitation / but not limited to

cf. ejusdem generis rule


  1. excluding

A liquidator (excluding those appointed by the court pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (3) to paragraph (6) inclusive of the preceding Article) may be dismissed at any time by resolution at a general meeting of members.





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