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契約英語の基礎(助動詞)

  1. AUXILIARY VERBS (S [AUX] V/toV/Ving O)

    1. Fundamentals

話者の主観、立場を表現する。

•There are three major types of stance (overtly mark a speaker/writer’s attitude to a clause about its content) adverbials: epistemic, attitude, and style.

     

epistemic

all of the most common stance adv

doubt/certainty, actuality/reality, and imprecision.

attitude

   

style

   

 

•Some stance adverbials overlap in their functions with circumstance adverbials, linking adverbials, and discourse markers.

•Single adverbs are the most common form of stance adverbial.

Medial position is the most common position for stance adverbials.

•Stance adverbials have important interactional functions
in conversation.

     

ADV

Maybe, he will reach the top. (uncertain)

He will definitely reach the top. (certain)

Possibly, he’ll descend the same day. (certainty)

No doubt, he’ll return before dark. (certainty, necessity)

He apparently has super-human strength. (inference)

 

MODALS

He might reach the top of the mountain. (uncertain)

He will reach the top. (certain)

He may descend the same day. (uncertain)

He must return before dark. (necessity)

He must have super-human strength. (inference)

 

 

 

  1. doubt/certainty, actuality/reality, and imprecision

EPISTEMIC, ATTITUDE, STYLE

 

 

be3

passive voice

They were seen.

have1

perfect aspect

They have understood.

be2

progressive aspect

He is sleeping.

do

do-support/emphasis

You did not understand.

be1

copula (= linking verb)

She is the boss.

 

 

  1. Summary

     

    must

    may

    shall

    should

     

    高い圧力義務(しなければならない)、確信(違いない。ただし根拠はない。)

    イメージは開かれたドア許可(~してよい)、推量(~かもしれない)

       
     

    義務(命令文と同じ強さを感じる)

    許可(~してよい)―上から目線。目上が下に与える許可(~してもよろしい)

       

    Not

    禁止(Don’tと等価の強い禁止)

    禁止(~してはいけません)

    禁止

     

    してほしい

    強いおすすめ

    祈願(~しますように):神様どうか許可してください。

    勧誘(~しましょう)温かさを感じる。

     

    確信

    強い確信

    推量(~かもしれない):閉じられていない程度の可能性。大体50%。少し首をかしげながら使う。

    確信(必ず~になる)

    確信(~はず)

     

What is this contract guarantee to me (rights, rights to receive or do something)?

What is this contract obligate me to do (obligation)?

一般的表現類語訳備考義務,強制shallbe required to~,
be under the obligation to~
be obligated to~
must はあまり使われない。mustはあまり使わない。禁止shall notbe prohibited from ing
be not allowed to
may not はあまり使われない権利mayshall be entitled to~
shall have the right to~~することができる
~する権利を有する許可maybe allowed to~
be permitted to~
be able to~~する事ができる(当然)should~するのが当然であるあいまいな言い方ゆえにあまり使わないほうがよい。(意志)willほとんど使われない。(能力)canあまり使われない。

Auxiliary verbsの使い方
 

  1. 助動詞の変化形

助動詞の変化形は現在形・過去形しかない。原形や-ing形、過去分詞形はない。

現在形

I can

I must

過去形

I could

×過去形はない

原形

Next week I will be able to give you more information.

I‘ll have to get permission from your mother.

To不定詞

I want to be able to play golf like Ryo Ishikawa.

 

-ing形

I enjoy being able to play sports again.

 

 

  1. 助動詞による文全体の強調

I know you don’t like him, but I WILL marry him, Dad.

We must finish this assignment by tomorrow, or the teacher WILL kill us!

Everyone is telling you that you’ll never make the school baseball team, but you CAN make it!

 

I’m sorry, but I want to talk to the manager. I AM the manager!

I wish I could be a good role model for my students. Hey, you ARE a good role model!

My girlfriend’s mad at me because she thinks I don’t trust her. But I DO trust her!

 

  1. OUTHGT TO + 動詞原形

You ought to call the police.

She ought to know the rules. She’s been working here long enough.

 

  1. 助動詞+完了形

    1. Should + 完了形 (~すべきだったのに(しなかった))

I should have telephoned you last night, but I was too busy.

 

  1. must + 完了形(~したに違いない。絶対してるよ。)

What’s that song you’re listening to?

You don’t know? It’s “Yesterday” by the Beatles. You must’ve heard it before!

 

  1. might + 完了形(ひょっとして~したかもしれない)

 

  1. can’t + 完了形(~したはずがない)

The English of this composition is too good. This student can’t have written it herself.

“I saw Mr Yamada at Shinjuku Station this morning” “You couldn’t have. He’s still on vacation in Hawaii.”

 

  1. 助動詞を自由に使いこなす(日本語と同じイマジネーションで使ってOK)

If you’ve come asking for another loan, you can take a hike!

If you must smoke, please go outside.

 

 

  1. 蓋然性のLv(wouldとcouldと妥協案)

 

could

would

woud reasonably be expected to

 

could have a material adverse effect

would have a material adverse effect

would reasonably be expected to have a material advere effect

 

可能性がないとは言い切れない場合

ほぼ確実と言い切れる場合

合理的に予測される場合

訴訟

大抵の場合、訴訟開始時点では、重大な悪影響の発生可能性を否定できない。

訴訟が進行して敗訴がほぼ確実となった場合のみ

訴訟開始後において、請求の基礎となる事実があるとか、訴求金額が大きいとか、相手の訴訟態度などの諸事情を勘案して判断する。

 

 

 

  1. BASIC MODALS

助動詞がある文では動詞は常に原形。時は助動詞により示されるため動詞を変化させる必要がない。

AUXILIARY VERBS助動詞:話し手のモノの見方・心理を表す

定位置は動詞の前(限定ルール)

 

  1. do・・・一般動詞の疑問文や否定文など

  2. have・・・完了を表す

must, may, will, canなど・・・話し手の心理を表す

 

  1. MUST:イメージは高い圧力⇒義務(しなければならない)、確信(違いない。ただし根拠はない。)

    1. 義務(命令文と同じ強さを感じる)

I must get back home by midnight. My parents will be mad if I don’t.

The boss is really strict about deadlines, so you must finish the report on time.

 

  1. 禁止(Don’tと等価の強い禁止)

You mustn’t do that! You’ll lose all your data.

 

  1. 強いおすすめ

You must go see Tokyo Sky Tree. It’s amazing!

 

  1. 強い確信

The injury isn’t serious? You must be relieved.

You won a scholarship to study abroad? You must be delighted.

 

  1. mustには過去形がない:今ここにある圧力(過去を表すときはhad to)

I had to call my parents everty night. That was one of their conditions for allowing me to go on holiday alone.

mustは今ヒシヒシと感じられる圧力で、ある行為や結論に今強烈に駆り立てる。過去の出来事は一歩引いて客観的に眺めるものであるからmustに過去形はない。

 

  1. MAY:イメージは開かれたドア⇒許可(~してよい)、推量(~かもしれない)

    1. 許可(~してよい)―上から目線。目上が下に与える許可(~してもよろしい)

You may smoke only in the designated are.

May I take your order?

堅苦しい感触。権威者がドアを開き相手に通行を許可する感触。Mayを使う典型的文脈はお役所発言。

 

  1. 禁止(~してはいけません)

You may not take photographs inside the museum.

mayの禁止は上から目線の不許可。mustの禁止は命令文同様の個人的で高圧的な禁止。

 

  1. 祈願(~しますように):神様どうか許可してください。

May all your dreams come true!

I hope that she may find the courage to face this tough challenge.

 

  1. 推量(~かもしれない):閉じられていない程度の可能性。大体50%。少し首をかしげながら使う。

We may go skiing in Hokkaido this winter.

There are so many exciting countries to visit. I may go to Malaysia, or Singapore, or then again I may go to Indonesia. I’m just not sure yet.

 

  1. mayを使ったさまざまな表現

    1. may ~ but…(~かもしれないが・・・):mayは批判の前置き

He may be rich, but he is incredibly boring!

  1. may / might well ~ (たぶん~だろう。~するのももっともだ)

We are well behind schedule.

That movie is well worth watching.

The dollar may well weaken further.

Why isn’t John here?―You may well ask.

  1. may / might as well ~ (~してもいいな)

その場の状況を判断する言葉。as well(同じように)が含まれているところがポイント。いくつかの選択肢があり、それに目を配りながら「~してもいいな」と判断する。飛び抜けてお勧めというわけではないが、「とりあえずやってみてもいいな」。

They may just as well be married since they’ve been living together for years.

Come on now, you may as well tell us.

Well, you’re here now, so you may as well stay.

 

しょうがないなぁ、という感情と一緒に吐き出される使い方。見渡す限りどこにもいい案はない。ろくな選択肢がない。

The guy I’m playing is a really good golfer? Well, I may as well give up before I start.

 

“I’m sorry I didn’t call you back last night.” “It’s not very important. You might as well forget about it.”(大した事じゃない。忘れてもOK)

 

  1. might be -ingとmight 原形

Dorothy isn’t in the office; she might be having coffee in the cafeteria.

 

 

 

  1. WILL:精神の力

    1. 予測(~だろう):鮮明に見通す感覚。まだ見ぬ事態だが、話し手には確信と自信がある。

You will feel much better tomorrow.

You will soon get the hang of it, if you concentrate hard.

I’ve tried to convince him, but he won’t change his mind.

 

  1. 法則・習慣(~するものだ)

Accident will happen.

A true friend will stick by you in good times and bad.

My boyfriend’s funny. He will spend hours in front of his computer and forget I’m even there!

AならばBするものだ、という強い流れが意識されている。

 

  1. 過去の習慣(~したものだった)

My dad would often take us fishing.

WOULD: 「ぼんやり」した想像上の感触

  1. 意志(~するよ):頭の中でカチッとクリックする感触

I’ve left my wallet at home.―Don’t worry. I’ll lendyou some money.

I WILL marry him, Dad!

 

  1. Willは未来専門ではない。

They will be in Hawaii by now.

 

 

  1. CAN:内部に潜む力・性質をあらわす

    1. 能力(~できる)

Junko can speak English.

Come on! You can do it.

  1. 許可(~していい。フレンドリーな軽い許可)

You can borrow my racket, if you like.

Can I use your car, Dad?

Can I help you?

 

  1. 潜在的な性質(~しうる・ときに~することもある)

My boss can be so selfish at times.

Saitama can be very hot.

 

  1. 強い否定・強い疑念(~のはずがない。~なんてことあるのかい?)

Here’s your bill, sir.

550 dollars! That can’t be right.

 

A woman has 7 children and half of them are boys.

Can that be possible?

 

  1. Canを使ったさまざまな表現

     

cannot … too ~

~しすぎることはない

You cannot be too careful when it comes to drugs.

cannot … enough

十分・・・することはできない。

I cannot thank you enough.

cannot help –ing

~せざるをえない

ある状況から逃れること(Help)ができない

She couldn’t help crying.

I cannot help feeling it was a mistake to let him go.

You know what his temper’s like. He just cannot help himself.

cannot but ~

~せざるをえない

(butは「~を除いて」)

I couldn’t but marvel at the trapeze artists’ skill.

 

 

  1. SHALL:進むべき道(束縛)

  1. 法律

You shall not steal.

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude … shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

 

  1. 確信(必ず~になる)

We shall all die.

We shall never forget your kindness.

You shall regret this!

 

  1. 勧誘(~しましょう)温かさを感じる。

Shall I help you?

Shall we dance?

 

  1. Let’s とShall weの違い

Let’sは相手の手を引っ張る勢い。Shallは相手の心情を尊重する温かさ。

 

Let’s go to the party, shall we?

 

  1. SHOULD:shallのマイルドバージョン(Shallは一本道。Shouldはもう少し道幅が広い一本道)

    1. 義務・アドバイス(~すべき)Shallと違い束縛ではない。

You’re always broke. You should be more careful with your money.

You should definitely get an iPhone. They’re great.

You shoud watch your weight.

 

  1. How/Why should…?(~しなくちゃいけないの?)心外な気持ちを表現

Why should I apologize to him?

Where has Mary gone? How should I know?

 

  1. 確信(~はず)

That should be no problem.

I should be able to get to the restaurant by 7.

 

  1. 感情・判断をあらわす語句と共に使われるshould(プロセスに着眼する表現)

I’m surprised that you should feel so upset.(あなたが気分を害することになるなんて驚きだ。shouldの道の意味を反映)

I’m surprised you feel so upset.(あなたが気分を害しているのに驚く)

 

It’s strange that she should call us at 2 in the morning.

It’s only natural that students should lose concentration in this heat.

only natural(当然の成り行きだよ、とプロセスについて述べる表現)

 

  1. 条件と共に使われるShould:低い確率と丁寧な雰囲気(もし~することになったら)

If the travel agent should phone, tell him I want to change the date of my flight.

Don’t worry. If it should rain, we’ll hold the event indoors.

 

Ifだけよりも、If shouldの方は「もし~することになったら」とプロセスが意識される。

 

If you should change your mind, do let me know.

Should you need to cancel, make sure you do so at least 24 hours before your arrival date.

Should you fail your driving test, you can take it again within a month.

 

  1. MustのマイルドバージョンとしてのShould

The flight starts boarding at 10:45, so you should be at gate 18 by 10:25.

You must … er … you should wear a jacket and tie for the awards ceremony.

 

  1. BASIC PHRASAL MODALS(助動詞に似た意味を持つ。しかし話し手の心理は表さない)

    1. HAVE TO (Mustと同じレベルの高い圧力。但し、Mustと異なり、強い客観的必要性を原動力とする)

      1. 義務(~しなくてはならない)

You have to have your hair cut.

You have to send your resume and a cover letter.

We may have to cancel our trip because grandmother is very ill.

 

  1. 強い確信(~に違いない)(Mustは根拠がないが、Have toは客観的証拠の裏づけを感じる)

She has to be the culprit.

This has to be the happiest day of my life.

 

  1. Must not(禁止)とNot have to(必要がない)

You don’t have to like your teachers, but you mustn’t insult them!

If someone invites you to their home, you don’t have to take anything expensive, but you mustn’t turn up empty-handed.

 

  1. have got to(have toと同じ意味のイギリス英語)

He‘s got to go. (= He has to go.)

You‘ve got to be joking! (=You have to be joking!)

He’s got a car.

 

  1. be able to(can「潜在」のような深みはなく、単純に「できるのだ」と強調する表現)

I‘m able to speak 4 languages.

I was able to catch the last train.

I’ve always wanted to be able to speak Japanese fluently.

 

  1. can優先

I can speak English.(英語を話します)

I am able to speak English.(しゃべれるのだ。今は。)

 

I can play the piano.(ピアノを弾きます)

I am able to play the piano.(ピアノが弾けるのだ。。。「弾ける」って強調するのはなんで?理由は?)

 

Now that I‘m able to drive, I feel much more independent.(今までできなかったけど、、今は運転できるよ)

I‘m able to speak 4 languages.(4ヶ国語もしゃべれるんだよ。(すごいでしょ?))

 

  1. 実際にやったことならbe able to

My granddad could fix any kind of machine.(なんでも直せた)

The washing machine is OK now. Grandad was able to fix it.(おじいちゃんが直すことができたよ)

 

  1. succeed in –ing ~することができる(成功の意味を含む。実際にできたことを表現)

After six hours’ climbing, we finally succeeded in reaching the top of the mountain.

 

 

 

  1. 助動詞は重ねて使うことはできない(助動詞は話し手の心理を表す表現。心理はひとつだけ。)

Jane may
be able to babysit for us.

You‘ll
have to grin and bear it.

 

 

  1. SUBJECTIVE AUX

    1. PREDICTION(will, would, be going to, shall)

 

  1. WILLINGNESS, OFFER

will

  1. offer to ~

Who’s going to set up the room for our meeting?—Paul offered to do it.

 

  1. HABITS, PREFERENCES

will

used to

 

  1. aim to ~

As professional advisers we help our clients solve complex business problems and aim to enhance their ability to build value, manage risk and improve performance.

 

 

 

 

  1. used to(以前は・・・だったなぁ。時代の変化・流れを現在とのコントラストで表現する)

There used to be a movie theater right here.

I used to get into trouble all the time when I was a kid.

 

My grandfather would entertain us for hours with his magic tricks.

N.G.: There would be a movie theater right here.(wouldに現在とのコントラストの意味はない。変化を表すことはできない)

 

 

  1. used to ~, but…. 以前は〜だったが、いまは。。。

They are used to be good friends, but they aren’t anymore.

 

 

 

 

  1. ABILITY

can, could, be able to

 

 

  1. cannot

Article 8  Duty to Re-import

When a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes to which the consent of the States concerned has been given, subject to the provisions of this Convention, cannot be completed in accordance with the terms of the contract, the State of export shall ensure that the wastes in question are taken back into the State of export, by the exporter, if alternative arrangements cannot be made for their disposal in an environmentally sound manner, within 90 days from the time that the importing State informed the State of export and the Secretariat, or such other period of time as the States concerned agree. To this end, the State of export and any Party of transit shall not oppose, hinder or prevent the return of those wastes to the State of export.

第8条  再輸入の義務

この条約の規定に従うことを条件として関係国の同意が得られている有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物の国境を越える移動が、契約の条件に従って完了することができない場合において、輸入国が輸出国及び事務局に対してその旨を通報した時から90日以内に又は関係国が合意する他の期間内に当該有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物が環境上適正な方法で処分されるための代替措置をとることができないときは、輸出国は、輸出者が当該有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物を輸出国内に引き取ることを確保する。このため、輸出国及び締約国である通過国は、当該有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物の輸出国への返還に反対し、及びその返還を妨害し又は防止してはならない。

 

  1. be unable to ~  ~できない

(2) If, in the case of the preceding paragraph, the official is unable to cause a person prescribed in the same paragraph to attend his/her inspection or search, he/she shall cause a neighbor who has attained the age of majority or an official of the local government of that place.

2 前項の場合において、同項に規定する者を立ち会わせることができないときは、その隣人で成年に達した者又はその地の地方公共団体の職員を立ち会わせなければならない。

 

  1. fail to ~ ~できない

Without prejudice to any of the KVE’s rights generally, KVE reserves the right to terminate this Agreement where ABC fails to sell or initiate within the first twelve months after the date of the scheduled broadcast of the first episode of ○○○ series in the Territory, at least US $100,000 in total gross contract values.

ABCが○○○シリーズの第1話の放送予定日から最初の12ヶ月以内にその地域において販売総額で最低100,000USDを販売または推進できないときは、KVEは、KVEの権利のいずれも一般的に損なうことなく、本契約を解除する権利を留保する。

 

•fail to pay 支払いの不履行

•fail to pay one’s debt  債務の不履行

•fail to perform 《契約》契約不履行

•fail to perform a contract 《a ~》契約不履行

 

If either party fails to abide by any of the terms and conditions hereof and such failure continues for __ days after receipt of a written notice from the other party, identifying such failure, the said other party may terminate this Agreement by sending a notice in writing to the party in default.《契約書》

•本契約の規定の不順守または違反があった場合、いずれの当事者も相手方当事者に書面により通知し、かつ通知後_日以内にかかる不順守または違反が矯正されないときは、相手方当事者に対しその旨書面で通知することにより本契約を中途終了することができる。

 

  1. PERMISSION, 許可(PRIVILEDGES)

can, could, may, might, be allowed to

 

相手にPriviledgesを安易に与えてはならない。Privilegesは当然に行使されると考えること。

  1. may

Brown Realty Company may inspect the construction site at any time.

Kamakura Steel Corporation may test the rade of the purchased iron ore.

Oita ransportation Corporation may transport the goods by air, land, or sea according to its requirements.

  1. have the right to do / reserve the right to do / remain the right to do

 

  1. shall be entitled to do (または to + 名詞)

Each member shall be entitled to one vote at a general members’ council meeting.

社員は、社員総会において、各々一個の議決権を有する。

XYZ understands that ABC shall be entitled to export the Agreement Products provided in the Agreement directly or indirectly to third countries where XYZ has no agreement to grant exclusive right to sell the Agreement Products provided in the said Agreement.

《契約書》XYZ社は、XYZ社が契約品の独占販売権を認めていない第三国にABC社が間接的または直接的に契約品を輸出する権利があることを認める。

 

  1. is free to do これは少しくだけた表現になります。

 

 

  1. If~, may

If the Borrower fails to make a loan payment, the Lender may demand all outstanding principal and interest immediately due and payable.

 

Customers registering before June 18 may receive a discount.

Agricultural imports during the month of June may be assessed a 16% tariff.

 

  1. be seen to = may

be seen to は、[may] のような意味になると考えられています。

 

  1. POSSIBILITY

may, might, can, could

 

  1. NECESSITY; to say that something is necessary in orders and rules

must, have to, have got to, need to, needn’T

 

 

The houses are necessarily/compulsorily pulled down.

 

  1. need to be able to ~ ~できなければならない

I need to be able to edit the document (that is the whole point of the code).

 

  1. no need to ~ ~する必要は無い

According to this interpretation, there is no need to reference the ri in the things outside one’s mind to bring the ‘sei’ (= ri) in one’s mind to perfection. この解釈では心の内にある「性」(=理)を完成させるために、外的な事物の理を参照する必要は無いことになる。

 

  1. be needed to be p.p.

Up to eight cherrywood boards are needed to be carved for one color print.

一枚の着色版画を彫るためにはサクラの版木が最大8枚必要になる

This publication contains development reports on young Japanese wishing to escape Japan for overseas and a feature offering advice on what properties are needed to be an indispensible human resource for the 21st century.

日本を脱出し海外を目指す若者たちの現象レポートや21世紀に必要とされる人材となるためのアドバイスが特集されています。

 

 

  1. aux: NEED(イギリス英語)

She need not put up with his outrageous behavior. (= She doesn’t need to put up with…)

Need you really play the music so loud? (= Do you really need to play…?)

 

  1. PROHIBITIONS;禁止 (blocked action)

    1. Fundamentals

      1. 禁止事項は具体的に細部まで明記すべき。

Avoid: Brown Manufacturing shal not produce products for rivals to Akita Electoronics.

Use: Brown Manufacturing shall not produce products for rivals to Akita Electronics, specifically including Seoul Electoronics, Beijing IT Group, or Bangalore Tech Group.

WMC shall not substitute a different coal for West Virginia Mine #32 Coal.

  1. 禁止の具体例

Selling to a rival

Transferring ownership / licensing

Sub-leasing

Provide confidential information to a third party

 

  1. Prohibitとforebid

 

  1. (Party) shall not (action)

Kamakura Investments shall not make investments with Chicago Securities Group assets that are prejudicial to CSG’s long-term investment goals.

 

  1. shall not disclose

shall not disclose はis confidentialより強い表現。

Kyoto shall not disclose the nature or contents of this Agreement or its research on behalf of BCL to any person(s) or organization unless compelled to do so by authorized legal authorities.

  1. shall not deliver ~ individually or in partial shipments

WMT shall not deliver the tools individually or in partial shipments.

  1. shall no use

Nara shall not use for its own purposes technical or business information gathered in the course of its work for CGA.

 

In accordance with Japanese land zoning laws, the Buyer shall not use the parcel for other than commercial and/or industrial purposes.

 

  1. shall not transfer

Buyer shall not transfer or resell these rights.

 

 

  1. may not(~できない)は使ってよいか?(shall notとは違うの?)

In exercising these rights, Distirbutor may not, (1) change the title of the Picture without Licensor’s prior written approval, (2) alter or delete any credit, logo, copyright notice or trademark notice appearing on the Picture, or (3) include any advertisement or other material in the Picture other than the credit or logo of the Distributor or an approved antipiracy warning as set forth in Article __ of this Agreement.

これらの権利を行使

 

  1. shall refrain from Doing

avoid: shall refrain from doing

use: shall not do

 

“refrain from” means obligation, but it’s little bit mild than “shall not”. “refrain from” implys your self-control.

It’s used in social contexts.

e.g. Please refrain from picking a fight

Flight attendant asks you to please refrain from smoking.

 

For purposes of contracts, you’d likely have a hard time claiming that refrain expresses something less than outright prohibition. But why risk finding yourself having that discussion? When reviewing a contract, I’d have no hesitation changing shall refrain from to shall not, and that’s what I told the reader who posed the question.

 

And there’s no downside to omitting refrain from contracts. Because contracts are for articulating rules and have no voice, they’re not the place for namby-pamby deference of the sort exemplified by refrain.

 

 

  1. DEDUCTION; particular idea or deduction is likely or certain, based on the evidence

must, have to, have got to, can’t, couldn’t

 

  1. OBLIGATION and ADVICE

should, ought to, be supposed to, had better

 

  1. had better / had best +動詞原形(緊迫感)

You‘d better call the ambulance!

You‘d best not snitch on us, or we’ll beat you up.

 

 

  1. 義務の表現

「~しなければならない」は shall を使います。

will を使うことはあり得ますが、普通、 must は使いません。

 

  1. 義務

    1. shall

HTG shall provide services extensive enough to cover the entire land, sea, and air territory of Japan.

= HTG should be able to provide coverage for the entire Japan.

Fukushima shall provide packaging consulting services for a negotiated fee.

 

SPG shall ensure that the plastics arrive in Los Angeles Harbor no later than June 1, 2009; if not, Dodson may cancel this Agreement.

 

  1. agree to do

The Seller agrees to sell and deliver to the Purchaser and the Purchaser agrees to purchase and take delivery from the Seller the Products set forth in Article ___ hereof in accordance with the terms and conditions under this Agreement.

本契約の条件に従い、売主は買主に対し本契約第___条に掲げる製品を売り渡すものとし、買主は売主から買い受けるものとする

Europe and Asia have agreed to cooperate to enforce countermeasures against spam.

欧州とアジアが、スパム対策を強化するために協力することで合意しました。

 

  1. have the duty of … (名詞/動名詞)

 

  1. be obligated to do

蛇足ながら” is obliged “は「感謝している」の意味です。

 

  1. shall be liable to ~

 

Subject to the provisions of the Act, to Articles 20 to 28, and provided that he has disclosed to the directors the nature and extent of any material interest of his, a director notwithstanding his office:

(…)

shall not, by reason of his office, be accountable to the Company for any benefit which he derives from any such office or employment or from any such transaction or arrangement or from any interest in any such body corporate and no such transaction or arrangement shall be liable to be avoided on the ground of any such interest or benefit.

 

(4) When the permission set forth in paragraph (1) is granted, the captain of the vessel or aircraft or the carrier set forth in the same paragraph shall be liable to pay the living expenses, medical treatment expenses, and/or funeral expenses of the foreign national concerned and any other expenses incurred during the emergency landing period.

4 第一項の許可があったときは、同項の船舶等の長又は運送業者は、緊急上陸を許可された者の生活費、治療費、葬儀費その他緊急上陸中の一切の費用を支弁しなければならない

 

 

  1. shall be due

(3) The notification under paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article shall be due, where business has been newly commenced, within two weeks after the commencement, and whenever any change is made in the matters referred to in paragraph (1) of this Article, within two weeks after such change.

3 前二項の規定による届出は、新たに営業を開始した場合にあってはその開始後二週間以内に、第一項の事項中に変更を生じた場合にあってはその変更を生じた後二週間以内にこれをしなければならない

 

  1. be made to / be forced to = shall, must

させられた。しなけらばならなかった…

という意味で[must] の意味に当てはまるのではないでしょうか。

 

 

  1. be required to~,
  2. be under the obligation to~
  3. be obligated to~

 

  1. 約束する(少し柔らかい言い方)

    1. be committed to ~

《be ~》コミットしている、~に熱心である、~に傾倒している、~に専心する、~に身を投じる、~に肩入れする、(人)と堅く結ばれている、~することを確約する、~を公約している、~に尽力する、~にのめり込んでいる

  1. undertake to ~

undertake to refrain from the use of ~の使用を慎む[やめる・控える]と約束する

  1. pledge to do ~すると約束する

President Barack Obama described the incident as a “systemic failure” of America’s security apparatus, and U.S. officials have pledged to do what it takes to prevent a recurrence.

バラク・オバマ大統領は、今回の事件を、米国の保安機構の「組織的な欠陥」だと評しました。そして、米国政府担当者は、再発を防止するために対策をとると約束しました

 

  1. 努力義務

    1. shall endeavor toするよう努めるものとする

The parties shall endeavor to settle any disputes arising from this Agreement through negotiations.

《契》両当事者は、本契約から発生する紛争を交渉により解決するよう努力するものとする。

(2) A Bank Holding Company shall endeavor to ensure sound and appropriate management of its subsidiary Bank’s business.

2 銀行持株会社は、その業務を営むに当たつては、その子会社である銀行の業務の健全かつ適切な運営の確保に努めなければならない

 

  1. use its efforts to ~ 最善の/合意的な努力義務

Seller shall use all reasonable efforts to use such packing material which can be recycled.《契約書》売り手は、再利用可能なこん包材料を使うための相応の努力を払うものとする。

The Mortgagor will use its reasonable efforts to cause each of its insurance policies to be modified to contain the endorsements.

The Mortgagor will use its best efforts to cause each of its insurance policies to be modified to contain the endorsements.

 

  1. make its efforts to

During such period of Force Majeure, this Agreement shall not be terminated but only be suspended and the party so affected shall make its best efforts to remove the causes of Force Majeure and shall continue to perform its obligations as soon as such causes of Force Majeure are removed.《契約書》

かかる不可抗力の発生期間中、その影響を受けた当事者は、当該不履行事由を回避又は除去するべく最大の努力を払うものとし、当該事由が除去された時はいつでも可及的速やかに本契約に基づく履行を継続するものとする。

 

  1. struggle to ~ ~しようともがく、四苦八苦する

As mainstream media struggle to bring out the latest developments, bloggers on the ground in Lhasa have been able to provide ongoing updates on the situation.

大手メディアが最新情報の報道に苦労する中、現地ラサのブロガーは、最新の情報を伝え続けている。

 

  1. strive to ~

I strove to overcome my bad habits. 悪癖を直そうと努めた.

 

 

  1. 協力義務

    1. Corporate with ~ to do ・・・するのに~に協力する

She cooperated
with us to produce the TV commercial. 彼女はテレビのコマーシャルを製作するのに私たちと協力した

 

(4) To achieve the objectives of the preceding Article, the heads of the Relevant Administrative Organs shall cooperate with the Chief of the International Peace Cooperation Headquarters in the implementation of International Peace Cooperation Assignments, etc.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

4 関係行政機関の長は、前条の目的を達成するため、国際平和協力業務の実施等に関し、国際平和協力本部長に協力するものとする

 

  1. Corporate on

〔+前置詞+(代)名詞〕〔人と〕〔…に〕協力する,協同する 〔with〕 〔in,on〕《★動名詞の前は in》.

They cooperated on the project. その計画に彼らは協力した.

We cooperated with their company in developing the technology. 我々は科学技術の開発に彼らの会社と協力した.

 

  1. Both of parties cooperate to do 両当事者が協力して・・・する

Europe and Asia have agreed to cooperate to enforce countermeasures against spam.

欧州とアジアが、スパム対策を強化するために協力することで合意しました。

 

  1. 積極的に協力する

 

  1. 注意義務

    1. take care to ~

When you put in this combination in the pot, take care to put it in little by little.このつなぎを入れる時は、少しずつ入れるように注意する

take care not to touch the open wound開いた傷口に触れないように注意する

 

  1. be careful to ~

be careful not to get one’s watch wet腕時計をぬらさないように注意する

be careful not to drink too much(酒を)飲み過ぎないように注意する

be careful not to get altitude sickness高山病にならないように注意する

 

  1. 善良な管理者の注意をもって(with the care of a good manager)

 

Article 4 [Management of Confidential Information]

1. Receiving Party shall appoint a control manager for the management of Confidential Information and such control manager shall strictly manage and record storage, access, reproduction, distribution, conveyance, transmission, disposition, etc. of Confidential Information with the care of a good manager.

第4条 [秘密情報の管理]

1. 受領当事者は、秘密情報の管理について管理責任者を定めなければならず、かかる管理責任者は、善良な管理者の注意義務をもって秘密情報の保管、閲覧、複製、配布、伝達、送信、廃棄等について厳重に管理し、記録しなければならない。

 

(Duty of Care in cases of Delivery of Specified Things)

Article 400 If the subject of a claim is the delivery of any specified things, the obligor must take custody of such property with due care of a prudent manager until the completion of such delivery.

(特定物の引渡しの場合の注意義務)

第四百条  債権の目的が特定物の引渡しであるときは、債務者は、その引渡しをするまで、善良な管理者の注意をもって、その物を保存しなければならない。

 

  1. Reasonable degree of care

reasonable degree of care は、英米法における注意義務の基準を示す概念を表す表現です。reasonable care で「相当の注意」と訳します。

reasonable というのは、思慮分別のある一般人の普通の判断ではこの程度だろう、というレベルを表す言葉です。

例えば、車を運転する人は、事故を起こさないために reasonable care を用いなければならず、事故を起こしたときに携帯電話で通話しながら運転していたとか、飲酒していたとか、これを下回る程度の注意しか払っていないことが立証されれば、その運転者に過失があったことになるわけです。

 

  1. Same degree of care for ~ ~と同等の注意義務

3. Confidential Duty.

Each party agrees that it will not disclose to any third party any Confidential Information received from the other party except as otherwise expressly agreed by the disclosing party in writing. Each party shall protect any Confidential Information disclosed by the other party by using the same degree of care for such information as the receiving party uses to protect its own confidential information, but no less than a reasonable degree of care, to prevent unauthorized use and/or disclosure of the Confidential Information. The confidential duty for each Confidential Information shall be effective for a period of 5 years from the date of disclosure of the respective Confidential Information, notwithstanding any termination or expiration of this Agreement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 順守する

Comply to

 

(2) The Safety Management Rule shall give the provisions related to the following matters with which the general motor truck transportation business operator shall comply to ensure the safety of transportation that are required pursuant to the provision of the Ordinance of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.

2 安全管理規程は、輸送の安全を確保するために一般貨物自動車運送事業者が遵守すべき次に掲げる事項に関し、国土交通省令で定めるところにより、必要な内容を定めたものでなければならない。◆【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム

 

 

 

  1. EPISTEMIC (knowledge or degree of validation)

 

can

Such things can help.

could

That could help.

dare

How dare you!

May

That may take place.

might

We might give it a try.

must

It must have rained.

should

That should help.

will

We will eat pie.

would

Nothing would accomplish that.

 

 

  1. INTENTION;故意、過失、帰責事由、自己都合、注意により

    1. 故意

 

deliberately

   

by design

   

advisedly

   

intentionally

   

designedly

   

by choice

   

on purpose

   

purposely

   

 

わざと、 態態、 殊更、 態々、 態と、 意図的

 

  1. without negligence 無過失で、過失なく

 

  1. 故意又は重過失によらないで

When a plaintiff has, unintentionally or without gross negligence, sued a wrong person in an action for the revocation of an administrative disposition, the court may, upon the petition of the plaintiff, by an order, permit the plaintiff to change the defendant.

取消訴訟において、原告が故意又は重大な過失によらないで被告とすべき者を誤ったときは、裁判所は、原告の申立てにより、決定をもつて、被告を変更することを許すことができる。

 

  1. 善意・無重過失

(4) In the case prescribed in paragraph (1), any performance made to the transferee with respect to any claim arising from the business of the transferor shall be effective if the party performing such obligations has no knowledge of and is not grossly negligent in not knowing that the claim has thus arisen.

4 第一項に規定する場合において、譲渡人の営業によって生じた債権について、その譲受人にした弁済は、弁済者が善意でかつ重大な過失がないときは、その効力を有する。

 

  1. 悪意・重過失 In bad faith or with gross negligence

(2) A person who has received the delivery of a certificate of beneficial interest shall acquire the rights of the beneficial interest pertaining to said certificate of beneficial interest; provided, however, that this shall not apply if the person was in bad faith or with gross negligence.

2 受益証券の交付を受けた者は、当該受益証券に係る受益権についての権利を取得する。ただし、その者に悪意又は重大な過失があるときは、この限りでない。

(2) A person who takes the delivery of debenture certificates for Corporation Bonds acquires the rights in the Corporation Bonds to which said debenture certificates pertain; provided, however, that this shall not apply if such person has acted in bad faith or with gross negligence in taking the delivery thereof.

2 機構債の債券の交付を受けた者は、当該債券に係る機構債についての権利を取得する。ただし、その者に悪意又は重大な過失があるときは、この限りでない。

 

 

  1. 注意して

With attention

 

 

 

  1. DECISION決断

    1. 思い切って~する

 

  1. ~するための方策をとる

    1. take steps to ~ ~するための方策をとる

 

  1. 要望・希望・期待

want to

  1. willing to

Would you be willing to fill out a questionnaire?

 

Those willing to offer rides to fellow members who lack transportation are kindly requested to send an e-mail to Ali Murad at xxx@gmail.com.

 

 

  1. would like to

 

 

  1. look forward to ~ing ~することを楽しみに待つ

 

 

  1. be expected to

This team is expected to win the championship.

You are expected to be here at eight tomorrow.

Starchitect II is expected to be another best-selling video game from Stellar Play Studio.

 

  1. desire to do〈…することを〉望む,〈…したいと〉願う.

I desire to live here till I die. 死ぬまでこの地に住みたいと願っている.

 

  1. be desirous of doing ~することを希望している

be desirous of acquiring the right to《契約書》~する権利を取得することを希望している

 

  1. prefer to

 

 

  1. require 〔+doing / +to do〕〈…する[である]ことを〉必要とする

《★【比較】 この構文は主に 《主に英国で用いられる》 だが need,want のほうが一般的》.

This car requires repairing. この車は修理する必要がある.

 

  1. GUESS

 

  1. seem to ~可能性・蓋然性(確信・推量)

(b) If it shall seem to the judge that such claim would lend itself to conciliation, he shall cause a notice to be sent by ordinary or certified mail to the adverse party at the address given by the applicant. At least 3 days notice shall be given, exclusive of the day of mailing.

 

It seems that nobody knows her real name.

= Nobody seems to know her real name.

 

  1. 意図、試み

    1. [sb] intend to ~ ~しようとする

(3) In the cases listed in the following items, the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry may impose, pursuant to the provisions of Cabinet Order, on a person who intends to carry out the acts prescribed respectively in said items the obligation to obtain permission with regard to the acts.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

3 経済産業大臣は、次の各号に掲げる場合には、当該各号に定める行為をしようとする者に対し、政令で定めるところにより、当該行為について、許可を受ける義務を課することができる。

 

  1. [st] be intended to ~

Bedspreads were intended to make a room look neat and add a decorative touch.

ベッドカバーは部屋をきれいに見せ、装飾的な色合いを加えるために使われる。

 

 

  1. attempt to ~ ~することを試みる

Any attempt to commit a crime under the preceding paragraph shall be punished.

前項の罪の未遂は、罰する。

 

  1. aux: DARE(イギリス英語)あえて~する

He dared not look me in the eye. (= He didn’t dare (to) look me in the eye.)

Dare you eat fried ants? (= Do you dare to eat fried ants?)

How dare you talk to me like that?

Slap me if you dare!

Don’t dare me!

 

  1. dare do, dare to do

彼女はそれをあえてしなかった(する勇気がなかった)。

She dared not do that.

= She didn’t dare to do that.

 

 

 

  1.  
    1. 忘れずに~する

      1. remember to

Please remember to put out the light before you got to bed.

 

  1. まだ~していない

    1. have yet to まだ~していない

・We started the ad campaign last month, but we have yet to see an increase in sales. : 先月私たちは宣伝キャンペーンを始めたが、まだ売り上げが伸びたかどうか分からない。

(3) When circumstances that compel a person to submit another Change Report have arisen by the day preceding the day of submission of a Written Notice of Holding the Bank’s Voting Rights or a Change Report (hereinafter referred to as “Documents Required” in this Section), that Change Report shall be submitted to the Prime Minister at the same time as the submission of that Documents Required that have yet to be submitted, notwithstanding the provisions of the main clause of paragraph (1).

3 銀行議決権保有届出書又は変更報告書(以下この節において「提出書類」という。)を提出する日の前日までに、新たに変更報告書を提出しなければならない事由が生じた場合には、当該変更報告書は、第一項本文の規定にかかわらず、提出されていない当該提出書類の提出と同時に内閣総理大臣に提出しなければならない。

 

  1.  
    1. be proud to ~ ~することを光栄に思う

 

  1. OBJECTIVE AUX

    1. START(着手、開始)

      1. commence to do / doing ~し始める

At the age of eighteen he commenced studying [to study] law. 彼は 18 の年に法律の勉強を始めた.

 

  1. Start to do / doing ※「もの」が主語の時には 〔+doing〕より 〔+to do〕のほうが一般的

He started
crying. 彼は泣きだした.

He started
walking slowly. 彼は(歩調をゆるめて)ゆっくり歩き始めた.

It started
snowing. 雪が降り始めた (cf. start 1e).

They‘re starting to move. 彼らは移動し始めている.

 

 

  1. ~する予定、~する計画

    1. plan to V; Vする計画である

The U.S. government plans to take measures against the possibility of terrorist attacks around the first anniversary by reducing all flights on September 11th and 12th.

米政府は、9月11日と12日の航空便の数を減らすことにより、ほぼ1周年に起こる可能性のあるテロ攻撃への対策をとる計画です

  1. will be ~ing ~することになっている

Mr .Miki called in to say that he is not feel well. He won’t be coming today.

Any attempt to commit a crime under the preceding paragraph shall be punished.

前項の罪の未遂は、罰する。

 

  1. be due to ~ ~する予定である

A third, wider lane of locks is currently under construction and is due to open in 2016.

 

  1. be expected to ~ ~する予定である

shall be expected to Vは、就学関係、雇用関係などで用いられる。契約書では使わない。

1. Contractor employee shall be expected to carry out projects semi-independently with advice and consultation of other statisticians, and to provide consultation on protocols in the design and analysis of experiments involving biological or medical investigations in immunology, reactogenicity or therapeutic/prophylactic effect.

 

契約書での使い方は、

The Government of Japan shall compensate a Registered Foreign Manufacturer of Containers, etc. for the latter’s loss caused by a demand made under the provision of item (vi) of the preceding paragraph. In this case, the loss to be compensated shall be the loss which is
normally
expected to occur as a result of a demand issued under the provision of said item.

国は、前項第六号の規定による請求によつて生じた損失を外国登録容器等製造業者に対し補償しなければならない。この場合において、補償すべき損失は、同号の規定による請求によつて通常生ずべき損失とする。

 

  1. be set to ~ ~する予定である

The tour will include ten cites and is set to conclude in Maryland on September 20.

 

  1. be scheduled to ~ ~する予定

Ms. Kannno is scheduled to return from her vacation next week.

 

  1. 変化

    1. come to ~するようになる

Once I earned what to listen for, I came to appreciate modern jazz.

 

 

  1. RECOMMENDATION(おすすめ、勧誘)

should, ought to, had better, have to, mustの順に強くなる。

 

 

  1. should

34歳の日本男性は、「もし、どうしても国立大学に行きたいのなら、大検(大学入学資格検定)を受けて、受験資格を取得すればいいではないか」と書いた。

A 34-year-old Japanese man also wrote, “If such students really want to go to a national university, then they should gain the necessary qualifications by sitting for the examination-based senior high school exit certificate, which qualifies recipients to take national university entrance examinations.”〔【出典】Hiragana Times, 1998年9月号◆【出版

 

 

  1. I suggest you ~ (柔らかい言い方)

I suggest you do it.

 

  1. I wonder ~(柔らかい言い方)

I wonder whether it wouldn’t be better if you did it.

 

 

  1. why don’t you~? なんで~しないの?=~すればいいじゃないか

「今の仕事が嫌なら転職すればいいじゃないか」「私は、手に職がないので、誰も雇ってくれないのです」

“If you’re not happy, why don’t you change jobs?” “Nobody would hire me. I’m not qualified for anything.”

 

 

  1. ~すれば十分、~すれば足りる

    1. be sufficient to ~ ~すれば十分、~すれば足りる

When the name of the suspect or the accused is unknown, it shall be sufficient to include an entry to that effect.

被疑者又は被告人の氏名又は名称が明らかでないときは、その旨を記載すれば足りる

 

The size, font types used, and position of the mark may vary, but its size must be sufficient to be both visible and legible to inspectors without the use of a visual aid. The mark must be rectangular or square in shape and contained within a border line with a vertical line separating the symbol from the code components. To facilitate the use of stencilling, small gaps in the border, the vertical line, and elsewhere among the components of the mark, may be present.

 

  1. 判明する、明らかになる

    1. prove to

The news proved to be true.

 

  1. turn out to

The news turned out to be true.

 

  1. 結果・結局~になる

 

  1. (Nagative)ended up ~ing ~するハメになってしまう、~することになってしまう

We ended up arguing after the long discussion. 長い話し合いの後、結局言い争いになった

Yeah, but y’know, about half of these are gonna end up getting divorced. えぇ、でも、ほら、だいたい半分は結局離婚することになるのよ。

 

  1. みなし規定・推定規定

    1. shall be deemed to ~ ~したものとみなす

(2) When a merchant fails to dispatch a notice as set forth in the preceding paragraph, he/she shall be deemed to have accepted the offer of the contract set forth in said paragraph.

2 商人が前項の通知を発することを怠ったときは、その商人は、同項の契約の申込みを承諾したものとみなす

 

  1. LIKELIHOOD(蓋然性)

    1. 客観的見込み

      1. be projected to ~ ~することが予想される

 

 

  1. be likely to V ~をするおそれがある

Where a unit owner has engaged in conduct set forth in Article 6, paragraph (1) or where a unit owner is likely to engage in such conduct, all of the other unit owners or the incorporated management association may, for the common benefit of the unit owners, demand that the relevant unit owner discontinue such conduct, remove the outcome of such conduct, or take the necessary measures to prevent such conduct.

区分所有者が第六条第一項に規定する行為をした場合又はその行為をするおそれがある場合には、他の区分所有者の全員又は管理組合法人は、区分所有者の共同の利益のため、その行為を停止し、その行為の結果を除去し、又はその行為を予防するため必要な措置を執ることを請求することができる。

 

An action for an injunctive order may be filed only in cases where any serious damage is likely to be caused if a certain original administrative disposition or administrative disposition on appeal is made; provided, however, that this shall not apply if there are any other appropriate means to avoid such damage.

差止めの訴えは、一定の処分又は裁決がされることにより重大な損害を生ずるおそれがある場合に限り、提起することができる。ただし、その損害を避けるため他に適当な方法があるときは、この限りでない。

 

  1. there is a risk of causing ~ ~を生ずるおそれがある

(2) In cases where there is a risk of causing a hindrance to either the maintenance of discipline and order or the management and administration of the prisoner of war camp, the prisoner of war camp commander may refuse to permit a detainee to participate in the religious ceremonies prescribed in the preceding paragraph.

2 捕虜収容所長は、捕虜収容所の規律及び秩序の維持その他管理運営上支障を生ずるおそれがある場合には、被収容者を前項に規定する宗教上の儀式行事に参加させないことができる。

 

  1. 必然性・偶然性

    1. happen to たまたま~である

They happened to be of much the same opinion.

 

  1. おそれがある、恐れがある

 

likelihood

 

be likely to~

のおそれがある

the witness is likely to feel extreme anxiety or tension: Any Company the enterprise interests of which have been,or are likely to be,infringed 証人が著しく不安又は緊張を覚えるおそれがある: 営業上の利益を侵害され、又は侵害されるおそれがある会社

An action for an injunctive order may be filed only in cases where any serious damage is likely to be caused if a certain original administrative disposition or administrative disposition on appeal is made; provided, however, that this shall not apply if there are any other appropriate means to avoid such damage.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

差止めの訴えは、一定の処分又は裁決がされることにより重大な損害を生ずるおそれがある場合に限り、提起することができる。ただし、その損害を避けるため他に適当な方法があるときは、この限りでない。

be liable to

In the case that H-steel or I-steel (hereinafter referred to as “H-steel, etc.” in this item) is used as sleepers and other horizontal materials and when it is liable to cause deformation of the section of the said H-steel, etc., due to concentration of load on the point of connection between said H-steel, etc., and supports and jacks, etc., to attach reinforcing materials to the said points of connection. H型鋼又はI型鋼(以下この号において「H型鋼等」という。)を大引き、敷角等の水平材として用いる場合であつて、当該H型鋼等と支柱、ジャッキ等とが接続する箇所に集中荷重が作用することにより、当該H型鋼等の断面が変形するおそれがあるときは、当該接続する箇所に補強材を取り付けること。

 

 

  1. 可能性

A person engaged in clerical work related to the performance of the Sterilization or the Induced Abortion must not leak any confidential information that may become known in the course of business. The same applies even after said person has retired from the business.

不妊手術又は人工妊娠中絶の施行の事務に従事した者は、職務上知り得た人の秘密を、漏らしてはならない。その職を退いた後においても同様とする。

 

  1. ~する可能性がある

have the potential of

have the potential to

hold the potential to

likely to drift

retain the potential to

 

【助動】

can(推量を表して)

may《推量・可能性》〔【注意】この意味でmayを疑問文に用いることはできない。◆【用法】mayは50%の確実性を示す。アメリカ用法ではmightが好まれる傾向にある。〕

 

 

  1. seem likely to~する可能性があるように見える

 

 

  1. TENDENCY

The rich are apt to despise the poor. お金持ちは貧乏人を軽蔑したがる。

Japanese are apt to flock together even if they are in America.アメリカにいても日本人同士で群れたがる傾向があります。

 

 

  1. 役に立つ

    1. help to

Dr. Park’s recent article further helped to clarify the research available on changing sleep patterns.

 

 

 

 

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