Home / 英文契約 / 契約英語の基礎(動詞)


  1. VERBS

    1. Halliday’s Grammer

      1. Fundamentals











creating/changing, doing/acting



behaving, seeing

representating, acting

experiencing or sensing

saying, symbolizing

having identity, having attribute

exist, there is…













































O, C















go, leave


speak, talk

love, think







say, tell

be, have



be, exist








aboutやwith to atを多用する












go, leave, give, climb, hit, make, cook, eat, drink, cut, write, read, wear, rain, snow, fall, flow



see, love, think, notice, hate, regret, appriciate, believe, know, hear, understand, recognise, remenber, want, desire, wish



be, have, seem, look, belong, resemble, represent, symbolize, equal, sound(it sounds nice.), last, weigh(weightrn kiros)


Representing outer manifestations of inner workings
Acting out of processes of consciousness and physiological states.

speak, talk, watch, stare, listen, chat, chatter, cry, laugh, smile, frown, sigh, cough, faint, yawn, sleep, kiss, hug, sing, dance, worry


border between mental and relational

say, tell, answer, ask, call, shout, suggest, explain, quote, warm, demmand, request, promise


Existing and Happening

be, exist, stand, lie


  1. 3 major functions of language






to express content and to communicate information.

to signify discourse

to establish and maintain social relations


現実認識や内的・外的経験を表現する観念構成的 (ideational)機能

発話内容に脈絡をつける談話構成的(textual) 機能

話し手と聞き手の関係を表す対人的 (interpersonal) 機能


The ideational function involves two main system



thematic structure

information structure



  1. 3 kinds of grammar

Theme is the grammar of discourse

Mood is the grammar of speech function

Transitivity is the grammar of experience


  1. TRANSITIVITY in functional grammer

In Halliday’s functionalgrammer, whether the verb takes or does not take a direct object is no a prime consideration.

The system of transitivity construes the world into manageable set of PROCESS TYPES and PARTICIPANTS.



Participant ⇒ Participant


  1. Three components of transitivity process





①The “PROCESS” itself


②PARTICIPANTS in the process



③CIRCUMSTANCES associated with the process




e.g.    I         walked         the dog.

    participant     process         participan


A clause in English is the simultaneous realization of ideational, interpersonal and textual meanings.

A clause is the product of three simultaneous sementic processes.

It is at one and the same time a representation of experience (ideational), an interactive exchange (interpersonal) and a message (textual).


Transitivity is “the grammar of the clause” as a “structural units” for “expressing a particular range of ideational meanings.”.


  1. 他動性の選択(transitivity options)

機能文法の中で最も中心的な観念構成的機能を担うものに、 他動性の選択(transitivity options) がある。それは、我々が物事を表現するときに常に行っている、


Process typeの選択、Participantの選択。


異なる種類の動詞型 (process type) やそれに関わる 人物・物といった関与体 (participant) の選択のことである。



material process

mental process

relational process















  1. Action/Event vs Status/Condition




one time occurrence

cannot used with “how long” or expressions of duration.

present or past

long time

can used with “how long” or expressions of duration (over periods of time)

present or present perfect

I got married/engaged/divorced last May. (This event occurs last May.)

I am married/engaged/divorced.





get married/engaged/divorced

be married/engaged/divorced.


be out of school


be dead





find out






fall asleep/in love

be asleep/in love



  1. Sentence Patterns

    1. SVOO

下の動詞は意味から分類した第4文型をとることが可能な動詞群です。* 印は、類似の意味を持っていながら、第4文型をとり得ない動詞です。(G) はゲルマン語(古英語、北欧語)に語源を持つ動詞、(F) はラテン語・フランス語に語源を持つ動詞です。










give(G) pass(F) hand(G) lend (G) (*donate(F) *contribute(F))





send(G) ship(G) mail(F) (*transport(F) *deliver(F) *courier(F) *messenger(F))





throw(G) toss(G) kick(G) fling(G) flip(G) slap(G) poke(G) (*propel(F) *release(F))





bake(G) build(G) cook(G) make(G) knit(G) fix(G) sew(G) (*construct(F) *create(F) *design(F) *devise(F))





get(G) find(G) buy(G) order(F) win(G) earn(G) (*obtain *purchase *collect)





bring(G) take(G) (*carry(F))





offer(F) leave(G) assign(F) award(G) reserve(F) grant(F) bequeath(G) refer(F) recommend(F) guarantee(F) permit(F) promise(F)





cost(F) spare(G) save(G) charge(F) fine(G) forgive(G) envy(F) begrudge(G) deny(F) refuse(F) lose





tell(G) ask(G) show(G) teach(G) quote(F) cite(F) write(G) read(G) (*explain(F) *announce(F) *describe(F) *deliver(F) *admit(F) *confess(F) *recount(F) *repeat(F) *report(F) *declare(F) *transmit(F))







  1. Material (Physical actions in the real world)e.g. go, leave, kick, run, paint, repair, send, burn

  1. Fundamentals

    1. Participants


the one performing the action

He played tenniss yesterday.


[st]/[sb] which is affected by the action

He swallowed the ping pong ball by mistake.


that which remains unaffected by the action

He played tennis yesterday.


a quality ascribed or attributed to an entity

He painted the table green.


for whom/which the action occurs

client takes the preposition “for”

He also made his girl friend a cake.

He made a cake for his girlfriend.


the receiver of goods or services

recipient takes the preposition “to”

The doctor gave the patient some medicine.

The doctor gave some medicine to the patient.


The Material process involves dynamic verbs, the progressive is permitted – “He was playing tennis yesterday”.


  1. Sentence Patterns


Actor Material Scope <SVO>

He played tenniss yesterday.


Actor Meterial Goal <SVO>

He swallowed the ping pong ball by mistake.


Actor Material Recipient Goal <SVOO>

Actor Material Goal to Recipient <SVOtoO>

The doctor gave the patient some medicine.

The doctor gave some medicine to the patient.


Actor Material Client Goal <SVOO>

Actor Material Goal for Client <SVOforO>

He also made his girl friend a cake.

He made a cake for his girlfriend.


Actor Material Goal Attribute <SVOC>

He painted the table green.


  1. MATERIAL Process (Doing; Physical actions in the real world) e.g. go, leave, give, make, write




Actor (who does the action)

Material Process (Physical actions in the real world)

Goal (who is affected by the action)
Recipient ( who received something)
Beneficiary (for whom something is done)

His statement

did not represent

that President was third party.

the rion



the rion


the tourist

Apparantly, when Vice President Jejomar Binay

negotiated with his college classmates Nur Misuari last Fridya,

to try to end the fighting in Zamboanga City, he did so on his own behalf.


did not represent

President Aquino but acted as his own principal.

…his next sentences


the President of the Philippines outside the framework of discussion

as though Binay


with Misuari without the President’s objectives or conditions in mind.

In the first place, his statement


that President Aquino was a third pary, rather than the person Binay was representing



  1. ポイント


What did X do?と問いかけて、What X did was to …と答えられればDoing Verbs

e.g. “He’s already bought the ticket.”⇒”What did he do?” “What he did was buy the tickets.”


  1. 現在進行形で使うことが多い。

Mom’s preparing dinner in the kitchen. The fragrant aromas from the kitchen have kicked our anticipation into high gear.




In our home, Dad prepares dinner and the rest of the family does the dishes.


Our flight leaves at 12:50 p.m.


X passes to Y, Y to Z. Z passes back to X, and X shoots and scores a goal!


This story takes place in the late 19th century. The year is 1854 and Admiral Perry visits Japan to put an end its isolationism.


  1. なるべく具体性のある動詞を選ぶ

Add water to the soil and then mix the soil and water together.



DOING/ACTING; blow, bring, buy, come, do, get, give, go live, meet, play, run, take, play, try, use, work



  1. アクション動詞の種類



I drove her to the station.

The lake froze over night.

XYZ shares skyrocketed/nosedived.

His empire crumbled to pieces.




  1. ACTING <SV/SVO; Actor Material Scope> e.g. He played tenniss yesterday.


  1. 自動詞の文:Componentが一つ(主体のみ)

My computer suddenly blacked out.(My computerが唯一のComponent)



  1. 実質的な自動詞の文e.g. run a race, make a mistake


    The surgical team transfused some blood to him.

    The surgical team did a blood tansfusion.


    the surgical team

    the surgical team





    some blood

    a blood transfusion (?)

    to Y(客体もどき)

    to him


    1. 実質的な自動詞の見分け方


She shot a gun dead.は無理。

She shot him deadはOK


She shot a gun.

She shot him.








a gun (?)



She shot a gun dead.は不可

She shot him dead.



  1. 実質的な自動詞の2つのパターン



    My father runs a small factory.のa small factoryは独自の存在感がある。


    He ran the 100m race in 9.63 seconds.では、raceはranの付属品、ranの言い換えでしかない。


    do, have, give, take, makeなどの、それ自体固有の意味がなく、他の所定名詞を組み合わさって初めて意味を持つ。


    She gave a big smile. = She smiled.

    I took a shower after exercising. = I showered.


  1. DOING <SVO; Actor Material Goal> e.g. He swallowed the ping pong ball by mistake.

    1. Display

After talk show hosts Oliver Russo’s weekly celebrity interview, MRM Radio posts a transcription of the broadcast on the station’s Web site.






  1. Fundamentals





    SVOO; Actor Material Recipient Goal

    Actor Material Client Goal










    give, tell, send

    buy, send


    To + 第3の要素

    For + 第3の要素


    I gave a birthday present to Jill.

    She cooked chicken curry for Jack.


    the Receiver has received the object.

    e.g. My friends came to my house on a hot day, so I gave them some cold drinks.

    unknown whether the receiver has received the object or not.

    e.g. My frineds came to my house on a hot day, so I provided them some cold drinks.





buy, give, sendのような「やり取り動詞」は、モノや無形の利益がやり取りされる動詞。



Actor Material Goal to Recipient.

The doctor gave the patient some medicine.

The doctor gave some medicine to the patient.


The [st] already has been had by Actor.




SV 人 モノ

SV モノ to

SV モノ for









  1. 授与型をとる動詞










I owe Susan some money and must pay her back by next Tuesday.



Will you do me a favor?

do more harm than good




If I buy a second-hand computer, it will save me hundreds of dollars.






  1. 前置詞を用いた授与(受け手の強調)



She gave this love letter to me. = She gave me this love letter.



  1. やり取り動詞での間接目的語の位置

I gave a birthday present to Jill. = I gave Jill a birthday present.

She cooked chicken curry for Jack. = She cooked Jack chicken curry.


giveの相手方が明らかな場合は、I gave Jill a birthday presentとする。

giveの相手方を知らない場合は、I gave a birthday present to Jill.とする。





  1. GIVING; <SVO to O> 原則

give(G) pass(F) hand(G) lend (G) (*donate(F) *contribute(F))


  1. present






  1. paying

pay the price

Where a beneficiary’s demand that the trustee acquire the beneficial interest has been made, if an agreement is reached between the trustee and the beneficiary on the determination of the price of the beneficial interest, the trustee shall pay the price before 60 days have elapsed from the date of the beneficiary’s demand that the trustee acquire the beneficial interest (or the effective day if it has not arrived by said date).




send the sum of $__ to ~ by telegraphic transfer _ドルの金額を電信為替で~あてに送金する


make payment

All payments due to Licensor by Licensee hereunder shall be made by telegraphic transfer in the United States currency to a designated bank account of Licensor. ライセンシーがライセンサーに支払うべき金額は、電信送金にて、ライセンサーが指定する銀行口座に米ドル建てで払いこまれるものとする。





The Bursar’s Office shall refund to all students amounts received in excess of the amounts due in accordance with all Federal Title IV regulations and university procedures. Excess payments made by third parties or outside organizations shall be refunded in accordance with the direction of that organization.








  1. reimburse

We will reimburse you for the room charge, but not any other miscellaneous expenses.



The Council may approve work to be undertaken in the field of the Organization at the request of or on behalf of other international organizations, and may accept reimbursement for expenses incurred.



  1. SENDING; <SVO to O> 輸送手段を用いて送る

send(G) ship(G) mail(F) (*transport(F) *deliver(F) *courier(F) *messenger(F))



submitはSVOOをとらない。SVO to Oのみ。

We didn’t actually have to go out and build some new defenses, but make a presentation, submitting our proposals to the rest of the group complete with economical and environmental costs/benefits.


  1. TOSSING; <SVO toO>    投げる

throw(G) toss(G) kick(G) fling(G) flip(G) slap(G) poke(G) (*propel(F) *release(F))


  1. ASSIGN    ; <SVO to O> 移転の結果    

offer(F) leave(G) assign(F) award(G) reserve(F) grant(F) bequeath(G) refer(F) recommend(F) guarantee(F) permit(F) promise(F)


  1. BRINGING <SVO to O> 運ぶ

bring(G) take(G) (*carry(F))


  1. COSTING;<SVO to O>取られる、減らす

マイナスの譲渡    cost(F) spare(G) save(G) charge(F) fine(G) forgive(G) envy(F) begrudge(G) deny(F) refuse(F) lose


cost, take, chargeはマイナスの授与すなわち「かかる、取る、請求する」の意味。






This hat cost me $10. この帽子は 10 ドルした.




He always charges me too much for his goods. 彼はいつも品物に対し高すぎる値段を請求する.





  1. PROVIDING; <SVO for O> e.g. He made his girl friend a cake.

He made a cake for his girlfriend.

Actor don’t have [st] but he/she will get [st] and give.


  1. read, bake, make



  1. MAKING;<SVO for O>    作る    

bake(G) build(G) cook(G) make(G) knit(G) fix(G) sew(G) (*construct(F) *create(F) *design(F) *devise(F))


  1. GETTING; <SVO for O>    入手    

get(G) find(G) buy(G) order(F) win(G) earn(G) (*obtain *purchase *collect)


Get, obtain, gain



  1. PREVENTING; <SVO from Doing> 禁止する、制限する、抵抗する、妨げる

    1. 防止 prevent



(12) The Minister of the Environment may, when the Minister finds it urgently necessary in order to prevent the occurrence of damage to human health from air polluted by a Designated Substance, issue the necessary instructions to the prefectural governor or to the mayor of a city specified by a Cabinet Order under Article 31, paragraph (1), concerning the recommendation pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (10).

12 環境大臣は、指定物質による大気の汚染により人の健康に係る被害が生ずることを防止するため緊急の必要があると認めるときは、都道府県知事又は第三十一条第一項の政令で定める市の長に対し、第十項の規定による勧告に関し、必要な指示を行うことができる。


On 15 January, Amnesty International called on all governments to immediately suspend arms transfers to all parties to the Gaza conflict to prevent further violations being committed using munitions and other military equipment. 1月15日にアムネスティは、武器・弾薬その他の軍装備を使用したさらなる侵害行為を防止するため、ガザ紛争のすべての当事者に対する武器の移転を即時停止するよう、すべての政府に要求している。


  1. keep … from ~ ・・・を~から防ぐ


keep ~ from deteriorating ~の品質劣化を防ぐ


In storing Water for Injection temporarily, adequate measures able to prevent microbial proliferation stringently, such as circulating it in a loop at a high temperature must be taken, and an appropriate storage time should also be established based on the validation studies, in consideration of the risks of contamination and quality deterioration.




  1. 禁止、制限 V+O+from doing something
    1. prohibit 〔法令などで人が~するのを〕禁止する、差し止める◆制度的または法令上の禁止を意味することが多い。

・Smoking is strictly prohibited in all public areas. : 公共の場での喫煙は固く禁じられている。



(b) Parties shall prohibit or shall not permit the export of hazardous wastes and other wastes to the Parties which have prohibited the import of such wastes, when notified pursuant to subparagraph (a) above.



  1. enjoin 〔裁判所の命令で〕禁止する


The district court enjoined the company from distributing the new Internet browser. 地裁はその会社に対して新しいインターネット・ブラウザーを配布することを禁止しました。


  1. preclude


  1. ban,
  2. forbid
  3. hinder


  1. Restrict 制限する

【動詞】 【他動詞】


用例 restrict a person’s activities [freedom] 人の活動[自由]を制限する.



用例 The chair restricted the speakers to ten minutes each. 議長は発表者に 1 人 10 分の制限を与えた.

The speed is restricted to 50 kilometers an hour here. スピードはここでは時速 50 キロに制限されている.

b[restrict oneself で] 〔…に〕制限する.

用例 I restrict myself to (drinking) a bottle of beer a day. 私は一日にビール 1 本に制限している.


  1. 妨げる、抵抗する、反対する
    1. resist  Withstand the action or effect of、〈…に〉抵抗する,反抗する,敵対する

resist an attack 攻撃に抵抗する.

antibodies help us to resist infection(抗体は感染症から人類を守る)



  1. oppose



  1. SVOC①; <Actor Material Goal Attribute> e.g. He painted the table green.



cause [st]

When Jill was at middle school, she was cyberbullied by several close friend. This experience caused a lot of emotional pain, but she turned her pain into passion for helping others. Now she runs a bullying prevention center.

cause [sb]/[st] to do

A bolt of lightning hit a power transformer and this caused 20,000 homes to lose power for several hours.

enable [sb]/[st] to do

The local airport’s runway has been extended by 340 meters to 2,230 meters. This will enable heavy, wide-doby jets to depart and land.

get [sb] 原型不定詞

Don’t worry, I’ll get the boss sign this off.

help [sb]/[st] 原型不定詞

A sleeping pill helps you calm down and fall asleep. But never, ever mix it with alcohol. Such mixture may initially help you got to sleep, but interrupts sleep later in the night and you have a bad night’s sleep.

permit [sb] to do

He has a heart condition and this does not permit him to play sports or do any physical activities.

let [sb] 原型不定詞

My parents never let me stay up late.





I saw Mary cross the street.



I saw Mary crossing the street.



I saw your name printed in the newspaper.



Just call me Ken.







There’s a dog in the hall. Someone must have left the door open.


I was just going to mention something you might have found interesting.




  1. to不定詞を説明語句に


働きかける動詞(order, force, compelなど)との組み合わせがポピュラー。





My parents always tell me to study harder!

I don’t know why Rob told me to wait on the corner.




A good teacher allows students to discover some things for themselves.




I hadn’t expected it to be so small.

it’s expected to be better tomorrow.




Why don’t you ask the ALT to help you with your English?






A college education will enable you to get a broader view of the world.




Andy upset his girlfriend with what he said. His mother advised him to be more careful in his choise of words.




They led me to believe that there was no danger.




My friends were warned not to climb the mountain in such bad weather.


I’ll try to persuade my Dad to give us a ride.


  1. V A with B

He provide us with everything we needed.

Parents should provide their children with decent food and clothing.

The girl who saved a child from drowing has been presented
with an award for courage.

Please help me with this heavy baggage.


  1. V A of B (補足説明のof)

It always reminds me of my hapy school dyas. 何を思い出させるのかを補うのが”of”


  1. have/get O p.p.

自分に有利なら 使役・受益 ~させる、~してもらう

自分に不利なら 被害    ~される(やってほしくないこと)


  1. 意味別




  1. Making



  1. Choosing





  1. Keeping




  1. Calling





  1. Painting









  1. 明らかにする

Dr. Park’s recent article further helped to clarify the research available on changing sleep patterns.




  1. 生み出す
    1. generate〈結果・状態・行動・感情などを〉引き起こす,来たす,招く
      《★【比較】 cause のほうが一般的》.





  1. SVOC②;CAUSATIVE e.g.make, have, let

I cut my hair(自分で髪を切った)

I had my hair cut(床屋で髪を切った(自分が切ったのではない))


  1. SVO + Infinitive(動詞原形); <SVOC; Causer Material Causee Infinitive>

let, have, make, bid, help, drive










The teacher made the students run in the snow.

I make myself understood.(私を理解してもらう

I make myself heard.(自分の声が聞こえるように努力する





I’ll have my secretary fax it to you right away.





I won’t let my daughter get a tattoo.


  1. SVO + to Infinitive (不定詞)


With “to”

S + V + O + to V (O)










I got one of my classmates to help my sister with her homework.



I allowed Jim to clean up the mess.


I asked Jim to clean up the mess.


I told Jim to clean up the mess.


I persuaded Jim to clean up the mess.*























3〔+目的語+to do〕〈人・ものに〉〈…〉させる 《★〔make+目+ 原形〕のほうが一般的》.

A half‐moon caused the rippling sea to glitter. さざ波立つ海面に半月の光が当たってきらきら輝いた.











  1. どっちもOK










  1. SV that SV (the second verb is in the base form)






    I insisted that Laura do her homework.


    I suggested that Laura do her homework.


    I recommended that Laura do her homework.




  1. CHANGING;変える

    1. change 一部分または全体を本質的に変える(ガラッと変える)


  1. vary 〈…を〉(いろいろに)変える,変更する,改める 《★【類語】 ⇒change》.

He varies his style of writing according to the audience. 彼は読者(層)に応じて文章のスタイルを変える.

He varied the transmission frequency. 彼は送信用の周波数を(何度も)切り換え(てみ)た.


  1. vary 同じものからの離脱を意味し,徐々にまたは断続的に変化させる(幅の広がり”various”)

Change from one condition, form, or state to another:

[with object] Introduce modifications or changes into (something) so as to make it different or less uniform:


He varies his style of writing according to the audience. 彼は読者(層)に応じて文章のスタイルを変える.

He varied the transmission frequency. 彼は送信用の周波数を(何度も)切り換え(てみ)た.


  1. alter 部分的・外面的に変化を加える

Change or cause to change in character or composition, typically in a comparatively small but significant way:



  1. modify 〈機械・装置などを〉 (部分的に)改造する、修正の為に変更する(良くする方向への変化)

Make partial or minor changes to (something), typically so as to improve it or to make it less extreme:


  1. transform  外形と同時にしばしば性格や機能もすっかり変える


  1. qualify 〈陳述・意見などを〉修正する,緩和する.

He qualified his earlier statement. 彼は先に発言したことを修正した.


  1. adjust

First Party and Second Party may adjust the scope of amendments with charge and the relevant remuneration by separate agreement in writing.







  1. Behavioral(身体動作の動詞)<SV>e.g. laugh, talk, cry, breath

Behaver Behavioural Behaviour


  1. Fundamentals

Behavioral processes are typically intransitive and hybrid process of material & mental.

The behavioral process involves psychological verbs and permits the progressive.








Representing outer manifestations of inner workings

Acting out of processes of consciousness and physiological states.







did right (in offering to talk to Susan)
negotiated (with Lewis)


  1. Patterns




    smile, sleep, cough, watch, see



    ask, claim, call, explain, offer, say, speak, talk, tell, thank



  1. Mental (Mental Process in inner work) <SVO>

e.g. see, love, think, hear, know, like





  1. Fundamentals



the one who feels (emotionally), thinks, and perceives



that which is felt (emotionally), thought about, or perceived




対象がこと(fact)もありえる。factは引用、that節, wh節,名詞+ to不定詞で表せる。

双方向の意味がある(Mary liked the gift = the gift pleased Mary)。すなわち主語はsensorもphenomenonもどちらでもよい。

助動詞doで置換不可(What John did was know the answer)





Senser (who does the mental action)

Process (processes of perception, cognition, affection)

Phenomenon (that is perceived, thought, appreciated)



to make an important distinction
the president




  1. Sentence Patterns — <SVO>only


<SVO>=<Senser Mental Phenomenon>

I hate curly underarm hair.


<SVO>=<Phenomenon Mental Senser>

His curly underarm hair amazed me.


<SVO>=<Senser Mental Phenomenon>

I saw her curly underarm hair.





Feel, hear, mishear, overhear, perceive, rehear, see, smell, sound, taste.3

25. Peter sees the birds.

26. Peter hears the birds.

27. Peter feels a stone in his shoe.

28. Peter smells smoke in his room

29. Peters tastes garlic in the food. (Helle 2006:4)


behold, dab, espy, examine, eye, feel, find, gawk, gaze, glare, glimpse, gloat,

glower, gaze, handle, hearken, introspect, invigilate, keek, leer, lip, listen, look, note down, nose, observe, ogle, outwatch, palpate, see, smell, snuff, stare, supervise, teleview, taste, tig, tip, toe, touch, trace, travel, twig, watch, witness

32. Peter looks at the birds.

33. Peter listens to the birds.

34. Peter feels the cloth

35. Peter smells the smoke in the room.

36. Peter tastes the food.


look, sound, feel, smell, taste

37. Peter looks happy.

38. Peter sounds happy.

39. The cloth felt soft.

40. Peter smells of smoke.

41. The food tastes good. (Helle 2006:6)


this group express the process “of knowing in the broadest sense”.


Apprehend, awake, bandy (about), believe, besot, bethink, blueprint, bottom, brood, calculate, catch (on), choose, chop, clench, cognize, compass, comprehend, compute, con, conceive, concentrate, conjecture, consider, contemplate, contrive, cotton (on), dabble, dawn, deem, deliberate, depicture, descant, design, devise, dig, digest, dream, envisage, evanesce, excogitate, fabricate, fib, find, follow, foresee, forget, gather (from), get, grasp, grip, guess, glimpse, gut, hall, have, hope, image, imagine, impeach, imply, import, incubate, interpret, invent, know, make, latch (on)light, mean, meditate, memorize, meseems/methinks, mind, misapprehend, miscomprehend, misconceive, mistake, misunderstand, mull, muse, opine, outsmart, penetrate, perceive, perpend, philosophize, pick (out), ponder, pretend, prophesy, read, realize, recite, recognize, recollect, relate, repose, retain, retrace, rumble, savvy, see, seize, speculate, suppose, suss, syllogise, take, think, translate, treat, twig, undeceive, understand, unlearn, unlive, unravel, visualize, wake, weary (for), ween, weigh, whiffle, will, whimple, wise, wit, wonder, work (out), worm, wrong.


bandy (about), brood, comprehend, con, conceive, concentrate, consider, contemplate, cram, dabble, deliberate, design, devise, dream, envisage, fabricate, fib, forget, hope, imagine, incubate, invent, meditate, memorize, mull (over), muse, ponder, pretend, prophesy, recollect, speculate, suss, think, visualize, will, wonder.

42. And while Fabia was comprehending that here was a flirt of the first water, he was asking, ‘But perhaps, despite your business card, you are on holiday in my country’ (BNC).

43. Mick was short of them and I was deliberating whether to get them for him


44. What he was envisaging may even be compared with a modern community centre with craft centres and other amenities (BNC).


= Emotion/Psychological

like, love, enjoy, please, delight, dislike, distress, hate, detest, want


admire, adore, appreciate, cherish, enjoy, esteem, exalt, fancy, favor, idolize, like, love, miss, prize, respect, relish, revere, savor, stand, support, tolerate, treasure, trust, value, venerate, worship (Levin, 1989:191).

52. She never pressed him and he appreciated that.

53. He could think of nowhere he would rather be than at home, with people he knew and trusted, in a place without secrets. (BNC)

54. “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him.8

55. He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine but the Father’s who sent Me.”. (Ibid)


47. Dinner would annoy Gina even more than tea, (BNC)

48. But why were they so eager to discourage visitors? (BNC).

49. I suppose the main reason was that I was so astonished to find that they existed at all, (BNC).

50. When some rare Northern bird like the pine grosbeak is seen thus far south in the winter, he does not suggest poverty, but dazzles us with his beauty, (BNC).

51. “The idea excites me but it scares me too,” she confesses, (BNC).


59. Love does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; it does not rejoice at wrong, but rejoices in the right (BNC).

60. They both enthused over my new look and I became weepy and wailed that I couldn’t keep them (BNC).

61. When your whole soul cried for a priest (BNC).

62. Indeed, I have made her immortal: my old friend Will Shakespeare wrote a play about a Danish prince called Hamlet who moons about the stage wondering whether he should kill his murderous mother (BNC).

63. The poor centipede worried over the answer until he had a nervous breakdown and lost the ability to walk naturally (BNC).
64. The picture forces the viewer to wonder at the subject of the crowd’s attention, (BNC).

65. Pauline wrote ‘I was thrilled at how quickly and easily the inches melted away, (BNC).


66. Kathie is all Nell has got, we’ve been told this several times; he appeals to Nell as the mother of their only child, not to cause her to leave home. (positive meaning), (BNC).

67. He had lost many of the people who mattered to him, and he was unsure of himself and his abilities. (positive meaning), (BNC).

68. The thin man niggled at him like a flea in the hide of a rhinoceros. (negative meaning), (BNC).

69. We are not sure that Latimer’s and Ridley’s sermons would not jar on modern refinement quite as much… (negative meaning), (BNC).




Want verbs: “covet, crave, desire, fancy, need, want”.

Long verbs: ache for, crave for, dangle after, fall for, hanker after, hanker for, hope for,

hunger for, itch for, long for, lust after, lust for, pine for, pray for, thirst after, thirst for, wish

for, yearn after, yearn for. (Levin, 1989:194,195). E.g.:

70. To combine forces made supreme sense to him, and the more absurd the reality

seemed, the more deeply he desired it. (want verb), (BNC).

71. He’s perfectly entitled to come here but not to run off with anything he fancies and

sell it. (want verb), (BNC).

72. Performers also crave for power. (long verb), (BNC).

73. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness.12 (long verb)


acclaim, applaud, bless, celebrate, commend,

compensate, compliment, congratulate, eulogize, excuse, extol, felicitate, forgive, greet, hail,

honor, laud, pardon, praise, recompense, remunerate, repay, reward, salute, thank, toast,

welcome.” (Levin, 1989:195). E.g.:

74. I had also just complimented her on her dress, (BNC).

75. ‘Jesus forgives you,’ said someone over to my left, (BNC).


12 http://bible.cc/matthew/5-6.htm accessed on April 28, 2010


76. “Pardon all my past transgressions,

Give me strength for days to come;

Guide and guard me with Thy blessing

Till Thy angels bid me home.” (Dickens)13


“abuse, backbite, calumniate, castigate, censure,

chasten, chastise, chide, condemn, criticize, decry, defame, denigrate, denounce, deride,

disparage, fault, fine, impeach, insult, lambaste, malign, mock, revile, ridicule, scold, scorn,

shame, snub, upbraid, victimize, vilify. (Levin, 1989:195). E.g.:

77. But Moscow has consistently disparaged any initiatives for the formal

neutralisation of the country, (BNC).

78. In 1900 a dispute arose because it was said that the Taff Vale Railway Company

had victimized a trade unionist who led a wage demand, (BNC).

79. The horror of bachelorhood which condemns you to arid thought for ever, and the

horror of marriage, which condemns you to lies and hypocrisy for ever. (BNC)



  1. 特徴
    1. VERBS -思考・感情・伝達系


I think it’s a waste of time.

I love chocolate crepes.

His fans adore him.


  1. Whad do you feel/ like/ think about X?で確認する

メンタルな動詞は、What did she do?に対する答えができない。Doは外部的な動きや変化を表すが、メンタルは内面の抽象的思考であるから、答えることができない。そこでWhat does she think about it?と問いかける。

She thinks (that) it won’t work out.

She thinks (that) it won’t wok out.

What she thought was that it won’t work out.


  1. 「人」が主役

The volcanic eruption destroyed homes and forced evacuations.


I saw the Southern Star briefly before dawn.

I doubt that it’ll rain.


  1. 客体を欠く自動詞用法がない

I arrived at ten.



I think that it’s not feasible.



We have calculated that it would take about 5 days to complete the job.

We deducted from her tone that she was not pleased with our work.

You would never guessed that she was over forty.

I suspect that someone deleted it on purpose.


  1. 客体は名詞またはThat節


  1. 名詞または名詞+分詞句であらわすコト・モノ

I knew something. I thought something.

I saw the development work taking place.


  1. THAT節で表すモノ・コト

We didn’t realize that she was a terrorist.


  1. AFFECTION <SVO; Senser like Phenomenon> e.g. like, hate



admire, adore, appreciate, cherish, enjoy, esteem, fancy, favor, like, love, miss, respect, relish, savor, venerate, worship; abhor, deplore, despise, detest, dislike, distrust, dread, envy, fear, hate, lament, loathe, mourn, pity, regret, resent, et.

a. People admire novels.

b. ×Novels admire easily.(中間構文は不可能)



fear, intend, want, wish



factive mental verb

know, realize, regret

non-factive mental verb

believe, think, assume







    favor a proposal 提案に賛成する.







    I hope you’ll enjoy your visit to our country. わが国へのご訪問を楽しく過ごされますよう.




  1. HOPE



  1. DECISION(決心)



He decided to postpone his departure. 彼は出発を延ばすことに決めた (cf. decide 1b).

He decided that he’d postpone his departure. 彼は出発を延ばすことに決めた (cf. decide 1a).






He has determined to return home at once. 彼はすぐ故郷へ帰る決意をした

I determined that nothing (should) be changed. 何も変えまいと決心した.




  1. THINK(意識、思考)

believe, consider, expect, feel, find, know, mean, need, rad, remember, see, think, understand





  1. consider, regard,











  1. imagine,suppose, guess
























call back


call up





  1. foreget





  1. 思案





  1. COGNITION <SVO; Phenomenon please Senser> e.g. please, surprise, amaze


affect, afflict, agitate, agonize, alarm, alienate, amaze, amuse, anger, annoy, appall, arouse, astonish, bore, bother, charm, cheer, comfort, concern, confuse, delight, depress, disappoint, displease, disgust, dismay, dissatisfy, entertain, disturb, excite, frighten, frustrate, humiliate, gratify, interest, intimidate, irritate, offend, perplex, perturb, please, puzzle, satisfy, scare, shame, shock, startle, stimulate, sting, surprise, terrify, threaten, thrill, tire, torment, touch, trouble, upset, wound, etc.

c. Novels amuse people.

d. People amuse easily.(中間構文が可能)



  1. PERCEPTION(知覚動詞) <SVO; Senser see Phenomenon> e.g. see <SVOC; Percepter see O C>

Set 1(action)

Set 2(non-action)

Set 3(non-action)

perceiver is forcusing on a specific object.

general perception





He is listening to the radio.

He hears a noise.

That sounds like thunder.

They are looking at the picture.

They see flames.

This looks terrible.











hear, feel, listen, notice, observe, see, sense, smell



  1. <SVOC>








I saw Mary crying.

I saw that Mary was crying.

She was happy to see her guest eating her cakes eagerly.



He was almost asleep when he heard his name called.

I heard you play at the party.

I heard that you played at the party.



We found two windows smashed.







①I know the girl playing the piano.(私はピアノを弾いているその女の子を知っています。)

②I saw the girl playing the piano.(私はその女の子がピアノを弾いているのを見ました。)








look at




listen to






look at







listen to




  1. Verbal/Reporting:(Saying; Information Providing)(SVO, SVOO);情報を与える・求める・扱う、意思を伝えるなど

say, tell, warn, argue, ask


  1. Fundamentals

    1. Sentence Patterns


Sayer Verbal Matter

He complained about the discomfort.


Sayer Varbal Verbiage

The x-ray shows a small lump in his throat.

The doctor expressed some concern.

SV Clause

Sayer Verbal [Separete ranking clause]

He mumbled that the ball ruined his appearance.



  1. 5つのコミュニケーション





    argue that~/his position

    assert that~

    cry (out) that~/her name

    deny (to me)e that~/the truth




    advise if ~/wh-~

    answer (me) if ~

    argue if ~/the facts

    confirm (with me) if ~/wh-~

    disclose (to me) if ~/wh-~/the truth




    ask if ~/wh-~/the question

    enquire(inquire) if ~/wh-~

    qyery if ~/wh-~/the results

    question if ~/wh-~/a witness

    request if ~/wh-~/a reply




    ask (him) to do it

    beg (him) to do it

    command him to do it





    agree to do it

    recommend that he (should) do it/the procedure

    propose that he (should) do it/the solution

    suggest that he (should) do it/the solution



  1. Participant


the addresser



the addressee, or the entity targeted by the saying



the content of what is said or indicated



  1. Direct quote / Indirect quote




He said, “I cannot tell a lie.”

He said that he couldn’t tell a lie.

She asked, “May I have a cookie?”

She asked if she could have a cookie.




border between mental and relational





Sayer (the participant who is speaking)

Process (expresses the relationship between ideas constructed in human consciousness nad the ideas enacted in the form of language)

Receiver (Target, addressee to whom the process is directed is)

Verbiage (what is said is)




“What if we talk about a ceasefire?”


発言動詞は、心理動詞と同様、進行形がないのが特徴であるが、不特定多数に対する発言の場合は、 必ずしも意識・知覚のある関与者を必要としない。


Lucy said, “I love you.”

Lucy said she loved me.



“Let’s have a party,” Tom said [said Tom].


  1. 時制の一致

Nancy said, “I will pick up the kids at 10.”

Nancy said that she would pick up the kids at 10.


  1. 登場人物に注意する

My Dad said to me, “I‘ll lend you the money.”

My Dad said he would lend me the money.


  1. 場所・時間には要注意

My brother called from Paris and said, “I’m leaving here tomorrow.”

My brother called from Paris and said he was leaving there the next day.







before/ earlier


that day


the day before / the previous day

next week

the next week / the following weeek


The secretary said, “The Headmaster left his office about an hour ago.”

The secretary said the Headmaster had left his office about an hour before.


  1. 発言動詞、行動動詞、心理動詞






    speak, talk

    see, love, think

    say, tell
























    She wanted him to dol.

    She told him to do.



    She knew he was going.

    She said he was going.


  2. レポート文(think, say etc…)



I thinkやTom said to meでは言いたい事がわからない。thinkって具体的になんだ?saidってTomは何て言ったの?




  1. that以下は「説明」。「節」ではない。

レポート文は、一見、動詞+節という形に思えるが、実は説明型の一種(I think Mary is gorgeous.は、thinkをMary is gorgeousが説明している。)

(1)レポート文では主節動詞は一語とは限らないし(Tom said to me he loved me.は動詞+前置詞+名詞+節)、
(2)主節動詞が使われるとは限らない(I’m afraid we cannot give you a refund. とI’m so sad he lost his job.では、afraidやsadは動詞ではなく形容詞)


  1. whether/if節(~かどうか)

whether to ~ ~すべきかどうか


  1. 遠回し疑問文

OK: Do you know where the nearest convenience store is?

NG: Do you know where is the nearest convenience store?




What kind of music do you like? は刺激が強い。

Tell me what kind of music you like. は”Tell me”により質問が来るな、と心の準備ができる。



  1. 特徴

My boss said that she was not happy with the findings of the report.

発言者:My boss



対象:that she was …



A high official said on condition of anonymity that …


She’s a “woman with a past.” She won’t tell me anything about her past.




話題:anything about her


  1. 発言の相手とは別の言及対象がいる場合

?DisparagingってReporting Verbなのか?

For some reason, my boss keeps disparaging John to his coworkers.

発言者:My boss


相手:his coworkers




that, what, whether で始まる節を続けることができる。


  1. 発言内容+ReportingVerb+発言者

“Pay raises are frozen,” answered the boss.


NG: “Raises are frozen,” ansered he.



  1. 情報の受け手の表示

John told me he would be late.

John promised (me) that he would marry me.

John admitted to me that he was lying.




tell, inform, notify, persuade, remind, assure






say, admit, agree, complain, explain


  1. 疑問文のレポート

She asked, “Do you like the movie?”

⇒She asked me if (whether) I liked the movie.

She asked, “Where do you live?”

⇒She asked me where I lived.


  1. Let’sのレポート(suggest, propose, recommend, advise)

He said, “Let’s try again.”

⇒He suggested we (should) try again.


  1. レポート文以外の間接話法

She said to me, “I love you.” ⇒She confessed her love to me.

She asked, “Where is he?” ⇒She asked his whereabouts.

He said, “Let’s try again.” ⇒He suggested trying again.

My mom said, “Beback by midnight” ⇒My mom told me beback by midnight.

The librarian said, “Don’t eat in the library” ⇒The librarian told me not to eat in the library.

My teammates said to me, “Do your best.” ⇒My teammates encouraged me to do my best.

The teacher said to the class, “Study hard for the test.” ⇒The teacher advised us to study hard for the test.




  1. SAYING; Sayer Verbal Verbiage; that構文の典型(陳述の対象は抽象化された事実)    argue that~/his position


assert that~

cry (out) that~/her name

deny (to me)e that~/the truth



acknowledged (to him)

admit to be real or true; recognize the existence, truth, or fact of something

He acknowledge his mistake to me. (formal)

announced (to him)

make something known publicly or officially; proclaim; give notice of something

The couple announced their baby’s birth.

claimed (to him)

state with confidence, strongly, positively, something to be true or right

He claimed to us that he was the rightful owner.

commented (to him)

add a remark, observation, or criticism

He commented to me that he enjoyed my writing.

complained (to him)

express dissatisfaction, pain, uneasiness, find fault:

He complained to them about the lack of hot water.

declared (to him)

make known or state clearly, especially in formal terms

She declared to me that she was old enough to make her own decisions.

denied (to him)

state that something (others believe is true) is not true

He denied to us that he was looking for a new job.

described (to him)

take a visual impression and put it in spoken or written words

He described to us his visit to Disneyland.

emphasized (to him)

lay stress or put importance of something

They emphasized to us that honesty came first.

explained (to him)

make plain or clear, understandable

They explained their plan to us.

expressed (to him)

put into words, utter, state, reveal

He expressed his anger to us.

indicated (to him)

point out, direct attention to, make known

They indicated to us their disapproval of our way of dressing.

mentioned (to him)

refer to briefly, speak about something in passing (not the focus of the conversation)

He mentioned to her that he had seen her ex-husband.

pointed out (to him)

indicate, direct attention to, make known, reveal

The lawyer pointed out to the court the error.

prayed (to God)

to ask for divine assistance

They prayed to God for safe passage.

refer to

To mention or reference someone or something

When you say he’s clumsy, are you referring to what he did the other day?

When we are in the meeting, refer to me as your colleague and not as your sister.

related (to him)

tell, narrate, recount

He related his story to us.

remarked (to him)

say casually, make a comment (in passing, not the focus)

He remarked to us that our dog looked like a wolf.

reported (to him)

tell or describe an event in detail

The journalist reported the events of the day at the court house.

replied (to him)

give an answer in spoken or written words

The landlord replied to us regarding our requests.

responded (to him)

give an answer in spoken or written words

She responded to me that I should call back later.

restated (to him)

say again with different words or in a new way

She restated to the child that there were no more, zero, cookies.

revealed (to him)

make known, uncover, disclose, divulge

He revealed to us that he disliked chocolate.

roared (to him)

utter with a deep, loud sound (like a lion)

Father roared his orders to us.

screamed (to him)

utter a loud, sharp, high-pitched, sound

The woman screamed to us when she needed help.

screeched (to him)

utter a loud, sharp, high-pitched, sound (birdlike, owl)

The unhappy child screeched to us to pick her up.

shouted (to him)

speak out with a loud, strong and clear  voice (sometimes across a long distance)

He shouted to me not to forget to take the parking brake off.


utter a loud, sharp, high-pitched, sound (bird-like, ghost-like)

The witch shrieked her name to us.

sobbed (to him)

cry, weep, catching one’s breath in between

She sobbed to us that she had lost her home and family.

sputtered (to him)

utter words explosively (often in anger or frustration (sputter like an old car engine)

He sputtered the situation to us.

stated (to him)

say clearly, definitely, specifically

She stated her mission to the committee.

sighed (to him)

sat under one’s breath, very quietly (as from tiredness, sadness or relief)

She sighed to herself then fell asleep.

squawked (to him)

utter a loud, harsh cry (like a crow, duck or other frightened bird)

She squawked her orders to us.

squeaked (to him)

a short, sharp, cry; a sharp, high-pitched sound (mouse-like)

She squeaked her name to us.

uttered (to him)

let out, sound, pronounce, say

He uttered a curse to us and left.

vowed (to him)

promise; state something will be observed

They vowed to each other to honor their marriage.

wailed (to him)

utter a mournful (sorrowful, sad) cry

She wailed to her mother as the car drove away.

whispered (to him)

speak in soft sounds, without using the voice (vocal chords)

He whispered his secret to me.

whined (to him)

utter a long, nasal-sounding, complaining cry

He whined to us about how unfair the world is.

yelled (to him)

speak out with a loud, strong and clear  voice (angrily)

He yelled to us to come back and finish.



  1. say以外のレポート動詞

The boys promised that they would stop teasing the girls.


The government warned that people should avoid traveling to that country.

Many parents complained that the school fees were too high.


  1. Saying + Mental

The new CEO of Katori Warehouse Ltd. has expressed a strong interest in opening a store in Singapore.



  1. DISCLOSURE 情報を与える    if構文やwh構文(情報は0/1か疑問文)

advise if ~/wh-~

My doctor advised that we should get the flu injection.

answer (me) if ~


argue if ~/the facts


confirm (with me) if ~/wh-~


disclose (to me) if ~/wh-~/the truth



  1. REQUESTING情報を求める    if構文やwh構文(情報は0/1か疑問文)

ask if ~/wh-~/the question

enquire(inquire) if ~/wh-~

qyery if ~/wh-~/the results

question if ~/wh-~/a witness

request if ~/wh-~/a reply


ask (V) – request information → My father always asks how I am doing. (commonly used)

inquire (V) – request information → Mr. Smith inquired how my family was. (formal)

question (V) – settle doubt, challenge someone’s answers → My father questioned where I was last night. (not used with quoted speech)

wonder (V) — question in one’s mind → We wondered where they were last night. (not used with quoted speech)

request (V) – ask for → My father requested information about where I was last night. (not used with quoted speech)


  1. COMMANDING命令・要求する    to不定詞(命令・要求は未実施のこと)



ask [sb] to do it

He asked us to leave the room. 彼は我々に退室するよう求めた.


beg [sb] to do it



command [sb] to do it




  1. SUGGESTION提供・提案する     that節(To不定詞も可能なのか?)


  1. 宣言(宣言行為と宣言内容が同時並行で行われる「一体感」があるから現在形)

I promise I won’t be late again.

I suggest you add more salt.

I apologize for behaving like a jerk last night.






agree to do it



recommend that he (should) do it/the procedure



propose that he (should) do it/the solution

He proposed a new plan (to us). 彼は(我々に)新しい計画を提案した.


suggest that he (should) do it/the solution




  1. Relational (Identify/Attribute/Becoming/Having; ):<SVC> e.g. be, have, seem, sound, weigh

  1. Fundamentals

    1. Identifying or Attributing (equivalenceは?)


      Identifying process

      Attributive process


      Token Rel-Ident Value

      Value Rel-Ident Token


      Today is Independence Day.



      Swapping positions

      That man is my father.
      ⇔ My father is that man.


      He is blessed ≠ Blessed is he.



      “The exam takes up the whole day”
      ⇔”The whole day is taken up by the exam.”

      × (never undergo passivisation)

      “The exam lasts the whole day.”
      ≠ “The whole day is lasted by the exam.”


    2. two ways of reversibility test

STEP1: Swapping of positions

“That man is my father.”⇔”My father is that man.”(⇒Identifying)

“He is blessed”≠”Blessed Is he.”(⇒Attributive)


STEP2: Passivisation (If the sentence is not able to swaped)

“The exam takes up the whole day”⇔”The whole day is taken up by the exam.” (⇒Identifying)

“The exam lasts the whole day.”≠ “The whole day is lasted by the exam.”(⇒Attributive)


  1. Relational process manifestated in three ways

Intensive (内包的)

X is Y


Circumstantial Attribute

X is at/in/under… Y


Possessive (所有)

X has Y






necessary property, quality

the set of things it extends to or applied to

the totally of intensions


e.g. dog

“bachelor” is unmarried man.

United States of America, Japan, China … (all countries listed)




  1. Circumstantial Attribute or Circumstance


    Circumstantial Attribute (Participant)

    location (circumstance)


    The best hiding place is in the drain.

    He dropped his wallet in the drain.








Process (expressing possession, equivalence, attributes…)





a good start
for peaceful settlement


属性的(as a property)

同定的(as identification)

内包的(x is a)

Sarah is wise

Tom is the leader

the leader is Tom.

状況的(x is at /in /on /for/ with/ about/ along a)

the fair is on a Tuesday.

tomorrow is the 10th.

the 10th is tomorrow

所有的(x has a)

Peter has a piano.

the piano is Peter’s

Peter’s is the piano.


  1. BE動詞(リンクする動詞):何かが+どうである、どうであった+何かについてのコメント
  1. be動詞による説明型




  1. 一般動詞による説明型



All the food went rotten.

I’m getting hungry, Mom. When’s dinner?

He becomes a doctor.


The audience remained silent during the national anthem.


Doesn’t she look gorgeous in that dress?

My hair feels much softer with this new conditioner.

The newe video game sounds amazing.


She seems / appears stressed out.

His plan proved successful.

Her prediction turned out right.











After the car hit the boy, he remained unconscious for two days.





Something has go wrong with the machine; it makes a strong noise.

go bankruptなど、悪い方向への変化が多







  1. X≠Y型とX=Y型










Jack is tall

Jack is the founder of XYZ.


“a” 属性を示すのみ

“the” Yは確定的に決まる(X=Y型は同一性を表す)







  1. be



Her boyfriend is a prince of a small kingdom in Africa.






Most of the discussion at the board meeting concerned how to phrase the press release.



  1. ATTRIBUTES(主体の意味づけ)



The presence of these bacteria indicates water contamination.(バクテリアの存在と水質汚染を関係付ける(証拠関係))








= account for

Exports represent 40 percent of total sales.


  1. 状況;xaのどの空間にあるのかを前置詞を用いて表す。


































  1. 名詞句を続けることができるリンク動詞


しかし、appear, be, become, end up, feel, look, seemの7つは名詞句を続けることができる。ただ、硬い響きになる。




You don’t want to appear a fool, do you?

You don’t want to look like a fool, do you?

I feel an idiot.

I feel like an idiot.

This looks an interesting book.

This looks like an interesting book.

He remained a bachelor all his life.

He was a bachelor.

Our new neighbor seems a nice guy.

Out neighbor seems like a nice guy.




  1. IDENTIFY <SVC; Token Rel-Indent Value>

    1. Participant


The Representer (Representative) in identifying process

Today is Independence Day.


The Representee [st][sb]

Today is Independence Day.



If the identifying process is able to undergo passivisation, the subject in active form is always the Token.

If the identifying process is not able to under go passivisation, you go next step “REPRESENT TEST”.

  1. REPRESENT TEST (replacing the verb with “represent”)

e.g. “Today is Independence day”

⇒”Today represents Independence day” is available, whereas “Independence day represents Today” is not.

So, “Today” is Token and “Independence day” is Value.

e.g. “The champion is Jones.”

⇒”The champion represents Jones” is not available, whereas “Jones represents the champion” is available.

So, “Jones” is Token (Representative), “the Champion” is Value.


  1. ATTRIBUTE <SVC; Carrier Rel-Attr Attribute>

    1. Participant



He is fantastic during the day.


attributes, characters, marks, properties, or qualities, that the object possesses

He is fantastic during the day.


The grammatical subject is Carrier, because attributive process are non-passivisable.



  1. Sentence patterns




He is good-looking.



He has a rib cage.



  1. LAST

Rechargeable batteries today lasts almosts twice as long as those produced 10 years ago.




  1. ~のようだ、~のように見える

続くto beは省略可能。ただし、a-で始まる形容詞が続く場合、また-INGが続く場合は省略できない。

to beは、人による判断や評価を言う場合は省略する。ただし、テーマを直接指している場合(e.g. This new product seems to be popular.)は省略しない。





She appears to be all right mentally, but physically, her ribs are broken and her right ankle is sprained and greatly swollen.



You seem worried. Let us pray and God will answer our prayers.



You look tired.


  1. ~の状態を保つ



Please keep still until you hear the shutter sound.



She remained certain of what she saw. But the evidence was inconsistent with what she said she saw.



She remained certain of what she saw. But the evidence was inconsistent with what she said she saw.




I can fit you in on Monday morning. Does that suit you?(私(の予定)とあなた(の予定)を関係付ける(適合する))

say something that doesn’t fit with the fact 事実にそぐわない事を言う


= stay

remain unalteredという意味合いが強調される。

This large plot of land has stood empty for years.





  1. 嗅覚



This soap smells nice.



  1. 聴覚



Her voice sounded strange.



  1. 味覚



This soup tastes awful.





リンク動詞は受動態にできないのが原則。しかし、具体例+抽象概念を具現化する動詞+抽象概念という組み合わせ、define, exemplify, represent, signify等の動詞は、受動態を作ることが可能。


act as


Her lawyer husband acted as her legal representative.


Today is our company’s 100th anniversary.



Two plus two equals four.



Revenging his father’s death forms the theme of this film.



“Brief” means “short”.



In this film, she plays Linda, a drug-addicted jazz singer.



This picture suggests patriotism.



To many, the dove symbolizes peace. To some, it means a delicacy.




  1. POSSESS/HAVE(X have A; 所有)



Symptoms of dementia include impairments in memory, rasoning and judgement.

The invitation list includes Jack.



The film contains violent scenes.

The liquor contains 60% alcohol.

Many dishes served at the Urban Café contain vegetables harvested by the Chef Duour himself.




the piano    is    Peter’s

体現者:被所有者    過程中核部:内包的    属性:所有者



Peter    has    a pino

体現者:所有者    過程中核部:所有    属性:被所有者



the piano    belong to    Peter

体現者:被所有者    過程中核部:所有    属性:所有者

  1. BECOMING; X≠Y型(動画タイプ)

    1. ~になる



It’s becoming cold.



It’s getting cold.



My mother’s hair is going grey.

The compay went bankrupt two years ago.



ゆっくりした感触(徐々に)があり、to 不定詞を続ける必要がある。

It’s growing cold.

Over time, I grew to love my job.



It’s turning cold.

The traffic light turned red.


  1. 結果(結末)~になる

end up


He ended up poor.

turn out


He claims the credit only when things turn out well.


  1. RESULT; 結果(発生・変化・消滅)を言う動詞(SV, SVC)



  1. 発生


Where were you when the shooting happended?


This disease typically occurs in men over fifty.



  1. 変化



Some of my former classmates have changed drastically and I couldn’t recognize them.


My daughter grew five centimeters last year.


  1. 消滅


My mother died of heart attack.



  1. 改善のための積極的努力(これは変化なのか?Doing Verbsでは?SVOだし。)



I’m joining a gym to develop my muscles. All I want is to move from pathetic to average.



  1. 冠詞の使い分け



  1. There構文(There is a NOUN)

    1. 説明


そうすると、”An accident has occurred.” や “Some water is over the floor.” となりそうである。


そこで、”There was an accident.” や “There is some water on the floor.”と不確定な名詞句を後ろに回す。



  1. There構文がよく使われるジャンル


Once upon a time, there was a princess living all alone in a castle in a kingdom far, far away.


There are many types of dolphins in all parts of the world. Here are some of the main ones: the common dolphin, the bottlenose dolphin, the killer whale and so forth.


Last week, there were about 10 reports of pretty bad tornadoes in the area.


  1. 存在文というジャンル

I saw an accident happen right in front of me.


  1. 副詞のThere(There is the NOUN)

There’s the tablet I’m thinking of getting.


  1. There + be動詞 + 名詞・代名詞 + 場所

There was nobody [名詞] in the meeting room [場所を示す副詞句]. Either I was misinformed or the meeting has been rescheduled without my knowledge.

There’s 50% off sale on their website.


  1. There + be動詞 + 形容詞句・節で修飾されている名詞

There are several routes [名詞] to reach the summit [形容詞句].


  1. There + be動詞 + 名詞 + ING/-ed

There’s a sale goint on at their webite.

There’s a suspiciou car parked out front.



In the early hours, there was a huse


  1. There + be動詞 + NO/NOT + 動詞のING形

There’s no denying that we’re facing a shortage of shortage of skilled labor.


  1. There + AUX + be動詞 + 名詞句 (AUXでニュアンスを調整する)

There must be a power switch somewhere.



  1. 使い方のポイント
    1. Thereで切り出してItで受ける

There’s quite a heat wave here. It’s really scorching hot, isn’t it?


  1. Thereで表すものは不確定的なので定冠詞はまず使わない。

There’s a packet for you.



  1. a lot of, plenty ofを組み合わせる場合、可算名詞との組み合わせなら動詞も複数形だが、付加さん名詞との組み合わせなら単数形

There are a lot of peole at the workshop, but there are plenty of seats.

There is plenty of wine to go around.


  1. There と a number ofを組み合わせるときはA number of = several, manyなので、動詞は複数形

There have been a number of accidents at this crossing.


  1. 実質的主語が複数の場合、話し言葉では常に単数形、書き言葉では複数形

話し言葉:There’s two mice somewhere in the house.

書き言葉:There are two mice somewhere in the house.


  1. be動詞以外を使うとフォーマル感。ただしThere文の95%はbe動詞を使う。

There remains one more condition to be met.

There lies some truth in what he says.


  1. be動詞以外の決まり文句でよく使うもの

①There seems to be ( e.g. There seems to be a problem.)。

There isと比べて断定調が薄らぐので気遣いが要求される場面で使われる。


②There happened to be

There happened to be a phone charger in the taxi, so I happily plugged the charger into my dying mobile.


  1. IT構文

    1. 内容のあるIT

It’s too cold/hot.

It’s windy.とは言うが、It’s winding.とは言わない。

What’s rainy?との問いに対して、The weather’s rainy.と答えられる。


  1. 無内容のIT(形式主語)

It’s raining.


  1. 客観的な論評で使う

It is said that nuclear power is not a sustainable energy source.(”said that”以下のコメントをつける対象として”It” をおいた)


  1. 時刻、距離、寸法などで使う


What time is it?

It’s two o’clock?


When was it?

It was Monday the 20th.


How far is it?

It’s a three-hour ride on the bullet train.


How long is it?

It’s about 10 centimeters long.


  1. 重い部分を先送りするIT
    1. That節を先送りする。英語はEnd Focus(既知情報が先で新情報は後)とEnd Weight(重い要素は後ろ)


That her interest was in money was plain.では、述語動詞がなかなか出てこないので読みづらい。

It was plain that her interest was in money.


appear, follow, happen, seem等は、It構文を使うのが一般的。

that safety procedures were not followed.

She may not be talkative but it doesn’t follow
that she is not listening.

It’s not that I don’t like watching TV, but it just so happened
that I didn’t have time to watch that program.

It seems
that nobody knows what happended.


  1. INGで始まるフレーズを先送りする

Avoid: Trying to strike a balance between work and life is a major challenge.

Use : It’s a major challenge trying to strike a balance between work and life.


  1. To不定詞で始まるフレーズを先送りする

Avoid: To expect advertisers to check the truth of advertisements is unrealistic.

Use :It’s unrealistic to expect advertisers to check the truth of advertisements.


  1. WH語で始まる節を先送りする

Avoid: Where she had contracted the disease was unclear.

Use : It was unclear where she had contracted the disease.





  1. Existential (存在動詞)

リンク動詞(be動詞やその仲間(appear, seemなど))以外の動詞で、「何かが存在すること」または「何かと何かの関係がどうなっているのかを示す動詞」




  1. EXISTENTIAL Process (Existing and Happening) e.g. be, exist, stand, lie


  1. Participant




in subject position (called expletive/empty there)



  1. Sensence Patterns

There V S

expletive there

Once upon a time there was a weird grammarian.



We live in the world.





there was a little guinea-pig

there seems to be a problem.










Our president
One of conditions


a good start
a thir party
safe passage for all his followers.



  1. EXIST:存在(SV)


= continue in being

I don’t believe such a word exists.


= non-existent

What is lacking in these studies, she contends, is common sense.



It’s a small world we live in. it has been shrinking due to rapid proress in practically all fields.



  1. THERE IS…



  1. 基本動詞(いろいろな使い方ができる万能な動詞)

  1. GO;「→」ある場所から立ち去って進んでいく動き

    1. 立ち去る

He went to the museum.

Poor Granny has gone.

You are simply not up to the job. You have to go.


  1. 通用する(進んでいく⇒通用する)

As far as dress code is concerned, anything goes.


  1. 変化する(ある状態に進んでいく)

The milk has gone sour.


  1. have (has) gone(現在完了の「今」への焦点から、立ち去って今はいない)

Your dad has gone to the bank.


  1. go (and)動詞(行って~する)

I don’t know where the keys are.――Well, go and find them [Go find them]


  1. go + -ing(~しに行く)

Let’s go swimming/skiing.


  1. For here or to go?


  1. COME;「←」何かが向こうからやってくる

    1. さまざまな「やってくる」

Where do you come from?

A watch like that doesn’t come cheap.(時計がやってくる⇒手に入る)

Mmm…nothing exciting comes to mind.

  1. もうすぐくる・次の(Coming)

the coming year(次の年)

the coming trend(次の流行)


  1. 変化する

My all your dreams come true.

Things sometimes go bad but they usually come good again.(goは悪い方向に、comeはいい方向に)

He is completely gone.


  1. come to 動詞(~するようになる)

I came to really like spicy food.


  1. How come…?(

How come I wasn’t invited?

How come Helen didn’t make it to the party?


come along やってくる


  1. RUN;走る

    1. さまざまな「走る」

There’s a free shuttle bus that runs between the airport terminals.

That movie made shivers run down my spine.(私の背筋をゾクっとさせた)


  1. 走る⇒線状の軌跡が残る⇒線状のものがある

I took the small road that runs parallel to the expressway.

Who left the tap running?(蛇口を出しっぱなしにする)

I have a runny nose.


  1. 変化する

The well has run dry.


  1. run + 目的語

He gave me trips on how to run a meeting.


  1. BRING;「←」COME + モノ

I’ll bring my guiter.

The Internet has brought many changes to our everyday lives.


  1. CARRY;支える。移動のフレーバーが加わっている。しかしBringのような方向性はない。

That’s heavy backpack you‘re carrying.

Millions of people now carry the AIDS virus.


  1. (店で)商品を取り扱う

Artrox Photography carries just-released products, along with lightly used equipment.




  1. DRIVE;力を入れて動かす

    1. 運転する

My husband always drives too fast.

  1. 力を加えて動かす

My mother-in-law drove me out of the house!

Spam mail drives me nuts.


  1. LEAVE;残して去る(出て行くものに焦点を置いた「去る」と、その結果残されたものに焦点を置いた「残す」)

    1. 去る(動作)

He left for Manila this morning.

  1. 残す

Oh no, I left my wallet at home.

Leave everything to me, OK?


  1. RISE;「↑」上がる(上昇する、増す、社会的立場が上がる、起きる、など)

Everyone knows hot air rises.

Food prices have risen dramatically.

What happened to him after he rose to fame?

I never rise before midday on weekends.


  1. FALL;「↓」下がる(落ちる、倒れる、減る、健康・意識の減退など)

Be careful or you’ll fall!

I lost control and fell head first into the snow.

The number of students is falling every year.

He fell ill while we were on holiday.

He fell asleep on our first date!


  1. TURN;クルッと向きを変える

    1. 各種方向転換

Turn left at the next corner.

Turn the steaks after about 3 minutes.

Turn the TV on――the match is about to start.

  1. 変化

I love it when the leaves turn golden yellow in the fall.

  1. PASS;ある場所を通り過ぎる

If you pass a big park, you’ve gone too far.

The days pass too quickly when you’re on holiday.

Hey, I passed my driving test!

  1. TAKE;目の前のものをひょいと手に取る動作。選び取るニュアンスをしばしば伴う。

    1. さまざまな「手に取る」

I think I need to take an aspirin.

The burglars took all my jewelry and cash.

I took lots of photos on my trip.

  1. 受け入れる

We can take up to 100 guests in our restaurant.

He didn’t take his doctor’s advice.

  1. 選択

I’ll take the black boots.

I usually take the bus to school.

  1. take 人・モノ to 場所(もっていく、連れて行く)

I’ll take you to the airport.

  1. PUT;何かをどこかにポンッとする。(「置く」ではない)

    1. さまざまな「なにかをどこかにポンッと」

I put a calendar on the wall.

I put salt in the cake instead of sugar!

I can’t believe they put Jenny on the committee.

The government should put more emphasis on education.

  1. (ことば)を言う・書く

To put it bluntly, you’re an idiot!


  1. put A to B

Isn’t it time to put these myths to an end?



  1. SET;意図的に・慎重に・しっかりと「置く」。SETされたものは揺ぎ無い・動かない。

    1. カチッと置く

Just set those boxes on the table.

I’ve set the alarm for 6:30 am.

Have you set a date for the wedding yet?

  1. 固まる

You have to wait until the plaster sets.

  1. GET;動いて手に入れる(動きに強い意識がある)

    1. さまざまな「手に入れる」

I got a Valentine’s card from Satomi.

How did you get her number?

How about getting Chinese food for dinner tonight?

I don’t get it. I mean, he’s not good-looking but the girls are all over him!

  1. 到着する・~するようになる

We’ll never get there on time with all this traffic.

I’d like to get to know you better.

  1. 変化

I’d better go home――it’s getting late.

Why did she get so upset?((何かきっかけがあって)怒り出した)

⇔Why was she so upset?(単に「怒っていた」)

  1. get + 目的語 + To 不定詞

I often get my older brother to help me with my homework.

  1. Get + 目的語 + 説明語句

My sister likes to get me really worked up.

I have to get all this work done by this afternoon.

I finally got my printer working properly.

  1. get受動態(~される)

I got/was caught speeding yesterday.(予期せぬ・突然・驚きなどの勘定を伴う/伴わない)

  1. MAKE;力をこめて何かを作り上げる

    1. さまざまなモノを「作り上げる」

My husband made a lovely coffee table.

Can you make the tough decisions?

6 and 4 makes 10.

I must make an appointment with the dentist.(appointmentも当事者が作り上げるもの)

  1. make friends with友達になる

I made friends with Chris.

  1. make of (どのような印象を)作り上げたのか

What do you make of the latest fasion trend?

  1. HAVE;接近(近くにある) ※動作ではなく「位置」を表す。物理的な近さ・所有権の及ぶ範囲など近接の意識

Our company has nearly 50 branches.

I have a terrible headache.

How much time do we have?

  1. haveのフレーズ(動作を表すこともあるが、基本イメージは位置。動きは感じない)

have dinner

have a baby

have a bath

have a good time

I had beer.⇔I drank beer.(Drank beerはゴクゴクビールを飲む様子をイメージする)


  1. have ~ comply with ~ ~を遵守させる 

(2) When a Certified Organization has published the Investor Protection Guidelines under the preceding paragraph, it shall endeavor to provide the Target Business Operators with guidance, recommendations and other measures necessary for having the Target Business Operators comply with the Investor Protection Guidelines.

2 認定団体は、前項の規定により投資者保護指針を公表したときは、対象事業者に対し、当該投資者保護指針を遵守させるため必要な指導、勧告その他の措置をとるよう努めなければならない。



  1. LET;同意(許可)する(allowなどより大変軽い感触)

Just let me check my email.

Let me know (LMK)

I won’t let them hurt you.

  1. Let’s ~ ~しようよ

Let’s talk it over.

  1. LOOK;目を向ける動作

I‘ve already looked in my bag――the keys are not there.

Can you look at my computer? It keeps freezing.

Look, I’m really busy right now, OK?

Look no futher than the movie. ~以外は探さなくてよい


  1. SEE;見える。(向こうからやってくる感覚。視覚が対象に及ぶ(他動詞)。視覚は脳と直結して心の動きと深くつながる。)

    1. 会う・付き合う(見える⇒会う)

Hey, it’s good to see you again.

Are you still seeing that woman from your office?

  1. 理解する

Yes, I see your point.

  1. 心とつながるsee

OK, I’ll see if I can get some tickets for you.

I just can’t see Gill as a teacher, can you?

See if there’s any mail, will you?

  1. 目配りをする

I’ll see that the apartment is left spick-and-span.

G and chat with the guests while I see to the drinks.

  1. WATCH;じーっと見る。集中力の単語。

I love watching my two puppies at play.

I need to go to the bank. Can you watch the kids for a while?

I have a funny feeling we’re being watched.

  1. watch TV

I watched Pokemon last night.

I saw Pokemon last night.


  1. LISTEN;耳を傾ける動作

Do you ever listen to classical music?

My husband hardly ever listens to my opinion.


  1. HEAR;音が向こうから耳に入ってくる(動作ではない)

I can’t hear you very well――It’s an awful line.

I hear that Haruka is moving back to Japan.(耳に入ってくる⇒知っている(聴覚も脳の働きに直結する))

Have you heard from your daughter yet? (音が向こうからやってくる⇒連絡がある)

  1. 知覚動詞(see, hear, taste, smell, feel)は進行形と相性が悪い(知覚動詞は動作ではない)





I’m seeing the pandas.

I can see the pandas.


I’m hearing the bells.

I can hear the bells.


I’m tasting the red wine in the sauce.

I can taste the red wine in the sauce


I’m smelling perfume.

I can smell perfume.


I’m feeling the pain.

I can feel the pain.




  1. SPEAK;音声を出す、口に出す(一方通行の音声の流れ)

She speaks 5 languages fluently.

I would be delighted to speak at the conference.

I’ve spoken to the manager, and we can change rooms immediately.


  1. TALK;話し合う・コミュニケーションする(双方向の動詞)

I think we need to talk.


  1. speakとtalk

I don’t want to talk/speak about the right now.(話し合いたくない/口に出したくない)


  1. SAY;話す・言う(「何」を言ったのか、「言葉」に焦点がある)

I said, “I love you!”

Sorry, what did you say?

He says that he’s tied up at work.

What does the sign say?

My watch says 10:50.


  1. TELL;話す、言う(情報・メッセージを「渡す」感触を伴う)

Don already told me the result.

She told me that she didn’t love me anymore.

My intuition tells me I should trust the guy.


  1. わかる

How can you tell real leather from imitation?

I could tell straightaway he was lying.


  1. Tellのとるパターン

tell 人 to do; I told them to be here by 7.

tell 人 モノ; You already told me that joke.


  1. ASK;請う・お願いする(「ちょうだい!?」)⇒尋ねる(情報・答えを請う)、頼む(相手の助力を請う)

He asked me why I stood him up.

I’m going to ask Rebecca to marry me.



  1. KNOW;情報や知識が頭の中にある

    1. 確信

I know you’re an honest guy.

I know I don’t stand a chance of winning.

  1. わかる・気付く・経験する

Do you know what I mean?

When I saw her face, I knew that something was wrong.

I’ve never known a flood like this.


  1. THINK;頭の動き。思考の万能選手。漠然と思うから、頭を使って考えるまで広くカバー

I think she’s an amazing singer.

There’s so much noise I can’t think.


  1. BELIEVE;胸で感じる。心に根を下ろす。

Can you believe it?

I believe
in the boss.⇔I belive the boss.



  1. WANT;切実な欲求(欠けているものを補いたい)。生々しさを感じる単語。

    1. 欲しい

I want some cherry pie.

My Mom wants me to go shopping with her.

  1. 必要

You want to show more respect, young man.

Our bedroom wants painting.


  1. would like to(wantの上品な言い換え)

Would you like a glass of wine?

I’d like to speak English fluently.



  1. WISH; 現実感のない、手の届かないことを夢想する状況。「~だったらいいのに」





  1. 準基本動詞

    1. HOLD

Each drawer in Klein-Dock file cabinet can hold up to a thousand sheets of letter-sized paper.


  1. RIDE





  1. ビジネス基本動詞



  1. WORK


  1. work overtime 時間外勤務をする

The sales department manager can take Friday off because the team worked overtime last weekend.


  1. CONDUCT 指揮する、ガイドする、実施する





He is a world famous conductor.(彼は世界的に有名な指揮者だ。)




I conducted a tour around Paris.(私はパリの観光旅行を案内した。)




The reserach team conducted a survey.(その研究チームは調査を実施した。)




  1. CLOSE; to put [st] in a position to obstruct an entrance; to stop or obstruct



  1. LEAD

Taking course at the Bedford Business Center can lead to greater opportunities for professional growth.


  1. OFFER

Keola Resorts in Hawaii offer both weekly and monthly rental options.



    1. invest in ~

Kelang Manufacturing’s decision to invest in new machinery resulted in a 20 percent increase in production.


  1. ISSUE


  1. issue payment

It’s Calcor Furnishing’S policy to issue payment to its textile suppliers once the shipments have been inspected. 積み荷が検品されたらすぐに記事の代金を支払うのが、Calcor家具の方針です。



    1. indemnify someone against harm


表現パターンindemnify someone from [against] harm

Seller agrees to indemnify Buyer against all consequences of any and all claims, suits, or demands asserted against Buyer directly or indirectly from any product liability claim made by third persons, which claim may be attributable to incorporation of the Product to Buyer’s products by Buyer.



indemnify someone for any expenses incurred



  1. indemnify [sb] from cost

First Party will indemnify Second Party from any costs, damages and fees incurred by Second Party which are attributable to that claim, provided Second Party promptly notifies First Party in writing of the claim and gives First Party full authority, information, and assistance for the defense.



  1. 請求、要求、求める、述べる



  1. require : (…が必要なので)要求する、命じる、要請する。<法律・規則>が義務付ける


(2) A firefighter or a police official, when he/she finds it particularly necessary for prevention of fire involving conveyance of hazardous materials, may stop a mobile tank storage facility while in transit and request the hazardous materials engineer who is riding on said mobile tank storage facility to present his/her hazardous materials engineer’s license. In this case, a firefighter and a police official shall maintain close contact with each other when performing their duties.

2 消防吏員又は警察官は、危険物の移送に伴う火災の防止のため特に必要があると認める場合には、走行中の移動タンク貯蔵所を停止させ、当該移動タンク貯蔵所に乗車している危険物取扱者に対し、危険物取扱者免状の提示を求めることができる。この場合において、消防吏員及び警察官がその職務を行なうに際しては、互いに密接な連絡をとるものとする。





 ・To operate the robot, batteries are required.  そのロボットを動かすには、バッテリーが必要です。

 ・Depending on the country, men are required to serve in the military.  国によっては、男性に兵役が義務付けられています。

Most house plants require regular waterring. (ほとんどの室内植物は定期的に水をやる必要がある)

The wearing of seat belts is required by law. (シートベルトの着用は法律によって義務付けられている)


  1. claim : (当然のこととして~を)要求(請求)する、求める


1. A legal assertion; a legal demand; Taken by a person wanting compensation, payment, or reimbursement for a loss under a contract, or an injury due to negligence. 2. Amount a claimant demands.





 claim のあとの目的語には、

  ・補償金   compensation

  ・補償金   damage

  ・給付金   benefit


 それ以外は、claim right のように「法的権利」を要求する場合になります。


 ・He claimed the right to terminate the contract.



  1. demand : (~することを強く)求める、要求する



1. the claim that sum of money is due.

2. both desiring and being able to buy a good. The amount of a product that can be bought at a price. The amount of funds a party can give for goods in a period. Refer to law of supply and demand.

3. the legal right



 demand は、強い態度で望む依頼であり、要求です。要求の仕方がとても強硬な感じです。




  ・注意    attention

  ・金     money


  ・人の解雇  resignation

  ・解放・釈放 release

  ・領土などの返還  return




 ・I demand to know why you are here.  あなたが何でここにいるのか説明してもらおうか。


  1. request : (正式にまたは丁寧に~を)依頼する、要請する

  ask より形式ばった語で、改まったところでより丁寧に依頼や要請をすること。


 ・Active participation is requested in this class.



request は「(正式に)・・・を要請する」

a weeting which had been requested by the Japanese government (日本政府により要請された会議)


  1. ask for : ~を求める、~を要求する

 ask は一般的な「頼む」という意味で広く使われます。





 ・What else can you ask for?  これ以上何を望む?

 ・You were asking for it.  自業自得です。

 ・I could not ask for more.  願ってもないことです


  1. claim / complaint

「クレームをつける」なんて言うので、claimを「苦情」「不平・不満」のことだと思ってしまう人がいます。 complaintとの違いって何でしょうか。


claim は動詞では「正当性や権利を主張する」ってことです。「請求する」とか。 そうすると荷物を預けるときの “claim tag” が受け取り券(受け取る正当性を証明する券)ってことが判るし、特許の請求範囲のことを「claim」っていうのも判ります。苦情とか不平とかとは違うんですね。製品の良いところや自分の能力を主張したりするときにclaimを使います。

もしclaim warranty といえば、「保証を請求する」という意味で、「苦情を言う」の意味になるかと思います。 名詞で言えば保証請求です。


このclaimは語源をたとれば「叫ぶ」って意味です。前(pro)で叫べば proclaim (宣言する)、外(ex)へ叫べば exclaim(絶叫する)。 権利の主張の意味では、re(元へ)がつくと reclaim(返還を求める)、dis(離れて)がつくと disclaim(権利などを放棄する) です。




これこそ「苦情」です。「自動詞/他動詞」の記事で書きましたが、動詞のcomplainとexplainは「他人のそら似」です。complainは自動詞で「悩んでることや不満や不幸を口に出して言う」です。 「非常に苦しむ」という意味からきていて、その胸の中のものを口に出すのがcomplainです。 名詞の complaint には胸やお腹なんかの身体の部分の病気の意味もあります。chest complaint とか stomach complaint とか。 そのことと結びつけて考えると、「腹に据えかねる」ような気分が感じられます。、「腹に据えかねるような気分を口に出す」というのが自動詞のcomplainで、complaint about として、about 以下でその不平の対象を示すわけです。


  1. 明らかにする


  1. … make it clear that ~ ~が・・・によって明らかになる

That evidence made it clear there was no halfway house in convicting this extremely violent killer.



  1. S show O SがOを明らかにする

An MRI examination of the chest showed massive bilateral pleural effusions.



  1. 明示して


  1. prespecify

As noted in ICH E9, the particular approach for the primary efficacy analysis should be prespecified. ICH E9ガイドラインで述べられているように、主たる有効性解析の方法は事前に明示しておく必要がある。

However, the report fell short of specifying the amount of benefit reductions. しかし、その報告書は、給付金の具体的な削減幅は明示していなかった。




  1. 委託する、再委託する

    1. Delegate 委ねる



用例 He was delegated to the convention. 彼は大会に派遣された.

c〔+目的語+to do〕〈人を〉〈…するように〉代表に指名する,代表として派遣する.

用例 Each party delegated one member to attend the general meeting. 各党は総会に代表 1 名を出席させた.


用例 The belligerents should delegate the solution of the conflict to the United Nations. 交戦国は紛争の解決を国連に委任すべきである.


  1. Entrust the entrusted services to ~ 委託に関わる業務を~に再委託する

(3) A person who has received entrustment of the services under paragraph (1) may not entrust the entrusted services to another person.

3 第一項の規定により業務の委託を受けた者は、当該委託に係る業務を再委託することができない。


We, XXX corporation a citizen/legal entity of Japan entrusts YYY patent office to handle the following matter related to the trademark “XXX” with Application No. 0123456 in Classes10 & 11:


  1. May subcontract … to ~ ・・・を~に再委託することができる

Second Party may subcontract translation work pursuant to this Agreement to a company or individual which has executed a strict consignment agreement containing confidentiality provisions, etc equivalent to this Agreement and possess a high level of translating ability equivalent to that of Second Party in order to ensure the provision of high level translation services to First Party, providing that Second Party has obtained prior written approval from First Party.



  1. 使役、指示、~を・・・とする

    1. direct [sb] to ~ [sb]に~するように指示する、指定する、命令する

After making a contract, an orderer shall not take unfair advantage of the orderer’s position in the transaction to specify purchase outlets for material or machinery to be used in the ordered construction work and direct the contractor to purchase them to the disadvantage of the contractor.


The policeman directed the car to proceed. 警官は車に前進するように指示した.

He directed barricades to be set up around the building. 彼は建物の周囲にバリケードを築くように命令した (cf. direct 2b).

He directed that barricades (should) be built. 彼はバリケードを築くように命令した (cf. direct 2a).


  1. make [sb] do ~を・・・とする

make ~ a precondition for future negotiations ~を今後の交渉における前提条件とする


make it a condition that

make it a proviso that


  1. cause … to do ・・・に~させる

(2) The same punishment as in the preceding paragraph shall apply to any person who, with knowledge, has been given the benefit set forth in the same paragraph or has caused a third party to give such benefit.

2 情を知って、前項の利益の供与を受け、又は第三者にこれを供与させた者も、同項と同様とする。


(2) If, in the case of the preceding paragraph, the official is unable to cause
a person prescribed in the same paragraph to attend his/her inspection or search, he/she shall cause a neighbor who has attained the age of majority or an official of the local government of that place.

2 前項の場合において、同項に規定する者を立ち会わせることができないときは、その隣人で成年に達した者又はその地の地方公共団体の職員を立ち会わせなければならない。



  1. 指示する

give instructions to

provide direction

give precise instruction on~について細かく指示する

(5) The Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry shall, when he/she has NITE conduct an on-site inspection or ask questions pursuant to the preceding paragraph, give instructions to NITE with respect to the site to be inspected and any other necessary matters.

5 経済産業大臣は、前項の規定により機構に立入検査又は質問を行わせる場合には、機構に対し、当該立入検査の場所その他必要な事項を示してこれを実施すべきことを指示するものとする。



  1. talk


  1. talk A out of B/ talk A into B(Aを説得してBするのをやめさせる/Aを説得してBさせる)

I’ll try to talk him out of it.



  1. MANAGE and Supervise




Cambridge Online Dictionary

to manage means “to be responsible for controlling or organizing someone or something, especially a business.”

Management is “the group of people responsible for controlling and organizing a company.” And finally,

a manager is “the person who is responsible for managing an organization.”

to supervise means “to watch a person or activity to make certain that everything is done correctly, safely, etc.”

Supervision occurs “when someone watches a person or activity and makes certain that everything is done correctly, safely, etc.”

a supervisor is “a person whose job is to supervise someone or something.”

The core

to control and organize people or things within an organization.

to oversee another person or activity to ensure the satisfaction of certain standards.

the target of responbilitiriy

For people and organization, and

People’s products (what)

For (only) people, and

People’s processes (how)



  1. Business Situation

  1. 調査

    1. 調査を実施する

      1. conduct necessary surveys 必要な調査を実施するものとする

The State shall conduct necessary surveys to prepare and implement appropriately the policies and measures for establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society, including surveys of the occurrence, cyclical use and disposal of circulative resources, their future outlook, or the environmental impact of disposal of circulative resources.



  1. administer a survey

To ensure that a Web site is effective, it is common practice to administer a customer feedback survey.


  1. 人事

    1. assume new role 新しい任務に就く

Mr. Nahm has been promoted to Senior Vice President of Sales and assumes his new role on March 1.



  1. 受賞

    1. award Prize to [sb]

This year’s Middletown Poetry Prize will be awarded to Mie Hasegawa, whose poem “Venus” was selected from over 500 entries.



  1. 業務

NTT Communications, for example, established its range of services and then, as any business would, sought to extract as much money from the market as possible.




  1. 行為の性質別


  1. はじまる⇔終わる




  1. 期限

The time for reply expires on April 15, 2016.





  1. 起点・終点、持続を言う動詞


After a week, he began to recover.


  1. 起点



She began to hit/hitting me with her purse.






  1. 持続



We continued to review/reviewing the draft report late into the night and to keep us awake, we kept drinking loads of strong coffee.





  1. 終点





The students were instructed to complete the survey in a week.



= bring to a close



My boyfriend and I ended our three-year relationship yesterday.







Can’t you stop thinking worst-case scenarios? You’re just too pessimistic. You always are.


  1. その他


  1. 明確にする


  1. define(責任・立場・役割などを)
  2. explain(~の意味を)


  1. make ~ clear ~を明確にする

make the sales figures clear販売数値を明確にする




  1. 容易にする、推進する

    1. 推進する


  1. Facilitate ~

Patient and reporter identifiability is important to avoid case duplication, detect fraud, and facilitate follow-up of appropriate cases.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕症例の重複を回避し、虚偽を検出し、しかるべき症例の追跡調査を容易にするために、患者及び報告者を特定することが重要である。


The purpose of this Act is to provide necessary matters with respect to the commission of counseling service on people’s complaints against public administration in order to facilitate their settlement and thereby to contribute to democratic administration of public affairs.




  1. 条件下に置く、条件を適用する

    1. Expose to conditions

exposure to appropriate conditions 適当な条件下に置くこと

“We took isolated skin biopsies from laboratory mice, exposed those isolated skin biopsies to temperatures of 43 degrees or 48 degrees, and then we looked at what was being released from the skin under those conditions.”「私たちは、実験用マウスから孤立した皮膚生体組織を採取し、その生体組織を摂氏43度あるいは48度の条件に置きました。それから、そうした条件で皮膚から何が放出されるかを調べました」


  1. submit to conditions

be submitted to the same conditions as ~と同じ条件下に置かれる


  1. 手段を限定する(~によって行う)

(2) Filling complaint set forth in the preceding paragraph shall be made by submitting the document, prepared and sealed by the detainee himself/herself, via the prisoner of war camp commander.  2 前項の苦情の申出は、被収容者が自ら作成し、封をした書面を捕虜収容所長を経由して提出することによって行う


  1. 解決する

    1. Wish to resolve the dispute


WHEREAS, the Parties wish amicably to resolve their differences, to resolve the disputes between them concerning the facts alleged in the Complaint, and to release, discharge, compromise, settle and resolve all claims or causes of action they may have against the other with regard to such facts or with regard to their conduct of the prosecution or defense of the Action;


  1. 添付する

    1. A be attached with B AにBを添付する

(2) The written application for approval set forth in the preceding paragraph shall be attached
with a document containing a pledge that the application does not fall under paragraph (1), item (i), sub-item (c) or item (ii), sub-item (c) of the following Article as well as any other document specified by Cabinet Office Ordinance.

2 前項の承認申請書には、次条第一項第一号ハ及び第二号ハに該当しないことを誓約する書面その他内閣府令で定める書面を添付しなければならない。


  1. 省略する

    1. omit

if I should have omitted anything of significance 万一重要な遺漏があれば


  1. 加える、増大する

    1. make an addition to ~ ~に加える、~を増大する、~に増補する


  1. 減らす

    1. make reduction from ~  ~から引く

make a __% price reduction from one’s list prices 値段表価格より_%の値引きをする


    1. incorporate





  1. 自粛する、差し控える、見送る

refrain from doing


abstain from doing


forgo/ forego doing


  1. 対象別

    1. 対象が物


  1. 製造する

    1. Fabricate




  1. 貸す


  1. Lend: タダで貸す  「貸す」を意味する最も一般的な語句です。


 目的語として、最も使用頻度が高いのは money ですが、これ以外では、

 ・支援する     lend support

 ・重視する     lend weight

 ・わたしを手伝う  lend me a hand

 ・名前を貸す    lend my name



Could you lend a little money to me ?  わたしにお金を少し貸してもらえませんか?

I just can’t lend support to your organaizetion.  到底あなた方を支援できるような状態ではありません。


  1. rent:賃貸する  主に「家やアパートなどの宿泊施設を賃貸する」を表します。


土地を賃貸する  rent a land

車を賃貸する   rent a car

ビデオを賃貸する rent a video


I’m renting a room to a young woman. 若い女性に部屋を貸しています。

We can rent you an accommodation for this weekend. この週末でしたらお部屋をご用意できます。


  1. lease:特定の期間だけ賃貸する  「土地や建物(mill, pub, building)を賃貸する」が基本的意味

I will not lease my land to them.わたしは彼らには土地は貸さない。

I leased a pub downtown to my brother.  ダウンタウンのパブを、弟に貸した。


  1. 守る、維持、修理

    1. 守る
      1. safeguard〔…から〕〈もの・人を〉守る,保護する 〔against,from〕.

safeguard one’s property 財産を守る.

safeguard children against traffic accidents 子供を交通事故から守る.


  1. Protect (危険や害から防御に役立つものを用いて)守る

1a(外被や見張りなどで)〈…を〉保護する,防ぐ; 庇護する

The outer cover protects the inside. 外被が内部を守っている.

May God protect you! あなたに神のご加護がありますように.

b〔+目的語+前置詞+(代)名詞〕〈…を〉〔攻撃・危害などから〕守る,保護する; 〔攻撃・危害を受けないように〕〈…を〉守る 〔against,from〕.

The walls protected the city against enemies. 外壁が敵から都市を守っていた.

She wore a hat to protect her skin from the sun. 彼女は日ざしで肌を痛めないように帽子をかぶっていた.

[ラテン語「前をおおう」の意 (PRO‐1+tegere 「おおう」); 【名詞】 protection,【形容詞】 protective]


  1. Defend (差し迫る脅威や攻撃に積極的に抵抗してそれを排除し)安全を保つ


  1. guard (注意深く見張って危険から)安全を保つ


  1. 維持、保管、保存


  1. keep


  1. hold


  1. Maintain 持続する、維持する、(補修管理を行って)整備・保全する

maintain diplomatic relations with foreign countries 外国と外交関係を維持する.

He maintained a speed of 60 kph. 彼はスピードを時速 60 キロに維持した.

maintain the roads 道路を保全する.



  1. Preserve

Maintain (something) in its original or existing state: ‘all records of the past were zealously preserved’

preserve special characteristics of ~の特性を失わないようにする


  1. Retain

【動詞】 【他動詞】


用例 retain a receipt レシートをとっておく.

retain one’s balance バランスを保つ.

retain one’s dignity [pride] 威厳[誇り]を失わない.

Do you retain the custom of saying grace? お宅では食前・食後のお祈りをする習慣をまだ続けていますか.


用例 China dishes retain heat well. 磁器製の皿は熱を長もちさせる.

The dam retains millions of tons of water. ダムは何百万トンもの水を支えている.


用例 I retain a clear memory of those days. そのころのことはまだはっきりと覚えている.



  1. 修理
    1. Repair


•Seller shall undertake to repair or replace the Products immediately.


•Product repairs and replacements covered by the above warranty are warranted to be free from defects as set forth above except that the defect must appear within two years from the date of shipment of the repaired or replacing Product.


•The foregoing warranties do not extend to pre-production samples or to Products which have been subjected to misuse, neglect, accident or abuse or improperly stored or maintained or repaired or altered by anyone other than Maker.






  1. mend

《★【類語】 mend は大した技術を要しないものを修理する; repair は多少とも特殊な技術を要するものを修理する》.




  1. 引き取る

    1. pick up(預けていたものを)


  1. take back

Article 8  Duty to Re-import

When a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes to which the consent of the States concerned has been given, subject to the provisions of this Convention, cannot be completed in accordance with the terms of the contract, the State of export shall ensure that the wastes in question are taken back into the State of export, by the exporter, if alternative arrangements cannot be made for their disposal in an environmentally sound manner, within 90 days from the time that the importing State informed the State of export and the Secretariat, or such other period of time as the States concerned agree. To this end, the State of export and any Party of transit shall not oppose, hinder or prevent the return of those wastes to the State of export.

第8条  再輸入の義務




  1. take in(子どもを)
  2. take off(~を物・場所から)



  1. 捨てる




  1. 処分する、処理する、取り除く、除外する、排除する

    1. Dispose of [sth] 〔+of+(代)名詞〕〔…を〕片づける,処置[処分]する,始末する 《★受身可》.

(dispose of) Get rid of by throwing away or giving or selling to someone else:

The Company may not sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its assets.



  1. manage 処理する

8. Each Party shall require that hazardous wastes or other wastes, to be exported, are managed in an environmentally sound manner in the State of import or elsewhere.




  1. get rid of…

〈望ましくないもの〉を免れる, 取り除く; 追い払う, 処分する 《★受身可》.

I can’t get rid of this cold. このかぜがどうしても抜けない.


  1. Discard 〈…を〉(不要なものと)捨てる,処分する.

Get rid of (someone or something) as no longer useful or desirable:


  1. Eliminateある物や事を望ましくないものとして「取り除く(排除する)」



  1. remove 移動させる

Take (something) away or off from the position occupied:


  1. preclude〈事を〉起こらないようにする,不可能にする; 排除する

preclude all doubt すべての疑惑をあらかじめ排除する。

That will preclude his escaping. そうすれば彼は逃げ出せなくなるだろう。

My present finances preclude the possibility of buying a house. 今の私の財政状態では家を買うのはまず無理だ。



用例 My tight schedule will preclude me from attending the party. スケジュールが詰まっていてそのパーティーには出席できないだろう。


  1. exempt

be exempted from the application of の適用から除外される

be exempted from sugar rationing砂糖の配給の適用から除外される


  1. exclulde

be excluded from the secrecy obligations《契約書》秘密保持義務の適用から除外される


  1. 適合させる




make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose













★【類語】 adapt は; adjust は二つのものの比較的小さな違いを技術または計算・判断によって調節する》.


  1. shall be done

Management of the company and decision-making shall be done under the instructions of JAMES with effect from 1 July 1998 while Mr. A and Mr. B remains as directors.




  1. 支障を来たす

    1. cause hindrance to ~ ~に支障を生ずる

(3) The reinsurance premium rate for reinsurance underwritten by NEXI pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be determined so as not to cause any hindrance to the sound operation of the business operations set forth in paragraph (1).

3 前項の規定により日本貿易保険が引き受ける再保険の再保険料率は、第一項の業務の健全な運営に支障を生ずることのないように定めなければならない。


  1. cause interference with ~ ~に障害を及ぼす

Where plants cause or are likely to cause interference with Electric Lines to be used for Electricity Business or plants cause hindrance to taking measurements or field investigations with regard to Electric Facilities to be used for Electricity Business or a construction project with regard to Electric Lines to be used for Electricity Business, an Electricity Utility may, when it is unavoidable, clear or transplant such plants with permission from the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry.



  1. Interfere with ~ ~に支障をきたす

In order to avoid insect damage, suitable fumigants may be used to preserve crude drugs, provided that the fumigants are so readily volatilized as to be harmless at the usual dosage of the crude drugs, and such fumigants that may affect the therapeutic efficacy of the crude drugs or interfere with the testing are precluded.〔【出典】第十六改正日本薬局方(平成23年3月24日 厚生労働省告示第65号)〕



  1. 支障を来たす be an obstacle



  1. 対象が事態


  1. 対策をとる

    1. take measures against ~ ~への対策をとる

The U.S. government plans to take measures against the possibility of terrorist attacks around the first anniversary by reducing all flights on September 11th and 12th.



  1. do what it takes to prevent a recurrence 再発を防止するために対策をとる

President Barack Obama described the incident as a “systemic failure” of America’s security apparatus, and U.S. officials have pledged to do what it takes to prevent a recurrence.



  1. 対処する

    1. Take appropriate actions 適切に対処する

The Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare shall establish and make public the necessary guidelines for employers to take appropriate actions with respect to the particulars prescribed in the preceding two Articles.



  1. take action 行動をとる、処置する、対策をとる、措置をとる

・The operator must take action when the green light flashes. : 《マニュアル》オペレーターは、緑ランプが点滅したら、(次の操作を)行わなければなりません。


  1. deal with~に対処する、取り組む

*Japanese farmers are trying hard to deal with cheap vegetable imports.日本の農家は、安い野菜の輸入品の対応に力を注いでいる。

*You should always be ready to deal with unexpected chages in the market. 市場での予期しない変化こ常に即対応できる体制を整えねばならない。

*The service staff have been reinforced to deal with increasing complaints from our customers. 顧客の苦情増加に対応するため、サービススタッフを増強した。

原義(deal)は「分配する→処理する→扱う」。一般的な用法の第一の意味は、他動詞用法で「分配する、取引する」。科学技術論文では、deal with (自動詞用法)で、1.文献などで、事を「扱う」、2.困難な問題や状況などに「(うまく)対処する」という意味で使う。treatと違い、「物を扱う」という意味はない。


deal cooperatively with continuing problems継続的な諸問題に協力して対処する


  1. work in concert with ~ ~と協力して対処する

work in concert with the international community国際社会と協力して対処する


  1. 注意を払う

For some medications (e.g., medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as those used in oncology), surface-area-guided dosing may be necessary, but extra care should be taken to ensure proper dose calculation.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕



During the design of a clinical programme careful attention should be paid
to the uniform definition and collection of measurements which will facilitate subsequent interpretation of the series of trials, particularly if they are likely to be combined across trials.




  1. 対象がお金・金額・収益・利益


  1. 支払う

    1. pay off

If you want to pay off the loan early, the amount you need to close out the loan may be different than the current balance.


  1. pay

Buyer shall pay all of its own expenses, including but not limited to, office, communication, transportation, hotel, and meal expenses.




  1. 相殺する

    1. set off (相手の債務) against (自分の債務)が基本パターン


offsetよりset offの方がフォーマルとされます。通常は句動詞の方がインフォーマルなのですが、offsetはアメリカ英語であるため、set offをフォーマルなものとして扱います。



Any indebtedness of Seller to Buyer may, at Buyer’s option, be set off and credited against Buyer’s indebtedness to Seller.


If any sums are due to the Company from the Agent, the Company shall be entitled to exercise the right to set off such sums against any Commission due to the Agent in relation to this Agreement.



  1. set off (自分の債務) in or towards (相手の債務) 自分の債務をもって相手の債務の弁済に充当する

The Advisor may set off any amount standing to the credit of any such Accounts in or towards satisfaction of any of the Client’s Liabilities to the Advisor.



  1. Netting

Netting: The amounts due from one party shall be set off
against the amounts due from the other and only the balance of account shall be payable by the party having the claim valued at the lower amount.



  1. ★ to set off/ offsetの使いかた

これまで集めてきた相殺関係の用例を整理すると、以下のとおり、四つのパターンがあります。最初の二つが動詞 offsetを使うパターン、残り二つが主流と言える、set off を使うパターンです。

1) to offset 自分の支払額 against 自分の受取額、というパターン

XYZ shall be entitled to offset any sum or sums owing by it to the Buyer against any sums owed by the buyer to XYZ.

Should termination occur as a result of Contractor’s default, XYZ shall be entitled to damages from Contractor resulting from Contractor’s default, XYZ shall be entitled to offset any amounts payable to Contractor for work satisfactorily completed against such damages.

2) to offset 自分の受取額 against 自分の支払額、というパターン

The Company is entitled to offset any amount owing to it from the Customer against any amount owed to the Customer by the Company.

We shall be entitled to offset any receivables owed to us by the contract partner against any receivables owed to the contract partner by us.

3) to set off 自分の支払額 against 自分の受取額、というパターン

XYZ may set off the amount of such liability against any sums that would otherwise be due to XYZ under this agreement.

We have the right to set off any of your money or property which may be in our possession against any amount owed to us under this Agreement.

4) to set off 自分の受取額 against 自分の支払額、というパターン

The Association shall be entitled to set off any amount due from the member against any amount due to the member.

The Company shall have the right to set off any debt(s) a Representative owes to the Company against his bonuses and/or commissions.

Upon termination of this Agreement we shall have the right to set off any amounts due from you against the Deposit.

The Bank may decide to exercise the right to set off any legitimate right or lien for any other claim against the borrower.

Company shall have the right to set off any sum due to Company from customer against any sum due or to become due to customer from Company

We also reserve the right to set off any debt you may owe us against any funds you may have on deposit with us.

Buyer has the right to setoff a claim of $10,230 under the invoice of December 20, 1999, against Seller’s claim for payment of the purchase price.

以上を通じて、誰が誰に対して債務を負っているのか、あるいは債権を有しているのかを表す上で、due to と due fromが、また、owing to X from Y やら owed to X by Y といった言い方が使われていることに着目し、こうした用法に慣れておくと、翻訳の際、楽です。逆にこうした定型的言い回しを知らないで、何やら勝手なものを作り出すと、一気に素人っぽいというか、うそくさい訳文になってしまいます。


  1. 対等額について相殺

Article 505 (Requirements for Set-offs)

(1) In cases where two persons mutually owe to the other any obligation with the same kind of purpose, if both obligations are due, each obligor may be relieved from his/her own obligation by setting off each value thereof against the corresponding amount of the obligation of the other obligor; provided, however, that, this shall not apply to the cases where the nature of the obligation does not permit such set-off.





  1. 割り引きする

Students can receive extra 15 percent off ‘Timber!’ tickets on Sept. 26

Apple employees will get 50% off Apple Watch, 1000+ apps submitted


  1. 対象が費用・損失・損害

    1. 費用を差し引く

      1. deduct expenses 費用を差し引く

● postponement/Cancellation of the Exhibition

If holding the exhibition is deemed unfeasible due to a natural or man-made disaster, or other uncontrollable circumstances, the organizer may postpone or cancel the exhibition. In the case of cancellation, the organizer will deduct necessary expenses from exhibition fees and refund the balance to exhibitors. The organizer will not be liable for any other expenses or damages incurred by exhibitors as a result of the cancellation.

● 展示会の延期・中止


中止の場合、出展料金は代償すべき経費を差し引いた上で、 出展者に返却します。その他に生じた費用・損害等については、主催者は補償致しかねます。

  1. 費用を負担する

    1. bear expense (費用)を負担する

The expenses required for the documentary arrangement and consultation for the takeover of the company shall be borne by ABC.《契約書》


Seller will bear all traveling and living expenses per person a day for the personnel of Seller rendering technical assistance in the Territory, as requested by Buyer.《契約書》



  1. incur a loss [cost, damage]

Before releasing the public opinion, Judge Karas ruled that IBM must pay a $3,000,000 bond to Papermaster for any costs or damages that Papermaster might incur, meanwhile still unable to work at Apple.

The company incurred a loss of $3 million last year. その会社は昨年 300 万ドルの損失を負った


  1. 費用を折半する

    1. Go halves on expense

go halves [fifty-fifty] on expenses費用を折半する

go halves with someone in (人)と~の費用を折半する

  1. Split the cost

split the cost between A and B AとBで費用を折半する

Up until that time, I had been splitting the cost of the apartment and food with my boyfriend. 彼とは生活費は折半でした。


  1. 損害を受ける、損害を被る


Japan has incurred
damage due to a number of large-scale natural disasters owing to its geographical and natural features, and natural violence has caused unthinkable suffering to the citizens of Japan. The Great East Japan Earthquake brought to mind again the forces of nature, which are entirely outside our control, and the fact that we cannot escape from natural threats.



The court may not give the permission referred to in paragraph (2) or the preceding paragraph if it finds that JOIN would incur substantial damage due to inspection or copying under a request as set forth in an item of paragraph (2) or a request as referred to in the preceding paragraph.



without incurring damage



  1. 損害を与える cause damge to ~

cause incurable damage to ~に修復不能な被害を及ぼす[回復不能な障害を起こす]

Any other transaction that is found to involve no risk of causing damage to the trust property.



  1. 損害を賠償する

compensate someone for his loss

indemnify someone for [against] loss



  1. 対象が制度・条文・規定

    1. 一致する、調和する、合致する、即する、基づく







  1. be consistent with

《be ~》〔意見・行動などが〕~と一致する、~と調和する

・The witness testified, and it was consistent with other testimony heard. : 証人は証言をしたが、それは聴取した他の証言と一致していた。

・The theory and practice are not always consistent with each other. : 理論と実践とは必ずしも合致しない。

・Everything I have written is consistent with that. : 私が書いてきたことすべては首尾一貫している。

・That would be legally consistent. : それは法律的には矛盾がない。


  1. Complyとconform


• verb (complies, complied) (often comply with)

1 act in accordance with a wish or command.

2 meet specified standards.



• verb

1 comply with rules, standards, or conventions.

2 be similar in form or type.



  1. correspond

【動詞】 【自動詞】


用例 His words and actions do not correspond. 彼の言行は一致しない.

b〔+前置詞+(代)名詞〕〔…と〕一致する,符合する,調和する 〔to,with〕.

用例 The result of his experiment corresponded with mine. 彼の実験結果は私のと一致した.

The goods do not correspond to the samples you sent me. 品物は送っていただいた見本と同じでない.


用例 The broad lines on this map correspond to roads. この地図の太い線は道路を示すものである.


用例 He and I have corresponded for years. 彼と私は何年も文通し合っている.


用例 I am corresponding with him about that. そのことで彼と通信をしている.


  1. 違反する、抵触する

conflict with

be incompatible with

infringe of

run counter to



infringe on the prohibitions against


  1. 定める、規定する、記載する、具体的に示す

    1. establish 時間・体制などを(厳格に)定める(確立する)




ensure the establishment of


  1. establish the system of ~の体制を確立する

Each manufacturer should establish, document, and implement an effective system for managing quality that involves the active participation of management and appropriate manufacturing personnel.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕


  1. time is established

In storing Water for Injection temporarily, adequate measures able to prevent microbial proliferation stringently, such as circulating it in a loop at a high temperature must be taken, and an appropriate storage time should also be established based on the validation studies, in consideration of the risks of contamination and quality deterioration.



  1. specify

(2) The matters to be provided for in the Institute’s Business Rules under the preceding paragraph shall be specified by an Ordinance of METI.

2 前項の業務方法書で定めるべき事項は、経済産業省令で定める。


  1. prescribe 〔規則などを〕指示する、〔罰則などを〕規定する

The duration of the Land Lease Right shall be thirty years; provided, however, that if a period longer than this is prescribed by contract, that period shall apply.



  1. 本契約で規定するもののほか、…は~で定める

in addition to what is provided for in this Act, … shall be prescribed by … この法律に規定するもののほか、…は、…で定める



  1. stipulate 〔契約条項として〕~を規定する[明記する・要求する・約束する・保証する・取り決める・定める]

・Any matter not stipulated herein shall be determined through mutual consultation at the Executive Meeting. : 《契約書》この規約に定めない事項については、幹事会で協議の上決定するものとする。


(stipulation) A material article In an agreement In practice. An engagement or undertaking in writing, to do a certain act; as to try a cause at a certain time. 1 Burrill, Pr. 389. The name “stipulation” is familiarly given to any agreement made by the attorneys engaged on opposite sides of a cause, (especially if in writing.) regulating any matter incidental to the proceedings or trial, which falls within their jurisdiction. Such, for instance, are agreements to extend the time for pleading, to take depositions, to waive objections, to admit certain facts, to continue the cause. See Lewis v. Orpheus, 15 Fed. Cas. 492. In admiralty practice. A recognizance of certain persons (called in the old law “fide jurors”) in the nature of bail for the appearance of a defendant 3 Bl. Comm. 10S.


  1. set forth in ~  ~に規程する、定める

shall mean ~ set forth in Exhibit A attached hereto 本契約書に添付の付属書Aに規定される~を意味するものとする

Now, therefore, in consideration of the rights and obligations herein set forth, the PARTIES hereto agree as follows.《契》よって本契約書に定める権利および義務の約因に基づき両当事者はここに次の通り合意する。


Except as set forth in Articles 434 to the preceding Article inclusive, any circumstance which arises with respect to one joint and several obligor shall be void vis-a-vis other joint and several obligor(s).



  1. (documents shall) contain statements of ~  書面には~を記載しなければならない

(4) A complaint shall contain statements of the postal code and telephone number (including the facsimile number) of the plaintiff or his/her agent, in addition to the matters prescribed in paragraph (1).

4 訴状には、第一項に規定する事項のほか、原告又はその代理人の郵便番号及び電話番号(ファクシミリの番号を含む。)を記載しなければならない


A written departure order delivered pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (2) of the preceding Article shall contain the full name, age and nationality of the foreign national who has been given the departure order, the reason for the departure order, the time limit for departure, the date of issuance of the departure order, and other matters provided by Ordinance of the Ministry of Justice, and the name and seal of a supervising immigration inspector shall also be affixed thereto.



  1. give descriptions 具体的に示す


Response variables should be defined prospectively, giving descriptions of methods of observation and quantification.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕


  1. (period) may be limited 〔期限を〕定めることができる

(5) In the case referred to in the preceding paragraph, if the Minister of Justice deems it necessary, the validity period for re-entry with a refugee travel document may be limited to not less than 3 months and less than 1 year.

5 前項の場合において、法務大臣が特に必要があると認めるときは、三月以上一年未満の範囲内で、当該難民旅行証明書により入国することのできる期限を定めることができる


  1. decide 《on》〈決める〉


  1. determine 《a date》【形式ばった表現】
  2. appoint 《a place, an hour》【形式ばった表現】
  3. fix 《a date》《price》


  1. fix the price at ~  価格を~に設定する

fix the price at a reasonable level 価格を適正な水準に設定する


  1. fix the date as ~

In 1931, a British Columbia MP, Alan Neill, introduced a bill to fix the date as Nov. 11 and rename it Remembrance Day.

But Stanhope wrote as Post-master-general and did not become such until June 20, 1590, while other circumstances fix the date as not later than that year.


  1. lay down 《a rule》


  1. provide 《that…》 (条文などで) (provisionの動詞形)

in addition to what is provided for in this Act, … shall be prescribed by … この法律に規定するもののほか、…は、…で定める


  1. set a date / date shall be specified

set a clear date of~ ~という明確な期日を定める

The date when this Act shall come into force shall be specified by an Imperial Ordinance. この法律施行の期日は、勅令で、これを定める。


  1. formulate a policy 方針を定める

(5) After formulating the Basic Policy on Measures for Part-Time Workers, the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare shall publicize it without delay.

5 厚生労働大臣は、短時間労働者対策基本方針を定めたときは、遅滞なく、これを公表しなければならない。




  1. 適用・準用

    1. 適用
      1. applyの説明




[sb] apply A to B


A apply to B


The provision of … shall be applied to ~

The provision of … shall apply to ~


apply only to ~にのみ適用する

  1. 適用

the provision of … shall also apply to … …の規定は、…についても適用する 

pursuant to the provision ofの規定により 


the provisions of … shall be applied to


  1. ~の場合においては、~の規定は適用しない。In this case, the provision of ~ shall not apply.

In this case, the provision of Article 10, paragraph (4) shall not apply.


(3) In the cases referred to in the preceding two paragraphs, the provisions of Article 63 and Article 129 of the Civil Execution Act (including cases where these provisions are applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the provisions of said Act and other laws and regulations concerning a procedure for compulsory execution) shall not apply.

3 前二項の場合には、民事執行法第六十三条及び第百二十九条(これらの規定を同法その他強制執行の手続に関する法令において準用する場合を含む。)の規定は、適用しない



  1. ~の場合においては、~の規定は、~のときに限り適用する

(3) In the case referred to in the preceding paragraph, the provision of Article 468, paragraph (2) of the Civil Code shall apply
only when notice is given as prescribed in the preceding paragraph. In this case, the obligor of the claim may assert vis-a-vis the assignee, any grounds that could be a defense against the assignor that have arisen before the obligor receives notice as prescribed in said paragraph.

3 前項の場合においては、民法第四百六十八条第二項の規定は、前項に規定する通知がされたときに限り適用する。この場合においては、当該債権の債務者は、同項に規定する通知を受けるまでに譲渡人に対して生じた事由を譲受人に対抗することができる。


  1. AをBとみなして、・・・を適用する
    1. A shall be deemed as B, and … shall apply

A contract concluded for the purpose of completing construction work for remuneration regardless of whatever name is given to it shall be deemed as a contract for construction work, and the provisions of this Act shall apply.



  1. [provision] shall be applied by deeming A as B    AをBとみなして、(規定)を適用する

(10) When the Effective Date has been changed pursuant to the provision of paragraph (8), the provisions of this Subsection shall be applied by deeming the new Effective Date to be the Effective Date.

10 第八項の規定により効力発生日を変更したときは、変更後の効力発生日効力発生日とみなして、この款の規定を適用する


(4) Where the subsidiary stock company independently holds or the parent stock company and the subsidiary stock company jointly hold the majority of voting rights of all shareholders of another stock company, the provision of the preceding paragraph shall be applied by deeming such other stock company as a subsidiary stock company of the parent stock company.

4 子株式会社又は親株式会社及び子株式会社が他の株式会社の総株主の議決権の過半数を有する場合には、当該他の株式会社当該親株式会社の子株式会社とみなして、前項の規定を適用する




  1. For the purpose of applying [provisions], A shall be deemed to be B

For the purpose of applying the provisions of Article 205 of the New Act, an action prescribed in Article 22, paragraph (1) of the Former Foreign Insurance Providers Act that was taken before the Effective Date by a Foreign Insurance Company, etc. Licensed under the Former Foreign Insurance Providers Act shall be deemed to be
the action prescribed in Article 205, item (i) of the New Act.



(3) In the case referred to in paragraph (1), if the high pressure gas to be stored is liquefied gas, or liquefied gas and compressed gas, 10 kilograms of the liquefied gas shall be deemed to be 1 cubic meter in volume for the purpose of application of said paragraph.

3 第一項の場合において、貯蔵する高圧ガスが液化ガス又は液化ガス及び圧縮ガスであるときは、液化ガス十キログラムをもつて容積一立方メートルとみなして同項の規定を適用する


  1. 同様とする
    1. ~の場合も同様とする。以下同様

The same shall apply hereafter.《契》〔E=170〕 以下同じ、以下同様

hereinafter the same shall apply in this …以下この…において同じ 


  1. The same shall apply even after ~ ~後においても同様とする

Labor standards inspectors shall not reveal confidential information learned in the course of their duties. The same shall apply even after the labor standards inspector has retired from office.




  1. The same shall apply to the case ~ ~の場合も同様とする。

(2) When the mayor of a municipality is unable to notify the relevant person as set forth in the preceding paragraph or when no person applies for the correction of the family registry in response to his/her notice, he/she may correct the family register, with the permission of the head of the competent Legal Affairs Bureau or District Legal Affairs Bureau. The same
shall apply to the case referred to in the proviso to the preceding paragraph.

2 前項の通知をすることができないとき、又は通知をしても戸籍訂正の申請をする者がないときは、市町村長は、管轄法務局又は地方法務局の長の許可を得て、戸籍の訂正をすることができる。前項ただし書の場合も、同様である


(2) When the mayor of a municipality is unable to notify the relevant person as set forth in the preceding paragraph or when no person applies for the correction of the family registry in response to his/her notice, he/she may correct the family register, with the permission of the head of the competent Legal Affairs Bureau or District Legal Affairs Bureau. The same shall apply to the case referred to in the proviso to the preceding paragraph.

2 前項の通知をすることができないとき、又は通知をしても戸籍訂正の申請をする者がないときは、市町村長は、管轄法務局又は地方法務局の長の許可を得て、戸籍の訂正をすることができる。前項ただし書の場合も、同様である


  1. 準用
    1. … shall apply mutatis mutandis to ~ …は、~について準用する 

The preceding Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to the marital property regime.



(6) The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be applied mutatis mutandis to the general meeting of class shareholders set forth in paragraph (4).

6 前項の規定は、第四項の種類株主総会について準用する。


(3) The provisions of Article 15, paragraphs (5) to (9) inclusive shall apply mutatis mutandis to permission under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article.

3 第十五条第五項から第九項までの規定は、前条第一項の許可について準用する


  1. shall be applies correspondingly to ~

The provisions of Article 16 shall be applied correspondingly to the performance requirements for dikes.



  1. 対象が契約・合意・申込・承諾

    1. 注文する



  1. 契約書を作成する

draw up a contract 契約書を作成する

We will draw up a contract as soon as our lawyer comes back from his vacation in Florence. 私どもの弁護士がフィレンツェでの休暇から戻りましたら、すぐに契約書を作成します。

draw up a formal contract 正式な契約書を作成する


  1. 契約が成立する

If a Commodity Exchange has another member, etc. complete the settlement of transactions pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, an entrustment agreement is deemed to be established between the member, etc. and the person entrusting the original member, etc. with the transactions.




  1. 契約を締結する

    1. Conclude a contract

When a Bank intends to conclude or terminate a contract for entrustment of each act listed in each item of Article 2(14) in a foreign state, the Bank shall obtain authorization from the Prime Minister pursuant to the provisions of a Cabinet Office Ordinance.



  1. sign up for a contract

I’d like to look up some more information about this before signing up for a whole contract.


  1. 契約を破棄する


The new contract superseded the old one.


Since we have a legal contract with your company at this time, we realize that we will have to break the contract to dissolve the partnership.


  1. 契約を終了させる

terminate a contract契約を終了させる


termination means;

1. last step of employment where a worker is let go.

2. Customer cancellation of remaining work of a contract. See termination for default and termination for convenience.




To deprive (an official document or procedure) of legal efficacy because of contravention of a regulation or law (Oxford Dictionary)

Any special provisions that run counter to the provisions of the preceding paragraphs and that are disadvantageous to the Multilevel Marketing Affiliate are hereby invalidated.




To abrogate, annul, avoid, or cancel a contract; particularly, nullifying a contract by the act of a party (Blacke’s Law Dictionary).




To obliterate, strike, or cross out; to destroy the effect of an instrument by defacing, obliterating, expunging, or erasing it.

Before departure, a passenger may cancel the contract by paying half the amount of the freight charge.





3.1. The Employee’s employment with the Employer will terminate on [enter date DD/MM/YYYY] (‘the Termination Date’).

mutually terminate and cancel



On-sided terminate and cancel












  1. 契約が切れる

The contract will expire at the end of this month.  契約が今月末で切れる。


  1. 契約を変更する





    some minor change in the substance of the tiling, without reference to its improvement or deterioration thereby

    an amelioration of the thing (as by changing the phraseology of an instrument, so as to make it more distinct or specific) without involving the idea of any change in substance or essence.

    Substance change


    Improvement or deterioration

    neither refer to improvement nor deterioration

    Refer only to improvement



  1. 合意する

    1. agree on

Maybe the agency can suggest a location that we’ll agree on.


  1. 承諾を得る、手に入れる

    1. 承諾を得る Gain approval/ consensus

gain consensus from the researchers 研究者たちの同意を得る

A Incorporated Commodity Exchange Surviving an Absorption-Type Merger shall gain approval for the Absorption-Type Merger contract by a resolution of a general meeting of shareholders by the day preceding the Effective Date.



  1. Obtain the consent of ~ ~の同意を得なければならない


(2) With respect to drafting and/or alteration of provisions concerning items (i) through (iv) of the preceding paragraph, the Employer shall obtain the consent of a person representing a majority of the Workers living in the dormitory.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

2 使用者は、前項第一号乃至第四号の事項に関する規定の作成又は変更については、寄宿舎に寄宿する労働者の過半数を代表する者の同意を得なければならない



  1. 対象が権利

    1. 権利を取得する

In the case referred to in the preceding paragraph, the second and subsequent freight forwarders shall acquire the rights of each of their predecessors when they perform their obligations to their predecessors. 2 前項ノ場合ニ於テ後者カ前者ニ弁済ヲ為シタルトキハ前者ノ権利ヲ取得ス

be desirous of acquiring the right to《契約書》~する権利を取得することを希望している



  1. 権利を行使する

(2) Holders of filed reorganization claims, etc., only where their claims have been determined, may exercise their rights approved pursuant to the provisions of the reorganization plan.

2 届出をした更生債権者等は、その有する更生債権等が確定している場合に限り、更生計画の定めによって認められた権利を行使することができる


  1. 譲渡する、移転する















Convey: Transfer the title to (property).






The passing of a thing or of property from one person to another; alienation; conveyance. 2 Bl. Comm. 294. Transfer is an act of the parties, or of the law, by which the title to property is con- veyed from one living person to another. Civ. Code Cal. $ 1039. And see Pearre v. Hawkins, 02 Tex. 437; Innerarity v. Minis, 1 Ala. 009; Sands v. Hill, 55 N. Y. 18; Pi- rie v. Chicago Title & Trust Co., 182 U. S. 43S, 21 Sup. Ct. 906, 45 L. Ed. 1171. In procedure, “transfer” is applied to an action or other proceeding, when it is taken from the jurisdiction of one court or judge, and placed under that of another.


1. Banking. Funds moved between accounts.

2. Real estate. Property title conveyance moved from seller to buyer through deed transfer.

3. Securities trading. Share certificate delivery by the seller’s broker to the buyer’s broker that is followed by recording change of title in share register.

In conveyancing. To make or set over to another; to transfer; as to assign property, or some interest therein. Cowell ; 2 Bl. Comm. 320; Bump v. Van Orsdale, II Barb. (N. Y.) 038; Iloag v. Mendenhall, 19 Minn. 33G (Gil. 2S9). In practice. To appoint, allot, select, or designate for a particular purpose, or duty. Thus, in England, justices are said to be “assigned to take the assises.” “assigned to hold pleas,” “assigned to make gaol delivery,” “assigned to keep the peace,” etc. St. Westm. 2, c. 30; Reg. Orig. OS, 09; 3 Bl. Comm. 58, 59, 353; 1 Bl. Comm. 351. To transfer persons, as a sheriff is said to assign prisoners in his custody. To point at, or point out; to set forth, or specify; to mark out or designate; as to assign errors on a writ of error; to assign breaches of a covenant. 2 Tidd, Pr. 11GS; 1 Tidd, GSG.




  1. Transfer 所有権の移転

provisional registration for the transfer of real property 不動産の所有権移転の仮登記

a change of ownership/ ownership transfer/ transfer of title 所有権の移転


  1. Convey


  1. Assign


  1. 権利を放棄する

A piscary, the duration of which is not particularly prescribed, shall be deemed to continuously exist during the duration of the fishery right covered by the piscary; provided that the piscary holder may waive the right at any time.



The Employee agree that the terms of this Agreement are offered by the Employer without any admission of liability on the part of the Employer and are in full and final settlement of all and any claims or rights of action that the Employee has or may have against the Employer or any of its or their respective current, former or future officers, workers or employees arising out of the Employees employment with the Employer or its termination or from events occurring after this Agreement has been entered into whether under common law, contract, statute or otherwise, whether such claims are, or could be, known to the parties or in their express contemplation at the date of this Agreement, including claims which as a matter of law do not at the date of this Agreement exist and whose existence cannot currently be foreseen in any jurisdiction and including, but not limited to, the following (each of which is hereby intimated and waived):



  1. 権利が帰属する

    1. 帰属する vest

(Renunciation of Shares and Death of Co-owners)


Article 255 If one of co-owners renounces his/her share or dies without an heir, his/her share shall vest in other co-owners.

第二百五十五条 共有者の一人が、その持分を放棄したとき、又は死亡して相続人がないときは、その持分は、他の共有者に帰属する


  1. belong to【自動詞】所属する、属する





  1. 有効・無効


  1. become valid

A change in the articles of incorporation, sanction rules, or dispute resolution rules of an Association does not become valid without the authorization of the competent minister.



  1. become effective

After any disposition under the preceding Article has become effective, no person who was an official or member of the Organization on or after the date on which the Terroristic Subversive Activity occasioning the disposition was committed shall perform any act in the interest of the Organization; provided that this does not apply to any act which is deemed necessary for litigation involving the validity of the disposition or for the liquidation or winding up of the property or affairs of the Organization.



  1. 対象が義務・責任

    1. 義務を課す

      1. impose obligation on ~


The conditions set forth in the two preceding paragraphs shall be limited to the minimum necessary to ensure the enforcement of matters pertaining to the designation or permission, and shall not impose an undue obligation on the person obtaining the designation or permission.




  1. 責任を負う、債務を負う、債務を負担する


be liable for 人



be liable to do




You are liable for the cost of repairs. 修理は有償となります.


  1. undertake obligations 義務を負う

・Licensee agrees to enforce all reasonable regulations and precautions to cause its officers and other employees to undertake the same obligations as stipulated in this Paragraph __. : 《契約書》ライセンシーは、自己の役員および社員が第_条の規定と同様の義務を負うように、あらゆる妥当な規制および事前措置を講じることに同意する。


  1. be responsible for ~ ~に関する責任を負う(~に関して責任を負う)

We are not responsible for any defects or malfunction due to your invalid operation.



  1. bear liability against

(2) A member shall bear liability against a Financial Instruments Membership Corporation within the limit of amount of the contribution, in addition to the liability for expenses prescribed in its articles of incorporation and the liability for damages which said member has caused to the Financial Instruments Membership Corporation.

2 会員の金融商品会員制法人に対する責任は、定款に定める経費及び当該会員が当該金融商品会員制法人に与えた損害の負担のほか、その出資額を限度とする。


  1. owe

(2) In order to provide for the matters in a reorganization plan under the provision of the preceding paragraph, consent shall be required from the person who will owe the debt or provide the security.

2 更生計画において、前項の規定による定めをするには、債務を負担し、又は担保を提供する者の同意を得なければならない。


  1. assume ラテン語「装う」の意 (AS‐+sūmere 「つかむ,取る」);

(d) if the guarantor assumes the debt jointly and severally with the principal debtor, a statement to that effect.

ニ 保証人が主たる債務者と連帯して債務を負担するときは、その旨


A trust property administrator, when performing the duties, shall assume the same duties and liabilities as a trustee.



(iii) Where the bankruptcy creditor has assumed a debt to the bankrupt after the bankrupt suspended payments, and the bankruptcy creditor knew, at the time of assumption of the debt, the fact that the bankrupt had suspended payments; provided, however, that this shall not apply if the bankrupt was not unable to pay debts at the time when the bankrupt suspended payments.

三 支払の停止があった後に破産者に対して債務を負担した場合であって、その負担の当時、支払の停止があったことを知っていたとき。ただし、当該支払の停止があった時において支払不能でなかったときは、この限りでない。


  1. incur (ある行為の結果として)〈負債・損失などを〉負う,受ける [ラテン語「…に突入する」の意 (IN‐2+currere 「走る」)]

incur a person’s displeasure [wrath] 人の不興を買う[怒りを招く]。

The company incurred a loss of $3 million last year. その会社は昨年 300 万ドルの損失を負った


The Licensor shall not be responsible for any loss, damages, costs or expenses which may be incurred by the Licensee. : 《契約書》ライセンサーは、ライセンシーが被る損失・損害賠償・費用に対する責任を負わないものとする。

•expenses actually and reasonably incurred by someone with respect to



Men contract debts ; they incur liabilities. In the one case, they act affirmatively; in the other, the liability is incurred or cast upon them by act or operation of law. “Incur”



  1. 他者の行為について責任を負う


take full responsibility for someone’s action



In the case of having caused damage to third parties through an act outside the scope of the purpose of a religious corporation, the representative director or any other representative who has performed such act and any directors, their substitutes, or temporary directors who approved the resolution pertaining to such matter shall be jointly and severally liable to compensate for such damage.



A Foreign Company shall be liable for damage caused to third parties by its representatives in Japan during the course of the performance of their duties.




  1. 債務免除



relieve [release]


relieve someone from his obligation(人)の責任を放免する

relieve someone from any obligations expressly assumed by someone under this agreement 本契約書において(人)が明示的に負担する義務から(人)を免除する

relieve someone from fulfiling the obligations(人)を義務の履行から解放する











No enterprise or trade association may be exempted from the liability provided in the preceding paragraph by proving the non-existence of intention or negligence on its part.










free someone from an obligation




  1. discharge

discharge someone from a debt (人)の債務を免除する

discharge someone from his debt (人)の負債を免除する

discharge of debts 債務免除

She decided to apply the fund to the discharge of debts. 彼女はその資金を借金の返済に当てることにした。



  1. 遵守・厳守







observe the traffic regulations 交通法規を守る.

observe silence 沈黙を守る.

comply with


(4)A worker and an employer shall comply with the labor contract and shall exercise their rights and perform their obligations in good faith.



Maker agrees to comply with requirements set in the Specification.《契約書》メーカーは、仕様に規定された要件に従うものとする。

be governed by



Any transaction between the parties with respect to Development and sale of the Product shall be governed by these Terms and Conditions.

be bound by



abide by



adhere to


〈二つの面が〉(互いにしっかりと)くっつく、〔+to+(代)名詞〕〔信仰・考え・計画などに〕執着[固執]する; 〔…を〕支持[信奉]する

Mud adhered to his shoes. 泥が彼の靴にこびりついた.

adhere to a plan 計画をあくまでも実行する.

adhere rigidly to the rules 規則を厳守する

conform to



be subject to



The accounting for a trust shall be subject to accounting practices that are generally accepted as fair and appropriate.


  1. 遵守義務

(1) observance obligation

(2) compliance obligation

Compliance with this principle would necessitate complete follow-up of all randomised subjects for study outcomes.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕


  1. 遵守事項

(1) matters to be observed

(2) condition(s) [更生保護法の場合]



  1. shall be submitted to

Should the negotiations fail, the dispute shall be submitted to arbitration by Arbitration Committee of the Central Chamber of Commerce in __ and the rules of the said committee are to be followed in the arbitration procedure.



  1. 基準に従い(~に基づく)
    1. 基準を設定する場合の注意




  1. Shall conform to the standard

CSA maintenance shall conform to the standards of the United States Federa Aviation Authority (FAA).


  1. 数値の基準の設定

Nagano Investments Company shall pay interest of 4% over the Bank of Japan Prime Lending Rate.


  1. 認可・承認された approved

This new product uses UL-approved parts. この新製品は、UL対応の部品を使用している。(UL = Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.)

We sell FDA-approved supplements. 当社は、FDA対応の栄養補助食品を販売している。(FDA = Food and Drug Administration)


  1. 基準人の設定
    1. Objective, neutral and fair manner

(3) The Assessment of the Effect of Food on Health provided in the preceding two paragraphs shall be conducted in an objective, neutral, and fair manner on the basis of the state-of-the-art scientific knowledge of the time.

3 前二項の食品健康影響評価は、その時点において到達されている水準の科学的知見に基づいて、客観的かつ中立公正に行われなければならない。


  1. Objectively reasonable grounds 客観的に合理的な理由

Article 16 A dismissal shall, if it lacks objectively reasonable grounds and is not considered to be appropriate in general societal terms, be treated as an abuse of right and be invalid.

第十六条 解雇は、客観的に合理的な理由を欠き、社会通念上相当であると認められない場合は、その権利を濫用したものとして、無効とする。



  1. 違反する


 break the rule

 disobey the rule

 violate the rule



act [be] against 《a law》

break 《one’s promise, a contract》

disobey 《the orders》

offend against 《the rules》

【形式ばった表現】 violate 《a regulation》

•保証違反 breach of warranty


  1. 履行する・措置をとる・実行する/自粛する




execute this agreement..は




implement this agreement..は



To put into execution; to cause to take effect; to make effective; as, toenforce a writ, a judgment, or the collection of a debt or fine.



Implement: Put (a decision, plan, agreement, etc.) into effect: ‘the regulations implement a 1954 treaty’

•Maker agrees that it shall maintain or keep the capacity to implement the Process for a minimum period of __ years.


•This Notification Letter of Approval shall be automatically null and void by itself if you don’t make any implementation for this plan within __ years since issuing date.



  1. fulfill an obligation債務を履行する




do; 主に何かを行うというケースで使用

do something/nothing/anything etc

do the laundry/ironing/dishes etc

do well/badly


perform; 何かの役割をこなすというケースで使用

 perform a study/experiment/analysis etc

perform a task/job/duty

perform a function/role

 perform well/badly etc


work; 仕事に関係するものを行う場合に使用

 work for ~

 work at/in ~

 work as ~

 work in industry/education/publishing etc

 work part-time/full-time 


execute; do と似ているがよりformalな場面で使用

execute somebody for something


fulfill; 希望や目的を達成する場合

 fulfil a hope, wish, or aim, you achieve the thing that you hoped for, wished for etc.

fulfil an aim/a goal/an objective

fulfil a role/duty/function etc

fulfil a requirement/condition/obligation etc

fulfil a promise/pledge etc

fulfil your potential/promise

fulfil yourself

put something into practice;

if you put an idea, plan etc into practice, you start to use it and see if it is effective


carry something ↔ out;

to do something that needs to be organized and planned 計画や予定を実行する場合

to do something that you have said you will do or that someone has asked you to do 自分が行うと言ったことを実行する場合


push something ↔ through;

to get a plan, law etc officially accepted, especially quickly 計画や法律などを実行する場合



enforce a law/ban etc 法の施行の場合

enforce something on somebody 人に何かをさせる場合



 when you do a particular thing, often regularly, in order to improve your skill at it:



 implement a policy/plan/decision etc



to carry out a particular activity or process, especially in order to get information or prove facts



 to do the things that are necessary to complete a job -> do work

to deal with a situation or problem by behaving in a particular way and making particular decisions -> deal with a situation



  1. perform

(2) Where the new trustee has succeeded to the obligations prescribed in the main clause of the preceding paragraph, the new trustee shall only be liable for using property that belongs to the trust property to perform those obligations.

2 新受託者は、前項本文に規定する債務を承継した場合には、信託財産に属する財産のみをもってこれを履行する責任を負う。


guarantee the performance of an obligation by the principal主たる債務者が責務を履行することを保証する


(i) Said Futures Commission Merchant has completely repaid to the Consumer Protection Fund, from which it intends to withdraw, the liabilities it has borne as a member by the time of filing such application for approval and said Futures Commission Merchant is expected to perform the obligation prescribed in the preceding paragraph without fail.

一 当該商品取引員が、その承認の申請の時においてその脱退しようとする委託者保護基金に対し会員として負担する債務を完済しており、かつ、前項に規定する義務を履行することが確実と見込まれること。


  1. (業務を)執行する
    1. execute

(2) The provisions set forth in the preceding paragraph shall not preclude a Legal Professional Corporation from specifying certain members who are to execute its practice as its representatives, in accordance with its articles of incorporation or pursuant to the consent of all its members.

2 前項の規定は、定款又は総社員の同意によつて、業務を執行する社員中特に弁護士法人を代表すべき社員を定めることを妨げない。◆


make good(約束・義務などを)








  1. 措置をとる、扱う、対処する、取り組む、実施する
    1. take the measures to ~ ~するための措置をとる

2. Each Party shall take the appropriate measures to prevent the import of hazardous wastes and other wastes if it has reason to believe that the wastes in question will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner;




  1. implement necessary measures必要な措置を講じる

the Representative Director of the Stock Company shall implement measures in lieu of the affixing of the signature (会社法682 条3 項) 【例】株式会社の代表取締役が…署名…に代わる措置をとらなければならない




  1. 対象が手続、手順、措置


  1. carry out the procedures

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), a foreign national shall not be required to appear at a regional immigration bureau in the event that the director of the regional immigration bureau finds the nonappearance reasonable. In this case, a travel agent whom the director of the regional immigration bureau finds appropriate shall submit the written application provided for in paragraph (1) and carry out the procedures provided for in paragraph (2).

4 第一項の規定にかかわらず、地方入国管理局長において相当と認める場合には、外国人は、地方入国管理局に出頭することを要しない。この場合においては、旅行業者で地方入国管理局長が適当と認めるものが、第一項に定める申請書の提出及び第二項に定める手続を行うものとする。


  1. undergo; Experience or be subjected to (something, typically something unpleasant or arduous)

he underwent a life-saving brain operation


  1. experience



  1. encounter; Unexpectedly experience or be faced with (something difficult or hostile)


  1. shall be conducted upon ~に基づいて行う

(1) A public prosecutor, a public prosecutor’s assistant officer or a judicial police official may, if necessary for investigation of an offense, conduct search, seizure or inspection upon a warrant issued by a judge. In such cases, the inspection and examination of a person shall be conducted upon a warrant for physical examination.

1 検察官、検察事務官又は司法警察職員は、犯罪の捜査をするについて必要があるときは、裁判官の発する令状により、差押、捜索又は検証をすることができる。この場合において身体の検査は、身体検査令状によらなければならない


  1. 対象が紛争

    1. compromise 妥協による解決

An arbiter compromised their differences. 仲裁者が彼らの争いを妥協によって解決させた。

He compromised his reputation


  1. 対象が期間・期限

    1. may request the extention of the Due Date 期限延長の要求

In the event the Project tender closing date (scheduled for ____) is extended, First Party shall separately notify Second Party of the extended closing date, to the extent known by the supervisor of First Party, and First Party may request additions, amendments or the extension of the Due Date of translation work according to this Agreement.


You have an option to request an extension on the payment due date by submitting a payment extension form.





  1. 対象が情報



  1. 通知・連絡・提出

    1. 通知する、知らせる
      1. provide ~ with notice of … ~に…を通知する

provide Maker with written notice of acceptance or rejection of the commercial samples of the Products《契約書》



  1. notify ~ of …  ~に…を知らせる[通知する](事態を知らせる、というニュアンスか??)

・Her face clouded over momentarily when she was notified of the accident. : 事故の知らせを聞いて彼女の顔は一瞬曇った。

・Management notified the labor union of its plan to rationalize operations by closing down five plants. : 経営側は労働組合に対して五つの工場を閉鎖し、操業を合理化する案を通告した。



•If an employee is sick, injured or for any reason unable to attend work, he/she must notify his/her supervisor or the General Affair & Personnel Manager before 9:00 a.m. on the first day of absent.




  1. inform A of B  AにBを連絡する

(a) Parties exercising their right to prohibit the import of hazardous wastes or other wastes for disposal shall inform the other Parties of their decision pursuant to Article 13.



  1. 連絡する、伝える

tell (一般的な意味で)相手に内容を伝える

inform (かしこまって)知らせる、報告する

relate 経験したことを順番に伝えるGive an account of (a sequence of events); narrate: ‘various versions of the chilling story have been related by the locals’

narrate Give a spoken or written account of:the tough-but-sensitive former bouncer narrates much of the story’

report 自分が調べたことを他の人に伝える Give a spoken or written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated

convey 考えたことや感じたことを伝える

give an account of


  1. require


  1. Demand


  1. 連絡を取り続ける
    1. maintain close contact with~ ~と緊密な連絡を取り続ける、~と親しい付き合いを続ける、~との親密な[緊密な]関係を維持する


(2) The Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism shall, in taking such measures set forth in the preceding paragraph, maintain close contact and coordination with heads of relevant administrative organ and domestic scheduled air transport service operators etc.

2 国土交通大臣は、前項の措置を講ずるに際しては、関係行政機関の長及び国内定期航空運送事業者等と相互に緊密に連絡し、及び協力するものとする。


  1. 届出
    1. notify
    2. report


  1. written notice/ report/ notification 届出書



  1. 提出
    1. Submit ~ to 人 

direction to submit written answer (民事訴訟規則201 条) 答弁書提出命令

order to submit a document文書提出命令


  1. produce [証拠等]


  1. advance [攻撃防御方法]


  1. (電子メールを)送信する

transmit electronic mail 電子メールを送信する



  1. 記録する

    1. 記録する


  1. record〈…を〉記録する,書き留める; 登録する.

I record my thoughts and experiences in my diary. 私は自分の思想や経験を日記に記録している.


  1. 対象が事実

    1. 保証する、確実にする、確保する

      1. ensure確実に~する

ensure a predictable result 予想通りの結果を確実にもたらす

ensure an optimum result 至適結果を確実に得る

•Place the coated side of the paper face up to ensure an acceptable result. 《マニュアル》用紙のコーティング面を上にしないと良い印刷結果が得られません。

•ensure a mutually beneficial result for both parties 双方[両者]にとって有益な[メリットのある]結果を出すことを約束する

•ensure someone’s desired end result (人)が望んでいる最終結果を確実にもたらす

•to help ensure accurate test results より正確な検査結果を得られるように

•ensure effective implementation of~の効果的な履行を確保する

•ensure full implementation of~の完全履行を確保する

•ensure implementation of the peace agreement和平合意の履行を確保する

•ensure the continuous and proper implementation継続的かつ適切な履行を確保する


The Security Council must ensure that both Israel and Hamas report to them on the progress of their investigations and prosecutions.



Seller and Buyer ensure that without the consent of the other party, no information regarding the extent and nature of this Agreement and/or technical information exchanged between themselves in the course of the implementation of this Agreement, will be brought to the knowledge of any third party.



Employee should be careful when accepting gifts from clients, salesmen, consultants, etc. to ensure that the giving and receiving of the gift was not intended or accepted as a bribe.



The last person leaving the office is responsible for checking the entrance door to ensure that it is locked.



  1. assure

1a〔+目的語+of+(代)名詞〕〈人に〉〔…を〕保証する,請け合う 《★【比較】 1b のほうが一般的》.

用例 I can assure you of his sincerity. 彼の誠実なことはあなたに請け合うよ (cf. assure 1b).


用例 I can assure you that he’s sincere. 彼が誠実なことはあなたに請け合うよ (cf. assure 1a).

I assure you I won’t let you down. 大丈夫あなたを失望させることはないよ.

c[I (can) assure you で主な文に並列的または挿入的に用いて] 大丈夫,確かに.

用例 Her conversation, I can assure you, is very entertaining. 彼女の会話は確かにとてもおもしろい.

  1. Insure
  2. secure
  3. guarantee


  1. make sure


  1. warrant that ~

ABC warrants
that the Software will substantially conform to its user manual, as it exists on the date of your purchase, for a period of __ days from the date of your purchase.



  1. 保証違反 breach of warranty

If a warranty is breached the innocent party may claim damages but can not end the contract:



  1. 確定する


become final and binding


  1. 証明する、証明しうる

    1. Verify

・verify the authenticity of a payment order 支払い要求が正規のものであることを証明する

・a verifying party 認証者

・MO drives verify the written data after recording. MO ドライブは記録後に書き込まれたデータの照合をする.


  1. as evidenced by ~ ~で証明できる

as evidenced by the fact that 〔that以下〕という事実から明らかなように

information which is in the possession of Licensee before the disclosure by Licensor hereunder as evidenced by written documents


She was furious, as evidenced by her slamming the door.


  1. prove

Where a person who was served the document stipulated in Article 24 (1) has appointed an agent to express his/her opinion or submit evidence pursuant to the provisions of Article 49 (3) of the Act, when the agent is an attorney-at-law or a law firm, the agent shall prove his/her authority to act in that capacity by means of a written document.



  1. 状況を調査する


examine the situation of hospitals in 



study the situation regarding



study the implementation status of



make investigation of the status of



explore the present situation of



examine the circumstances surrounding someone’s death




  1. 対象が計画・期待・目標

fall short


表現パターンcome [fall] short


A joint AI-Global Witness report and survey of the diamond industry has shown that the diamond industry continues to fall short of implementing basic measures of industry self- regulation it has promised to adopt.




  1. 立証責任


bear the burden of proof立証責任を負う

have the burden of proof(主語に)立証責任がある

The burden of proof is on 立証責任は(人)の側にある



  1. 意思行為

    1. 一方的意思行為(賛成、同意、通知、要求、反対など)

      1. Agree (Vi, 「うん」とうなづく動作)

Agreeは自動詞(「うん」とうなづく動作)。同意対象Agree with


  1. Agree toとAgree that

agree以下の主語がagreeする人達と同じときはagree to、違うときはagree thatの形をとります。

Japan and Turkey agreed that Iran should not possess nuclear weapons and that they will seek a solution to the problem through diplomatic not military means.

Japan and Turkey have agreed to strengthen bilateral cooperation in stabilizing Afghanistan and dealing with Iran’s nuclear development problem.

The two forein ministers agreed that their countries will step up cooperation for Afghanistan by setting up joint working groups between their ministries.

The government has agreed not to apply its sanctions against North Korea to that country’s woman soccer team, so that they can join in an international soccer tournament in Tokyo in February.


  1. assent




  1. concur (vi)

concur with someone’s proposal (人)の提案に同意する



  1. contradict 反対する

音節con・tra・dict 発音記号/kὰntrədíkt|k`ɔn‐/音声を聞く


【動詞】 【他動詞】

1a〈陳述・報道などを〉否認する,否定する; 〈…が〉正しくない[間違っている]と言明する 《★【類語】 ⇒deny》.

用例 The statement has been officially contradicted. その声明は公式に否定された.


用例 I’m sorry to contradict you, but… お言葉を返すようですが….


用例 The two accounts contradict each other. その二つの報告は互いに矛盾している.

b[contradict oneself で] 矛盾したことを言う.




用例 The two accounts contradict. その二つの報告は矛盾する 《★【比較】 【他動詞】 2a を用いるほうが一般的》.

【語源】ラテン語「反論する」の意 (CONTRA‐+dīcere 「言う」); 【名詞】 contradiction,【形容詞】 contradictory


  1. Intent


•intent of the invention 発明の意図

•intent of the parties 当事者の意図

•intent of the provision 規定の趣旨


  1. acquiescence  おとなしく従うこと、黙諾



  1. 許可、認可、承認、権限付与


  1. Permit (法律上、ルール上問題無しとして)することを認める、許可する




  1. Approve (申し入れや依頼の内容に賛同して)承認、認可する




He approved the scheme. 彼はその案に賛成した.


The committee approved the budget. 委員会は予算案を承認した.


【自動詞】 〔+of+(代)名〕〔…に〕賛成する,満足の意を表わす,〔…を〕満足に思う 《★受身可》.

His father did not approve of his choice. 彼の父は息子の選択を快く思わなかった.

I don’t approve of cousins marrying. いとこ同士の結婚には賛成しない.

[ラテン語 approbāre 「認める」から (AP‐+probāre 「認める」); 【名詞】 approval,approbation]


  1. Permitとapprove




  1. Authorize (上位者が下位者に対し権限・権利を)与える




  1. concede


  1. concession

A grant; ordinarily applied to the grant of specific privileges by a government; French and Spanish grants in Louisiana. See Western M. & M. Co. v. Peytona Coal Co., 8 W. Va. 44a CONCESSIT SOLVERE 237 CONCORDAT


  1. mandate




用例 The party has a mandate to implement these policies. その政党にこれらの政策を実施する権限がある.

2命令,指令; 任務.



【動詞】 【他動詞】

1〈…に〉〈…する〉権限を与える 〈to do〉.

2〈領土を〉〔…の〕委任統治に指定する 〔to〕.


ラテン語「手にゆだねる」の意; 【形容詞】 mandatory


  1. 双方的意思行為(合意、協議)


  1. 協議する



The doctor consulted with his colleagues about the operation on the patient. 医師は患者の手術のことで同僚と相談した.

Below they consulted together; 下で一同集って相談をしたところ



The president conferred with his advisers on the matter.




  1. deliberate[審議・評議等]



  1. negotiate

In the event the pre-production samples meet the Specification, but do not function, the parties shall negotiate needed amendments to the Development Schedule, Specification and the Development Cost.《契》




  1. Meet and confer concerning ~

ABC and KVC agree to meet and confer concerning extension of the term of this Agreement no later than three (3) months prior to its expiry.

In case either party is likely to breach this contract, both parties shall meet and confer concerning response to such case.


  1. agree [合意]

協議上の離婚divorce by agreement (民法767 条)


  1. 協議の上決定する shall be settled upon consultation

Any question arising out of, or in connection with, this Agreement or any matter not stipulated herein shall be settled each time upon consultation between both parties.《契》この契約に関する疑義が生じたとき、または、この契約に定めのない事項については、その都度甲乙協議の上決定するものとする

Any matter not stipulated herein shall be determined through mutual consultation at the Executive Meeting.《契約書》この規約に定めない事項については、幹事会で協議の上決定するものとする。



  1. 契約する
    1. contract



  1. undertake

A promise, engagement, or stipulation. Each of the promises made by the parties to a contract, considered independently and not as mutual, may, in this sense, be denominated an “undertaking.” “Undertaking” is frequently used in the special sense of a promise given in the course of legal proceedings by a party or his counsel, generally as a condition to obtaining some concession from the court or the opposite party. Sweet.



  1. engage

In French law. A contract. The obligation arising from a quasi contract The terms “obligation” and “engagement” are said to be synonymous, (17 Toullier,no. 1;) but the Code seems specially to apply the term “engagement” to those obligations which the law imposes on a man without the intervention of any contract,either on the part of the obligor or the obligee, (article 1370.) An engagement to do or omit to do something amounts to a promise. Rue v. Rue, 21 N. J. Law, 309.In English practice. The term has been appropriated to denote a contract entered into by a married woman with the intention of binding or charging her separate estate,or, with stricter accuracy, a promise which in the case of a person sui juris would be a contract. but in the case of a married woman is not a contract because she cannot bind herself personally, even in equity. Her engagements, therefore, merely operate as dispositions or appointments pro tanto of her separate estate.


  1. 解除・解約・取消・撤回・無効


  1. Verbs

rescission or cancellation


rescission of contract 解約、契約の解除[取り消し]

right of rescission 契約解除権



upon termination of the agreement 契約終了時に



decision to revoke the patent 特許を取り消すべき旨の決定

exercise the right to revoke contracts 契約の取り消し権を行使する








Vt; 無効


An instrument which defeats the force or operation of some otherdeed or estate. That which is in the same deed is called a “condition;” and that which is in another deed is a “defeasance.” Com. Dig. “Defeasance.”In conveyancing. A collateral deed made at the same time with a feoffment or otherconveyance, containing certain conditions, upon the performance of which the estatethen created may be defeated or totally undone.







In contract law, rescission has been defined as the unmaking of a contract between parties.[1] Rescission is the unwinding of a transaction. This is done to bring the parties, as far as possible, back to the position in which they were before they entered into a contract (the status quo ante).




  1. Adj; null and void    無効

Any assignment or transfer without such consent shall be null and void.





  1. Vt; revoke〈命令・約束・免許などを〉取り消す,廃止する,無効にする,解約する

He had his driving license revoked. 彼は運転免許証を取り上げられた.

•revoke a contract 契約を破棄する

•revoke a someone’s authority (人)の権限を取り消す

•revoke an agreement 協定を解約する

•revoke an injunction 差し止め命令を取り消す

•revoke an order 注文を取り消す、命令を撤回する


  1. 代表する、代理する

    1. represent

A liquidator shall represent the Specific Purpose Company in Liquidation; provided, however, that this shall not apply to cases where any other Representative Liquidator (meaning a liquidator representing the Specific Purpose Company in Liquidation; the same shall apply hereinafter) or any other person who represents the Specific Purpose Company in Liquidation has been specified.



The president shall represent the Consignor Protection Membership Corporation and preside over its affairs.


The president shall represent the Corporation and preside over its business.



The chief defense counsel or deputy chief defense counsel shall represent all other defense counsel in the receipt of notices and the delivery of documents to other defense counsel.



  1. 準意思行為(判断・決定・評価・指定・指示・考慮・)

    1. 判断、決定


(1) ruling [手続内での決定・証拠の採否, 手続に関する申立ての許可・不許可などについての裁判所の判断]

(2) decision [事実問題・法律問題の双方を考慮して得られた結論(司法判断のほか行政判断等にも用いられる)]

(3) order [裁判形式としての「決定」]


  1. 判断する







  1. Find

However, as they found they could not complete the integration process by October, they have decided to delay the merger of their core banking units for three months.しかし、10月までに統合作業を完了できないと判断し、主要な銀行部門の統合を3カ月間遅らせることを決めました。


  1. Settle 決定する

Any question arising out of, or in connection with, this Agreement or any matter not stipulated herein shall be settled each time upon consultation between both parties.《契》この契約に関する疑義が生じたとき、または、この契約に定めのない事項については、その都度甲乙協議の上決定するものとする。


  1. determine

Any matter not stipulated herein shall be determined through mutual consultation at the Executive Meeting.《契約書》この規約に定めない事項については、幹事会で協議の上決定するものとする。


  1. 認める、評価する

    1. recognize


The disciplinary disposition pursuant to the provision of the preceding Article shall be made after hearing the opinions of the council in a case where it has been recognized that there are grounds for a patent attorney to fall under the preceding Article with reasonable evidence after having conducted a hearing.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕


Where the Commission has recognized that there is a justifiable reason to do so, it may extend the deadline stipulated in item (iii) of the preceding paragraph on its own authority or upon petition.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕


  1. find



  1. approve

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 37 to the preceding Article inclusive, this shall not apply in cases where the Minister of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism approves that there is no hindrance in that regard.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕




  1. evaluate A as B AをBと評価する

evaluate dreams as the most important source of




  1. When it is evaluated that ~, or there is any potential for such circumstances 又はそのおそれがあると認められる場合

When it is evaluated that the Client Account or other Individual Transaction is utilized for the activities which violate the Laws and Regulations or the public order and morality, or there is any potential for such circumstances in the Bank’s judgment;




  1. 確認する

    1. shall confirm

A worker and an employer shall confirm the contents of the labor contract (including matters concerning a fixed-term labor contract), whenever possible in writing.



Both parties shall confirm the commercial production date, in writing, as soon as it is achieved.《契約書》




  1. 指定する、指名する、選任する

    1. Specify 指定する

Maker will further mark the massproduced Products with such codes which Buyer shall specify and maintain such recording systems which enable the traceability of the Products.《契約書》


  1. appoint / assign / designate / nominate


・ Appoint => Appointment(指定された日時の約束事、予約、任命)


・ Assign => Assignment(宿題、割り当てられた仕事、任命)


Designateはdesignから派生しています。Designの持つ計画する,立案する; 企てる、〈…する〉つもりであるという概念を引き継いで、「…との計画を持って指名した」、「…とのつもりで(専任として)指定した」というニュアンスを持っています。The President has designated him as the next secretary of state. 大統領は彼を次期国務長官に指名している。(まだなっていない)実際に任命する場合は、appointです。

Designated hitterは(守備をしないで)打撃に専念する野球選手。Designated driverは(お酒を飲まないで)運転に専念する人。




  1. have a supervisor 責任者を選任する

Furthermore, when you hire more than 10 non-Japanese nationals as regular employees, you are required to have a supervisor responsible for the foreign employees.



  1. appoint a controller 責任者を選任する

(iii) The purport and the name of the overall safety and health controller when it is required to appoint an overall safety and health controller pursuant to the provision of Article 15 of the Act.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

三 法第十五条の規定により統括安全衛生責任者を選任しなければならないときは、その旨及び統括安全衛生責任者の氏名



  1. designate とspecify

to designateはある意図をもってグループの中から選ぶ、選択する、指定するという意味があるようです。

to specifyにはそういうグループ的なニュアンスはないようです。


【動詞】 【他動詞】


用例 The red lines on the map designate main roads. この地図で赤線は主要な道路を示している.

2a〔+目的語+(as) 補語〕〈人などを〉〈…に〉指名する,選定する; 任じる 《★しばしば受身で用いる》.

用例 The President has designated him (as) the next secretary of state. 大統領は彼を次期国務長官に指名している.

He has been designated (as) my successor. 彼は私の後継者に指名された.

b〔+目的語+前置詞+(代)名詞〕〈人などを〉〔任務・官職などに〕任命する 〔for,to〕.

用例 Who was designated for [to] the command? だれが指揮官に任命されたか.

c〔+目的語+to do〕〈人などに〉〈…するように〉指名する,任じる.

用例 He designated me to work under [for] him. 彼は私に彼の部下として仕事をするように指名した.

3〔+目的語+(as) 補語〕〈…を〉〈…と〉名づける,呼ぶ.

用例 The ruler of a monarchy is designated (as) king or queen. 君主国の統治者は王または女王と呼ばれる.



  1. 指示する

    1. indicate

(ii) In addition to the administrative affairs listed in the preceding item, where the Minister of Finance and the minister having jurisdiction over the business have indicated
otherwise, administrative affairs involving noting the shortened period on a certificate of receipt of the notification on the day that they have indicated.

二 前号に掲げる事務のほか、財務大臣及び事業所管大臣が別に指示した場合における当該指示した日に届出受理証に短縮の期間を記入する事務


  1. give an instruction

(ii) In addition to the affair set forth in the preceding item, the affair of writing the period to be shortened in a certificate of receipt of a notification on the day instructed, when the Minister of Finance and the minister having jurisdiction over the business have given an instruction

二 前号に掲げる事務のほか、財務大臣及び事業所管大臣が別に指示した場合における当該指示した日に届出受理証に短縮の期間を記入する事務


  1. instruct

(v) An act of failing to use a safety belt without any proper reason in a take-off, landing, or any other case where the pilot in chief instructs the use of it.

五 離着陸時その他機長が安全バンドの装着を指示した場合において、安全バンドを正当な理由なく装着しない行為


  1. 考慮する/考慮しない


  1. X is to be disregarded

(2) The fact that the parties have their places of business in different States is to be disregarded whenever this fact does not appear either from the contract or from any dealings between or from information disclosed by, the parties at any time before or at the conclusion of the contract.

(2) 当事者の営業所が異なる国に所在するという事実は、その事実が、契約から認められない場合又は契約の締結時以前における当事者間のあらゆる取引関係から若しくは契約の締結時以前に当事者によって明らかにされた情報から認められない場合には、考慮しない


  1. Yの決定にあたりXを考慮する X is to be taken into consideration in determining Y

(3) Neither the nationality of the parties nor the civil or commercial character of the parties or of the contract is to be taken into consideration in determining the application of this Convention.

(3) 当事者の国籍及び当事者又は契約の民事的又は商事的な性質は、この条約の適用を決定するに当たって考慮しない。




  1. 理解・認識

figure out, understand,



  1. 異議がある

(9) When the Governor concerned receives the application set forth in the preceding paragraph, he/she shall notify the person pertaining to the application to the effect that if the person has an objection, he/she should offer it within a certain period of time.

9 都道府県知事は、前項の申請を受けたときは、その申請に係る者に対して、異議があれば一定の期間内に申し出るべき旨を催告しなければならない。


  1. 異議を述べる

(2) The bankrupt may make an objection in writing to the court, within the ordinary period for investigation, with regard to the amount of the bankruptcy claim set forth in the preceding paragraph.

2 破産者は、一般調査期間内に、裁判所に対し、前項の破産債権の額について、書面で、異議を述べることができる。



  1. 読み替え規定、読替適用


Unless otherwise proved by the party


  1. 読み替えて適用する

    1. 個別契約書に別の基本契約を読み替え適用する

The “Basic Agreement”, which was made and between ABC, DEF dated Jan 1st 2000, shall apply mutatis mutandis, deeming the word “ABC” of the Basic Agreement as “XYZ”.

The “Basic Agreement”, which was made and between ABC, DEF dated Jan 1st 2000, shall apply mutatis mutandis to the individual contract regarding the order, deeming the word “ABC” of the Basic Agreement as “XYZ”.


  1. 読み替えるものとする

    1. A shall be deemed to be replaced with B        AはBに読み替えるものとする

(2) As regards the application of provisions listed in the left column of the following table concerning the accreditation listed in the preceding paragraph, the terms listed in the middle column of the table shall be deemed to be replaced with the terms listed in the right column.

2 前項の認定についての次の表の上欄に掲げる規定の適用については、これらの規定中同表の中欄に掲げる字句は、それぞれ同表の下欄に掲げる字句に読み替えるものとする


Until the date of whichever registration filed under Article 293 of the New Act first becomes effective, with regard to the application of the provisions of Article 80, paragraph (2), item (iii), the term “Consignor Protection Fund” in the same item shall be deemed to be replaced with “the Association of Compensation Funds for Consigned Liabilities in Commodity Futures, Inc. (hereinafter referred to as the “Association of Compensation Funds”) established on October 31, 1975.”



  1. In this case the term ” ” shall be deemed to be replaced with ” ”

(12) The provisions of Article 39-12, paragraph (2) and paragraph (3) shall apply mutatis mutandis where the provisions of paragraph (9) or paragraph (10) shall apply. In this case the term “50 percent or more” in paragraph (2) and paragraph (3) of the said Article shall be deemed to be replaced with “over 50 percent.”

12 第三十九条の十二第二項及び第三項の規定は、第九項又は第十項の規定を適用する場合について準用する。この場合において、同条第二項及び第三項中「百分の五十以上の」とあるのは、「百分の五十を超える」と読み替えるものとする。


  1. AはBに含まれるものとみなす

    1. In the case of applying the provisions, A shall be deemed to be included in B    AはBに含まれるものとみなす

(4) The amount listed in paragraph (2), item (i), (b) shall be, in the case of applying the provisions of Article 150, paragraph (2), item (viii) and Article 158, item (viii), (b) of the Ordinance on Accounting of Companies and Article 446, item (ii) and Article 461, paragraph (2), item (ii), (b) and item (iv) of the Companies Act, said amount shall also be deemed to be included in the amount of the treasury share value.

4 第二項第一号ロに掲げる額は、会社計算規則第百五十条第二項第八号及び第百五十八条第八号ロ並びに会社法第四百四十六条第二号並びに第四百六十一条第二項第二号ロ及び第四号の規定の適用については、当該額も、自己株式対価額に含まれるものとみなす


(3) The acceptance of a statement made under the provision of the preceding paragraph, for the purpose of application of the Act on Adjudication of Domestic Relations, shall be deemed to be included in the matters listed in Article 9(1), Type I, of said Act.

3 前項の規定による申述の受理は、家事審判法の適用に関しては、同法第九条第一項甲類に掲げる事項とみなす



  1. [読み替え規定]により読み替えて適用する

(4) The Minister of Labor shall listen to the opinions of the Central Labor Standards Council prior to planning the establishment or revision of the order set forth in paragraph (1) of Article 32, which applies by replacing its terms pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (1).

4 労働大臣は、第一項の規定により読み替えて適用する第三十二条第一項の命令の制定又は改正の立案をしようとするときは、あらかじめ、中央労働基準審議会の意見を聴かなければならない。

(including the case where it is applied by replacing the terms pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph)



  1. 解釈条項

    1. shall not be construed [interpreted] / Nothing shall be construed [interpreted] as ~

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as


Nothing stated in this Clause __ shall be construed to limit Buyer’s right to recover damages from Maker in case Maker is in delay.


Nothing stated in this Clause __ shall be construed to limit Buyer’s right to recover damages from Maker in case of breach of Agreement.


nothing in this paragraph shall be interpreted as



  1. A shall include B    AにはBを含む

(2) The labor contract without a definite period set forth in the preceding paragraph shall include such a labor contract with a definite period that is repeatedly renewed and is therefore reasonably deemed to be a labor contract without a definite period under socially accepted conventions.

2 前項の期間の定めのない労働契約には、反復して更新されることによって期間の定めのない労働契約と同視することが社会通念上相当と認められる期間の定めのある労働契約を含むものとする。


  1. The provisions of A shall not be interpreted to exclude the application of B    AはBを妨げるものと解してはならない

The provisions of Article 4, paragraphs (1) to (3) shall not be interpreted to exclude
the application of Article 96 of the Civil Code (Act No. 89 of 1896) to the manifestation of an intention to offer or accept a Consumer Contract falling under these paragraphs.



  1. When there is a contradictory stipulation in B, A shall control

When there is a contradictory stipulation in another law, the provisions of this law shall control. 他の法律の規定と矛盾する場合は、この法律の規定が優先する


  1. 【:=】定義条項


  1. 「および」はandではなくor(集合論のUNION)





A or B




A or B




A and B




  1. 条件分岐付定義 ”S” means A or, if ~, B; ”S”とはAをいい、~のときは、Bをいう。

18. “Generator” means any person whose activity produces hazardous wastes or other wastes or, if that person is not known, the person who is in possession and/or control of those wastes;



  1. 以下「…」という  hereinafter referred to as “…”

・hereinafter referred to as the “Date of Enforcement”

・collectively means  《契約書》総称して~と称する、まとめて~と呼ぶ

・hereinafter collectively called  以下これらをまとめて~と呼ぶ◆文書などで

・hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Purchaser”

 X and Y are hereinafter referred to collectively as the “Parties” and individually as a “Party”.(本契約では,XY両者を合わせて「当事者ら」といい,個別には「当事者」という。)


  1. (hereinafter referred to as “~” in this Article) (以下本条において「~」という)

(2) In the case where the amount of profit (excluding any reversal of liability reserve) for a business year is below the amount of costs of such business year, the Corporation shall reduce the liability reserve by and up to said amount below the amount of costs (hereinafter referred to as “Amount of Loss” in this Article) to compensate for the Amount of Loss.

2 機構は、毎事業年度の収益(責任準備金戻入を除く。)の額が当該事業年度の費用の額を下回る場合は、その下回る部分の金額(以下本条において「損失額」という。)を限度として責任準備金を取り崩し、当該損失額を補てんするものとする。


  1. 定義文言の位置

    1. 原則は説明文言の後ろ


Employers shall not assign pregnant women or women who are within one year since childbirth (hereinafter referred to as “expectant or nursing mothers”) to work involving the handling of heavy materials, work in places where harmful gas is generated, or other work injurious to pregnancy, childbirth, nursing and the like.



  1. 定義文言の後ろの説明文言は定義に含まれない

(2) In addition to what is provided for in the preceding paragraph, a complaint shall have attached a copy of any document that is to serve as evidence (hereinafter referred to as a “copy of documentary evidence”) which is material, with regard to any grounds that require proof.

2 前項に規定するほか、訴状には、立証を要する事由につき、証拠となるべき文書の写し(以下「書証の写し」という。)で重要なものを添付しなければならない。


  1. 関係代名詞の非制限用法は後ろにおいてもOK

Registration affairs shall be administered by the Legal Affairs Bureau or District Legal Affairs Bureau or the branch bureau thereof or the branch office of any of those bureaus (hereinafter simply referred to as a “registry office”), which has jurisdiction over the location of the business office of the party concerned.



  1. 後で定義する場合の表現

SELLER is willing to furnish the Product, as hereinafter defined, to BUYER.



1. Purpose. This Agreement shall apply to Confidential Information (as defined in paragraph 2 below) disclosed only for the purpose of:


  1. 括弧内に意味内容を記載して定義する (meaning~; the same shall apply hereinafter )

(vii) When social medical corporation bond certificates (meaning securities that represent the social medical corporation bonds; the same shall apply hereinafter) will be issued, a statement to that effect.

七 社会医療法人債券(社会医療法人債を表示する証券をいう。以下同じ。)を発行するときは、その旨


  1. be identified as

《be ~》~と認定[確認]される、~だと身元が判明する、~と分かる、~だとされる、~と言ってもいい

The differences in the samples for the same drug product should be identified as, for example, covering different batches, different strengths, different sizes of the same closure and possibly, in some cases, different container/closure systems.


Intermediates and APIs failing to meet established specifications should be identified as such and quarantined. 設定規格に適合しない中間体・原薬は、その旨を識別し、区分保管すること。◆【出典】ICHガイドライン



  1. 対象が適用範囲、定義


  1. be excluded from the scope 適用範囲から除外する

3. Wastes which, as a result of being radioactive, are subject to other international control systems, including international instruments, applying specifically to radioactive materials, are excluded from the scope of this Convention.





  1. Confirmation Clause    確認条項



  1. shall not deprive someone of right    人の権利を奪うものではない

Delay or failure of notice shall not deprive the affected party of the right to claim Force Majeure.



  1. ~ shall not relieve [sb] of its responsibilities ~は[sb]の責任を免れさせるものではない

Buyer has the right to approve documentation but such approval shall not relieve Seller of any of its responsibilities under the Purchase order.


  1. A shall not exclude B

The delay penalty shall not exclude the right to cancel the Agreement.



  1. shall not precludeすることを妨げない

「なお」から始まる文書 訳しなくていい



Check Also


Any failure of …


メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。 * が付いている欄は必須項目です