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契約英語の基礎(動詞)

  1. VERBS

    1. Halliday’s Grammer

      1. Fundamentals

http://www.pucsp.br/isfc/proceedings/Artigos%20pdf/16th_lin_peng_331a347.pdf

  1. SUMMARY

分類

Material

Behavioral

Mental

Verbal

Relational

Existential

意味

creating/changing, doing/acting

 

Doing,Happening

behaving, seeing

representating, acting

experiencing or sensing

saying, symbolizing

having identity, having attribute

exist, there is…

参与要素

人・物

人(自分)

人(意識・知覚)が必要、事象

意識・知覚がなくても可、事象

なし

なし(主語がThere)

補語

×

×

名詞のみ

名詞のみ

名詞、形容詞

名詞、形容詞

 

SV

 

SVO/SVOO/SVOC

SV

SV

 

SVO

 

 

SVO/SVOO

 

SVC

SV

S

Actor

Behaver

Sensor(意識・知覚の主体)

Sayer

Carrier

Token

Existent

V

人や物への具体的働きかけ
自然界や身の回りの出来事

人の生理的および心理的な行動の過程(呼吸、微笑、見る、言うなど)

外部による影響を受けている受動態的なところがある。

対象に具体的に作用しない。

発言内容が重要

人や物とその特徴の関係を示す

森羅万象による不可抗力的な状態や変化の結果を表現する

O, C

Goal

Scope

Attribute

Client

Recipient

Beneficiary

Behaviour

Phenomenon

Receiver

Verbiage

Attribute

Value

 

代表例

go, leave

 

speak, talk

love, think

 

see

hear

know

like

 

say, tell

be, have

 

seem

be, exist

progressive

×(開始と終了が不明確)

×

×

禁止

受動態

           
   

句動詞を作ることが多い
aboutやwith to atを多用する

       

節(引用、that-節、wh-節、名詞+to不定詞)

 

引用文を続けることができない

可(思考内容)

可(報告内容)

   

 

     

Material

Doing

go, leave, give, climb, hit, make, cook, eat, drink, cut, write, read, wear, rain, snow, fall, flow

Mental

Sensing

see, love, think, notice, hate, regret, appriciate, believe, know, hear, understand, recognise, remenber, want, desire, wish

Relational

Being

be, have, seem, look, belong, resemble, represent, symbolize, equal, sound(it sounds nice.), last, weigh(weightrn kiros)

Behaviorial

Representing outer manifestations of inner workings
Acting out of processes of consciousness and physiological states.

speak, talk, watch, stare, listen, chat, chatter, cry, laugh, smile, frown, sigh, cough, faint, yawn, sleep, kiss, hug, sing, dance, worry

Verbal

Saying
border between mental and relational

say, tell, answer, ask, call, shout, suggest, explain, quote, warm, demmand, request, promise

Existential

Existing and Happening

be, exist, stand, lie

 

  1. 3 major functions of language

 

ideational

textual

interpersonal

 

to express content and to communicate information.

to signify discourse

to establish and maintain social relations

 

現実認識や内的・外的経験を表現する観念構成的 (ideational)機能

発話内容に脈絡をつける談話構成的(textual) 機能

話し手と聞き手の関係を表す対人的 (interpersonal) 機能

 

The ideational function involves two main system

transitivity

ergativity

thematic structure

information structure

 

 

  1. 3 kinds of grammar

Theme is the grammar of discourse

Mood is the grammar of speech function

Transitivity is the grammar of experience

 

  1. TRANSITIVITY in functional grammer

In Halliday’s functionalgrammer, whether the verb takes or does not take a direct object is no a prime consideration.

The system of transitivity construes the world into manageable set of PROCESS TYPES and PARTICIPANTS.

 

PROCESS

Participant ⇒ Participant

 

  1. Three components of transitivity process

 

要素のタイプ

典型的な具現

5文型の用語

①The “PROCESS” itself

動詞群

②PARTICIPANTS in the process

名詞群

S、O、C

③CIRCUMSTANCES associated with the process

副詞群か、前置詞句

M、その他

 

e.g.    I         walked         the dog.

    participant     process         participan

 

A clause in English is the simultaneous realization of ideational, interpersonal and textual meanings.

A clause is the product of three simultaneous sementic processes.

It is at one and the same time a representation of experience (ideational), an interactive exchange (interpersonal) and a message (textual).

 

Transitivity is “the grammar of the clause” as a “structural units” for “expressing a particular range of ideational meanings.”.

 

  1. 他動性の選択(transitivity options)

機能文法の中で最も中心的な観念構成的機能を担うものに、 他動性の選択(transitivity options) がある。それは、我々が物事を表現するときに常に行っている、

 

Process typeの選択、Participantの選択。

 

異なる種類の動詞型 (process type) やそれに関わる 人物・物といった関与体 (participant) の選択のことである。

動詞型はまず大きく3つに分類される。

 

material process

mental process

relational process

代替助動詞

     
 

何らかの行為を行う

感覚を表す

存在・状態・関係

Participant

人・物

常に意識・知覚のある関与者を必要

 

補語をとることができるか?

×

可能(名詞のみ)

可能(名詞、形容詞)

 

  1. Action/Event vs Status/Condition

 

Action/Event

Status/Condition

one time occurrence

cannot used with “how long” or expressions of duration.

present or past

long time

can used with “how long” or expressions of duration (over periods of time)

present or present perfect

I got married/engaged/divorced last May. (This event occurs last May.)

I am married/engaged/divorced.

 

 

become

be

get married/engaged/divorced

be married/engaged/divorced.

graduate

be out of school

die

be dead

meet

know

learn

know

find out

know

buy/purchase

have

get/aquire

have/own

fall asleep/in love

be asleep/in love

 

 

  1. Sentence Patterns

    1. SVOO

下の動詞は意味から分類した第4文型をとることが可能な動詞群です。* 印は、類似の意味を持っていながら、第4文型をとり得ない動詞です。(G) はゲルマン語(古英語、北欧語)に語源を持つ動詞、(F) はラテン語・フランス語に語源を持つ動詞です。

 

 

 

M/V

     

passing

M

to

到達まで含む

give(G) pass(F) hand(G) lend (G) (*donate(F) *contribute(F))

sending

M

to

輸送手段を用いて送る

send(G) ship(G) mail(F) (*transport(F) *deliver(F) *courier(F) *messenger(F))

tossing

M

to

投げる

throw(G) toss(G) kick(G) fling(G) flip(G) slap(G) poke(G) (*propel(F) *release(F))

making

M

for

作る

bake(G) build(G) cook(G) make(G) knit(G) fix(G) sew(G) (*construct(F) *create(F) *design(F) *devise(F))

getting

M

for

入手

get(G) find(G) buy(G) order(F) win(G) earn(G) (*obtain *purchase *collect)

taking

M

to

移動

bring(G) take(G) (*carry(F))

assign

M

to

移転の結果

offer(F) leave(G) assign(F) award(G) reserve(F) grant(F) bequeath(G) refer(F) recommend(F) guarantee(F) permit(F) promise(F)

cost

M

取られる、減らす

マイナスの譲渡

cost(F) spare(G) save(G) charge(F) fine(G) forgive(G) envy(F) begrudge(G) deny(F) refuse(F) lose

telling

V

to

情報伝達

tell(G) ask(G) show(G) teach(G) quote(F) cite(F) write(G) read(G) (*explain(F) *announce(F) *describe(F) *deliver(F) *admit(F) *confess(F) *recount(F) *repeat(F) *report(F) *declare(F) *transmit(F))

 

 

 

これからわかることは、一般的な傾向として、ラテン語・フランス語に語源を持つ動詞は、第4文型をとりにくいということです(これは、フランス語には、ゲルマン語にあるSVOO構文がないことによるのでしょう)。しかし、ラテン・フランス語系の動詞でも、音節の短い、いくつかの動詞は第4文型で使われています。ですので、第4文型で表現し得るかどうかは、その動詞の語源だけではなく、音節の長さにも関係しているのだろうと思われます。

 

 

  1. Material (Physical actions in the real world)e.g. go, leave, kick, run, paint, repair, send, burn

  1. Fundamentals

    1. Participants

Actor

the one performing the action

He played tenniss yesterday.

Goal

[st]/[sb] which is affected by the action

He swallowed the ping pong ball by mistake.

Scope

that which remains unaffected by the action

He played tennis yesterday.

Attribute

a quality ascribed or attributed to an entity

He painted the table green.

Client

for whom/which the action occurs

client takes the preposition “for”

He also made his girl friend a cake.

He made a cake for his girlfriend.

Recipient

the receiver of goods or services

recipient takes the preposition “to”

The doctor gave the patient some medicine.

The doctor gave some medicine to the patient.

 

The Material process involves dynamic verbs, the progressive is permitted – “He was playing tennis yesterday”.

 

  1. Sentence Patterns

Acting

Actor Material Scope <SVO>

He played tenniss yesterday.

Doing

Actor Meterial Goal <SVO>

He swallowed the ping pong ball by mistake.

Giving

Actor Material Recipient Goal <SVOO>

Actor Material Goal to Recipient <SVOtoO>

The doctor gave the patient some medicine.

The doctor gave some medicine to the patient.

Providing

Actor Material Client Goal <SVOO>

Actor Material Goal for Client <SVOforO>

He also made his girl friend a cake.

He made a cake for his girlfriend.

 

Actor Material Goal Attribute <SVOC>

He painted the table green.

 

  1. MATERIAL Process (Doing; Physical actions in the real world) e.g. go, leave, give, make, write

PARTICIPANT

PROCESS

PARTICIPANT

Actor (who does the action)

Material Process (Physical actions in the real world)

Goal (who is affected by the action)
Recipient ( who received something)
Beneficiary (for whom something is done)

He
His statement

did not represent
suggests

President
that President was third party.

the rion

sprang

 

the rion

caught

the tourist

Apparantly, when Vice President Jejomar Binay

negotiated with his college classmates Nur Misuari last Fridya,

to try to end the fighting in Zamboanga City, he did so on his own behalf.

He

did not represent

President Aquino but acted as his own principal.

…his next sentences

places

the President of the Philippines outside the framework of discussion

as though Binay

negotiated

with Misuari without the President’s objectives or conditions in mind.

In the first place, his statement

suggestes

that President Aquino was a third pary, rather than the person Binay was representing

 

 

  1. ポイント

外界での経験ないし経験値を外部に言葉で表現するツール

What did X do?と問いかけて、What X did was to …と答えられればDoing Verbs

e.g. “He’s already bought the ticket.”⇒”What did he do?” “What he did was buy the tickets.”

 

  1. 現在進行形で使うことが多い。

Mom’s preparing dinner in the kitchen. The fragrant aromas from the kitchen have kicked our anticipation into high gear.

 

ただし、以下の場合は現在形を使う。単なる事実で時間は無関係ということが多い。

習慣

In our home, Dad prepares dinner and the rest of the family does the dishes.

決まっている予定をいう

Our flight leaves at 12:50 p.m.

スポーツ中継や料理番組の実現

X passes to Y, Y to Z. Z passes back to X, and X shoots and scores a goal!

物語文で状況設定をしたり臨場感を出す

This story takes place in the late 19th century. The year is 1854 and Admiral Perry visits Japan to put an end its isolationism.

 

  1. なるべく具体性のある動詞を選ぶ

Add water to the soil and then mix the soil and water together.

addやmixでもよいが、dissolveやdilute、filterといった絞り込んだ表現が良い。

 

DOING/ACTING; blow, bring, buy, come, do, get, give, go live, meet, play, run, take, play, try, use, work

CREATING; make

 

  1. アクション動詞の種類

物理的動き・物理的変化を表す

目に見えない抽象的な動き・変化を表す

I drove her to the station.

The lake froze over night.

XYZ shares skyrocketed/nosedived.

His empire crumbled to pieces.

 

日記などのナラティブで多様される

 

  1. ACTING <SV/SVO; Actor Material Scope> e.g. He played tenniss yesterday.

 

  1. 自動詞の文:Componentが一つ(主体のみ)

My computer suddenly blacked out.(My computerが唯一のComponent)

主体と動詞だけの文章。

 

  1. 実質的な自動詞の文e.g. run a race, make a mistake

     

    The surgical team transfused some blood to him.

    The surgical team did a blood tansfusion.

    X

    the surgical team

    the surgical team

    Verb

    transfused

    did

    What(客体)

    some blood

    a blood transfusion (?)

    to Y(客体もどき)

    to him

     

    1. 実質的な自動詞の見分け方

客体かどうか、実質的な自動詞かどうかは、+Cが足せるかどうかで判断。

She shot a gun dead.は無理。

She shot him deadはOK

 

She shot a gun.

She shot him.

X

She

She

Verb

shot

shot

What(客体)

a gun (?)

him

Cの追加

She shot a gun dead.は不可

She shot him dead.

     

 

  1. 実質的な自動詞の2つのパターン

       

    動詞の語義を言い換えているだけのパターン

    My father runs a small factory.のa small factoryは独自の存在感がある。

    しかし、

    He ran the 100m race in 9.63 seconds.では、raceはranの付属品、ranの言い換えでしかない。

    動詞自体が無内容だから名詞を足して説明するパターン

    do, have, give, take, makeなどの、それ自体固有の意味がなく、他の所定名詞を組み合わさって初めて意味を持つ。

    実質的な自動詞の文は、自動詞で言いかえが可能

    She gave a big smile. = She smiled.

    I took a shower after exercising. = I showered.

     

  1. DOING <SVO; Actor Material Goal> e.g. He swallowed the ping pong ball by mistake.

    1. Display

After talk show hosts Oliver Russo’s weekly celebrity interview, MRM Radio posts a transcription of the broadcast on the station’s Web site.

 

 

 

  1. GIVING/PROVIDING <SVOO>

 

  1. Fundamentals

     

    GIVING

    PROVIDING

     

    SVOO; Actor Material Recipient Goal

    Actor Material Client Goal

     

    有形のモノのやり取り

    無形のサービスや利益のやり取り

     

    To:到達点

    到達点が意識される動詞ではtoがよく用いられる。

    For:~のために(方向性)

    受領者が強く意識される動詞ではforがよく用いられる。

     

    give, tell, send

    buy, send

     

    To + 第3の要素

    For + 第3の要素

     

    I gave a birthday present to Jill.

    She cooked chicken curry for Jack.

     

    the Receiver has received the object.

    e.g. My friends came to my house on a hot day, so I gave them some cold drinks.

    unknown whether the receiver has received the object or not.

    e.g. My frineds came to my house on a hot day, so I provided them some cold drinks.

         

     

 

 

buy, give, sendのような「やり取り動詞」は、モノや無形の利益がやり取りされる動詞。

 

 

Actor Material Goal to Recipient.

The doctor gave the patient some medicine.

The doctor gave some medicine to the patient.

 

The [st] already has been had by Actor.

 

手渡しの意味。

 

SV 人 モノ

SV モノ to

SV モノ for

イメージ

手渡し

受領者を強調

 

能動文では圧倒的にこちらがノーマル

受動文ではこちらがポピュラー

 

 

  1. 授与型をとる動詞

give

     

buy

     

make

     

owe

借りている、負ってい

 

I owe Susan some money and must pay her back by next Tuesday.

do

   

Will you do me a favor?

do more harm than good

save

(お金などを)使わないで取っておく。

 

If I buy a second-hand computer, it will save me hundreds of dollars.

offer

     

promise

     

 

  1. 前置詞を用いた授与(受け手の強調)

前置詞を用いた授与は、実はそれほど重要度が高くない。なぜなら授与型が圧倒的にノーマルな形だから。

 

She gave this love letter to me. = She gave me this love letter.

 

 

  1. やり取り動詞での間接目的語の位置

I gave a birthday present to Jill. = I gave Jill a birthday present.

She cooked chicken curry for Jack. = She cooked Jack chicken curry.

両者の使い分けは、聞き手が何を知っているか、による。

giveの相手方が明らかな場合は、I gave Jill a birthday presentとする。

giveの相手方を知らない場合は、I gave a birthday present to Jill.とする。

 

いわゆるSVOO文において、最初のOは間接目的語と呼ばれ、既知の事項を入れる。

センテンスの最後は、聞き手が初めて知る情報のための定位置だからです。

 

  1. GIVING; <SVO to O> 原則

give(G) pass(F) hand(G) lend (G) (*donate(F) *contribute(F))

 

  1. present
     
     

present

   

 

 

 

  1. paying
     

pay the price

Where a beneficiary’s demand that the trustee acquire the beneficial interest has been made, if an agreement is reached between the trustee and the beneficiary on the determination of the price of the beneficial interest, the trustee shall pay the price before 60 days have elapsed from the date of the beneficiary’s demand that the trustee acquire the beneficial interest (or the effective day if it has not arrived by said date).

受益権取得請求があった場合において、受益権の価格の決定について、受託者と受益者との間に協議が調ったときは、受託者は、受益権取得請求の日から六十日を経過する日(その日までに効力発生日が到来していない場合にあっては、効力発生日)までにその支払をしなければならない。

 

send

send the sum of $__ to ~ by telegraphic transfer _ドルの金額を電信為替で~あてに送金する

 

make payment

All payments due to Licensor by Licensee hereunder shall be made by telegraphic transfer in the United States currency to a designated bank account of Licensor. ライセンシーがライセンサーに支払うべき金額は、電信送金にて、ライセンサーが指定する銀行口座に米ドル建てで払いこまれるものとする。

 

refund

THERE IS A POLICY OF A NO REFUND AND NO EXCHANGE. PLEASE CHECK YOUR ITEMS IF THEY ARE OK BEFORE PURCHASING.《掲》〔商店〕

返金・返品はお受け致しかねますので、お買い上げの前に商品に間違いのないことをご確認ください

The Bursar’s Office shall refund to all students amounts received in excess of the amounts due in accordance with all Federal Title IV regulations and university procedures. Excess payments made by third parties or outside organizations shall be refunded in accordance with the direction of that organization.

 

reimburse

   

 

 

 

 

  1. reimburse

We will reimburse you for the room charge, but not any other miscellaneous expenses.

《レ》ホテル代は会社が返金してくれますが、その他の諸費用は自己負担となります。

 

The Council may approve work to be undertaken in the field of the Organization at the request of or on behalf of other international organizations, and may accept reimbursement for expenses incurred.

本組織の分野において、他の国際機関の要請によりまたはそれら機関に代わって行う業務について、理事会は承認することができ、また、発生費用の返却を受け取ることができる。

 

  1. SENDING; <SVO to O> 輸送手段を用いて送る

send(G) ship(G) mail(F) (*transport(F) *deliver(F) *courier(F) *messenger(F))

 

 

submitはSVOOをとらない。SVO to Oのみ。

We didn’t actually have to go out and build some new defenses, but make a presentation, submitting our proposals to the rest of the group complete with economical and environmental costs/benefits.

 

  1. TOSSING; <SVO toO>    投げる

throw(G) toss(G) kick(G) fling(G) flip(G) slap(G) poke(G) (*propel(F) *release(F))

 

  1. ASSIGN    ; <SVO to O> 移転の結果    

offer(F) leave(G) assign(F) award(G) reserve(F) grant(F) bequeath(G) refer(F) recommend(F) guarantee(F) permit(F) promise(F)

 

  1. BRINGING <SVO to O> 運ぶ

bring(G) take(G) (*carry(F))

 

  1. COSTING;<SVO to O>取られる、減らす

マイナスの譲渡    cost(F) spare(G) save(G) charge(F) fine(G) forgive(G) envy(F) begrudge(G) deny(F) refuse(F) lose

 

cost, take, chargeはマイナスの授与すなわち「かかる、取る、請求する」の意味。

take

取る・時間がかか

   

Cost

 

This hat cost me $10. この帽子は 10 ドルした.

 

Charge

 

He always charges me too much for his goods. 彼はいつも品物に対し高すぎる値段を請求する.

 

 

 

 

  1. PROVIDING; <SVO for O> e.g. He made his girl friend a cake.

He made a cake for his girlfriend.

Actor don’t have [st] but he/she will get [st] and give.

 

  1. read, bake, make

 

 

  1. MAKING;<SVO for O>    作る    

bake(G) build(G) cook(G) make(G) knit(G) fix(G) sew(G) (*construct(F) *create(F) *design(F) *devise(F))

 

  1. GETTING; <SVO for O>    入手    

get(G) find(G) buy(G) order(F) win(G) earn(G) (*obtain *purchase *collect)

 

Get, obtain, gain

 

 

  1. PREVENTING; <SVO from Doing> 禁止する、制限する、抵抗する、妨げる

    1. 防止 prevent

 

 

(12) The Minister of the Environment may, when the Minister finds it urgently necessary in order to prevent the occurrence of damage to human health from air polluted by a Designated Substance, issue the necessary instructions to the prefectural governor or to the mayor of a city specified by a Cabinet Order under Article 31, paragraph (1), concerning the recommendation pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (10).

12 環境大臣は、指定物質による大気の汚染により人の健康に係る被害が生ずることを防止するため緊急の必要があると認めるときは、都道府県知事又は第三十一条第一項の政令で定める市の長に対し、第十項の規定による勧告に関し、必要な指示を行うことができる。

 

On 15 January, Amnesty International called on all governments to immediately suspend arms transfers to all parties to the Gaza conflict to prevent further violations being committed using munitions and other military equipment. 1月15日にアムネスティは、武器・弾薬その他の軍装備を使用したさらなる侵害行為を防止するため、ガザ紛争のすべての当事者に対する武器の移転を即時停止するよう、すべての政府に要求している。

 

  1. keep … from ~ ・・・を~から防ぐ

 

keep ~ from deteriorating ~の品質劣化を防ぐ

 

In storing Water for Injection temporarily, adequate measures able to prevent microbial proliferation stringently, such as circulating it in a loop at a high temperature must be taken, and an appropriate storage time should also be established based on the validation studies, in consideration of the risks of contamination and quality deterioration.

注射用水の一時的な保存については、微生物の増殖を厳しく抑制するために高温で循環するなどの方策をとると共に、汚染並びに品質劣化のリスクを考慮し、バリデーションの結果に基づいて適切な保存時間を設定する。

 

 

  1. 禁止、制限 V+O+from doing something
    1. prohibit 〔法令などで人が~するのを〕禁止する、差し止める◆制度的または法令上の禁止を意味することが多い。

・Smoking is strictly prohibited in all public areas. : 公共の場での喫煙は固く禁じられている。

〔人が~するのを〕妨げる、邪魔をする

 

(b) Parties shall prohibit or shall not permit the export of hazardous wastes and other wastes to the Parties which have prohibited the import of such wastes, when notified pursuant to subparagraph (a) above.

締約国は、(a)の規定に従って通報を受けた場合には、有害廃棄物及び他の廃棄物の輸入を禁止している締約国に対する当該有害廃棄物及び他の廃棄物の輸出を許可せず、又は禁止する

 

  1. enjoin 〔裁判所の命令で〕禁止する

 

The district court enjoined the company from distributing the new Internet browser. 地裁はその会社に対して新しいインターネット・ブラウザーを配布することを禁止しました。

 

  1. preclude

 

  1. ban,
  2. forbid
  3. hinder

 

  1. Restrict 制限する

【動詞】 【他動詞】

1〈自由・活動などを〉制限する.

用例 restrict a person’s activities [freedom] 人の活動[自由]を制限する.

2〔+目的語+to+(代)名詞〕

a〈人・行動などを〉〔…に〕限る,限定する.

用例 The chair restricted the speakers to ten minutes each. 議長は発表者に 1 人 10 分の制限を与えた.

The speed is restricted to 50 kilometers an hour here. スピードはここでは時速 50 キロに制限されている.

b[restrict oneself で] 〔…に〕制限する.

用例 I restrict myself to (drinking) a bottle of beer a day. 私は一日にビール 1 本に制限している.

 

  1. 妨げる、抵抗する、反対する
    1. resist  Withstand the action or effect of、〈…に〉抵抗する,反抗する,敵対する

resist an attack 攻撃に抵抗する.

antibodies help us to resist infection(抗体は感染症から人類を守る)

 

 

  1. oppose

 

 

  1. SVOC①; <Actor Material Goal Attribute> e.g. He painted the table green.

主語:人、無生物主語

 

cause [st]

When Jill was at middle school, she was cyberbullied by several close friend. This experience caused a lot of emotional pain, but she turned her pain into passion for helping others. Now she runs a bullying prevention center.

cause [sb]/[st] to do

A bolt of lightning hit a power transformer and this caused 20,000 homes to lose power for several hours.

enable [sb]/[st] to do

The local airport’s runway has been extended by 340 meters to 2,230 meters. This will enable heavy, wide-doby jets to depart and land.

get [sb] 原型不定詞

Don’t worry, I’ll get the boss sign this off.

help [sb]/[st] 原型不定詞

A sleeping pill helps you calm down and fall asleep. But never, ever mix it with alcohol. Such mixture may initially help you got to sleep, but interrupts sleep later in the night and you have a bad night’s sleep.

permit [sb] to do

He has a heart condition and this does not permit him to play sports or do any physical activities.

let [sb] 原型不定詞

My parents never let me stay up late.

 

他動型の発展系。S+V+Oの後ろに説明が付加される。

     

動詞原形

I saw Mary cross the street.

単に「道を渡るのを見た

動詞ing

I saw Mary crossing the street.

「渡っている瞬間」を見

過去分詞形

I saw your name printed in the newspaper.

名前がプリント「されている状況」を見

 

Just call me Ken.

call

   

consider

   

leave

残して去

There’s a dog in the hall. Someone must have left the door open.

find

I was just going to mention something you might have found interesting.

 

 

 

  1. to不定詞を説明語句に

toのイメージは「指し示す」。To以下の行為に向かわせるイメージ。

働きかける動詞(order, force, compelなど)との組み合わせがポピュラー。

 

tell

to以下に向かうように支持す

 

My parents always tell me to study harder!

I don’t know why Rob told me to wait on the corner.

allow

to以下を許

 

A good teacher allows students to discover some things for themselves.

expect

to以下の方向に進むことを予期す

 

I hadn’t expected it to be so small.

it’s expected to be better tomorrow.

ask

askすることによってto以下に向かわせ

 

Why don’t you ask the ALT to help you with your English?

persuade

     

enable

to以下の方向に向かうことを可能にす

 

A college education will enable you to get a broader view of the world.

advise

to以下の方向に進むように助言す

 

Andy upset his girlfriend with what he said. His mother advised him to be more careful in his choise of words.

lead

to以下の方向に仕向け

 

They led me to believe that there was no danger.

warn

to以下の方向に向けて警告す

 

My friends were warned not to climb the mountain in such bad weather.

 

I’ll try to persuade my Dad to give us a ride.

 

  1. V A with B

He provide us with everything we needed.

Parents should provide their children with decent food and clothing.

The girl who saved a child from drowing has been presented
with an award for courage.

Please help me with this heavy baggage.

 

  1. V A of B (補足説明のof)

It always reminds me of my hapy school dyas. 何を思い出させるのかを補うのが”of”

 

  1. have/get O p.p.

自分に有利なら 使役・受益 ~させる、~してもらう

自分に不利なら 被害    ~される(やってほしくないこと)

 

  1. 意味別

 

 

 

  1. Making

make

 

  1. Choosing

elect

choose

appoint

 

  1. Keeping

keep

leave

 

  1. Calling

call

name

baptize

 

  1. Painting

paint

dye

cut

wash

bake

burn

boil

 

  1. 明らかにする

Dr. Park’s recent article further helped to clarify the research available on changing sleep patterns.

 

 

 

  1. 生み出す
    1. generate〈結果・状態・行動・感情などを〉引き起こす,来たす,招く
      《★【比較】 cause のほうが一般的》.

 

 

 

 

  1. SVOC②;CAUSATIVE e.g.make, have, let

I cut my hair(自分で髪を切った)

I had my hair cut(床屋で髪を切った(自分が切ったのではない))

 

  1. SVO + Infinitive(動詞原形); <SVOC; Causer Material Causee Infinitive>

let, have, make, bid, help, drive

 

イメージ

SとOの関係

O+Cの実現方法

 

make

O+Cをmakeする(させる、やらせる、頑張る)

SがOにCしてほしい。

無理やり、力づく

The teacher made the students run in the snow.

I make myself understood.(私を理解してもらう

I make myself heard.(自分の声が聞こえるように努力する

have

状況をhaveしている⇒「(当たり前だけど)やっといてね」

SがOにCしてほしい。

指示さえすれば当然に実現される。

I’ll have my secretary fax it to you right away.

let

(いつもはだめだけど)今回はOK

SがOにCしてほしいのではない。OがCしたい。

許可

I won’t let my daughter get a tattoo.

 

  1. SVO + to Infinitive (不定詞)

 

With “to”

S + V + O + to V (O)

 

イメージ

SとOの関係

O+Cの実現方法

 

get

O+Cをgetする⇒お願いします

SはOにCしてほしい。対等な関係

頼む(動きを強く想起させる)

I got one of my classmates to help my sister with her homework.

allow

     

I allowed Jim to clean up the mess.

       

I asked Jim to clean up the mess.

       

I told Jim to clean up the mess.

       

I persuaded Jim to clean up the mess.*

require

       

command

       

force

       

order

       

remind

       

urge

       
         

permit

       

force

       

compel

       

oblige

       

cause

     

3〔+目的語+to do〕〈人・ものに〉〈…〉させる 《★〔make+目+ 原形〕のほうが一般的》.

A half‐moon caused the rippling sea to glitter. さざ波立つ海面に半月の光が当たってきらきら輝いた.

drive

       

encourage

       

invite

       

tempt

       

 

 

  1. どっちもOK

     

    イメージ

    SとOの関係

    O+Cの実現方法

     

    help

           

     

 

  1. SV that SV (the second verb is in the base form)

     

    イメージ

    SとOの関係

    O+Cの実現方法

     
           

    I insisted that Laura do her homework.

           

    I suggested that Laura do her homework.

           

    I recommended that Laura do her homework.

     

 

 

  1. CHANGING;変える

    1. change 一部分または全体を本質的に変える(ガラッと変える)

 

  1. vary 〈…を〉(いろいろに)変える,変更する,改める 《★【類語】 ⇒change》.

He varies his style of writing according to the audience. 彼は読者(層)に応じて文章のスタイルを変える.

He varied the transmission frequency. 彼は送信用の周波数を(何度も)切り換え(てみ)た.

 

  1. vary 同じものからの離脱を意味し,徐々にまたは断続的に変化させる(幅の広がり”various”)

Change from one condition, form, or state to another:

[with object] Introduce modifications or changes into (something) so as to make it different or less uniform:

 

He varies his style of writing according to the audience. 彼は読者(層)に応じて文章のスタイルを変える.

He varied the transmission frequency. 彼は送信用の周波数を(何度も)切り換え(てみ)た.

 

  1. alter 部分的・外面的に変化を加える

Change or cause to change in character or composition, typically in a comparatively small but significant way:

 

 

  1. modify 〈機械・装置などを〉 (部分的に)改造する、修正の為に変更する(良くする方向への変化)

Make partial or minor changes to (something), typically so as to improve it or to make it less extreme:

 

  1. transform  外形と同時にしばしば性格や機能もすっかり変える

 

  1. qualify 〈陳述・意見などを〉修正する,緩和する.

He qualified his earlier statement. 彼は先に発言したことを修正した.

 

  1. adjust

First Party and Second Party may adjust the scope of amendments with charge and the relevant remuneration by separate agreement in writing.

甲および乙は、別途の書面による合意により、有償となる修正範囲およびその報酬額につき調整することができる。

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Behavioral(身体動作の動詞)<SV>e.g. laugh, talk, cry, breath

Behaver Behavioural Behaviour

 

  1. Fundamentals

Behavioral processes are typically intransitive and hybrid process of material & mental.

The behavioral process involves psychological verbs and permits the progressive.

 

Participants

behaver

   

behavior

   
     

 

Representing outer manifestations of inner workings

Acting out of processes of consciousness and physiological states.

 

PARTICIPANT

PROCESS

Behaver

Process

He
Charlie

did right (in offering to talk to Susan)
negotiated (with Lewis)

 

  1. Patterns

         

    BEHAVING

     

    smile, sleep, cough, watch, see

    SHOWING, SYMBOLIZING, REPRESENTING; (not verbal)

     

    ask, claim, call, explain, offer, say, speak, talk, tell, thank

     

 

  1. Mental (Mental Process in inner work) <SVO>

e.g. see, love, think, hear, know, like

 

自分の意識内の考え、認識、知覚、情感、並びに外界での経験に対するリアクションを言葉で表現するツール

メンタルな動詞は、プロジェクターのように、認識、知覚、情感などの内容を投影する。

 

  1. Fundamentals

Participants

Senser

the one who feels (emotionally), thinks, and perceives

 

Phenomenon

that which is felt (emotionally), thought about, or perceived

 

 

sensorがphenomenonを「感じる」「思う」「知覚する」

対象がこと(fact)もありえる。factは引用、that節, wh節,名詞+ to不定詞で表せる。

双方向の意味がある(Mary liked the gift = the gift pleased Mary)。すなわち主語はsensorもphenomenonもどちらでもよい。

助動詞doで置換不可(What John did was know the answer)

 

PARTICIPANT

PROCESS

PARTICIPANT

Senser (who does the mental action)

Process (processes of perception, cognition, affection)

Phenomenon (that is perceived, thought, appreciated)

We
I

wish
know

to make an important distinction
the president

 

 

 

  1. Sentence Patterns — <SVO>only

Affection

<SVO>=<Senser Mental Phenomenon>

I hate curly underarm hair.

Cognition

<SVO>=<Phenomenon Mental Senser>

His curly underarm hair amazed me.

Perception

<SVO>=<Senser Mental Phenomenon>

I saw her curly underarm hair.

 

Perception

 

Cognitive

Feel, hear, mishear, overhear, perceive, rehear, see, smell, sound, taste.3

25. Peter sees the birds.

26. Peter hears the birds.

27. Peter feels a stone in his shoe.

28. Peter smells smoke in his room

29. Peters tastes garlic in the food. (Helle 2006:4)

Active

behold, dab, espy, examine, eye, feel, find, gawk, gaze, glare, glimpse, gloat,

glower, gaze, handle, hearken, introspect, invigilate, keek, leer, lip, listen, look, note down, nose, observe, ogle, outwatch, palpate, see, smell, snuff, stare, supervise, teleview, taste, tig, tip, toe, touch, trace, travel, twig, watch, witness

32. Peter looks at the birds.

33. Peter listens to the birds.

34. Peter feels the cloth

35. Peter smells the smoke in the room.

36. Peter tastes the food.

Desciptive

look, sound, feel, smell, taste

37. Peter looks happy.

38. Peter sounds happy.

39. The cloth felt soft.

40. Peter smells of smoke.

41. The food tastes good. (Helle 2006:6)

Cognition

this group express the process “of knowing in the broadest sense”.

Stative

Apprehend, awake, bandy (about), believe, besot, bethink, blueprint, bottom, brood, calculate, catch (on), choose, chop, clench, cognize, compass, comprehend, compute, con, conceive, concentrate, conjecture, consider, contemplate, contrive, cotton (on), dabble, dawn, deem, deliberate, depicture, descant, design, devise, dig, digest, dream, envisage, evanesce, excogitate, fabricate, fib, find, follow, foresee, forget, gather (from), get, grasp, grip, guess, glimpse, gut, hall, have, hope, image, imagine, impeach, imply, import, incubate, interpret, invent, know, make, latch (on)light, mean, meditate, memorize, meseems/methinks, mind, misapprehend, miscomprehend, misconceive, mistake, misunderstand, mull, muse, opine, outsmart, penetrate, perceive, perpend, philosophize, pick (out), ponder, pretend, prophesy, read, realize, recite, recognize, recollect, relate, repose, retain, retrace, rumble, savvy, see, seize, speculate, suppose, suss, syllogise, take, think, translate, treat, twig, undeceive, understand, unlearn, unlive, unravel, visualize, wake, weary (for), ween, weigh, whiffle, will, whimple, wise, wit, wonder, work (out), worm, wrong.

Dynamic

bandy (about), brood, comprehend, con, conceive, concentrate, consider, contemplate, cram, dabble, deliberate, design, devise, dream, envisage, fabricate, fib, forget, hope, imagine, incubate, invent, meditate, memorize, mull (over), muse, ponder, pretend, prophesy, recollect, speculate, suss, think, visualize, will, wonder.

42. And while Fabia was comprehending that here was a flirt of the first water, he was asking, ‘But perhaps, despite your business card, you are on holiday in my country’ (BNC).

43. Mick was short of them and I was deliberating whether to get them for him

(BNC).

44. What he was envisaging may even be compared with a modern community centre with craft centres and other amenities (BNC).

Affectivity

= Emotion/Psychological

like, love, enjoy, please, delight, dislike, distress, hate, detest, want

Admire

admire, adore, appreciate, cherish, enjoy, esteem, exalt, fancy, favor, idolize, like, love, miss, prize, respect, relish, revere, savor, stand, support, tolerate, treasure, trust, value, venerate, worship (Levin, 1989:191).

52. She never pressed him and he appreciated that.

53. He could think of nowhere he would rather be than at home, with people he knew and trusted, in a place without secrets. (BNC)

54. “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him.8

55. He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine but the Father’s who sent Me.”. (Ibid)

Amuse

47. Dinner would annoy Gina even more than tea, (BNC)

48. But why were they so eager to discourage visitors? (BNC).

49. I suppose the main reason was that I was so astonished to find that they existed at all, (BNC).

50. When some rare Northern bird like the pine grosbeak is seen thus far south in the winter, he does not suggest poverty, but dazzles us with his beauty, (BNC).

51. “The idea excites me but it scares me too,” she confesses, (BNC).

Marvel

59. Love does not insist on its own way; it is not irritable or resentful; it does not rejoice at wrong, but rejoices in the right (BNC).

60. They both enthused over my new look and I became weepy and wailed that I couldn’t keep them (BNC).

61. When your whole soul cried for a priest (BNC).

62. Indeed, I have made her immortal: my old friend Will Shakespeare wrote a play about a Danish prince called Hamlet who moons about the stage wondering whether he should kill his murderous mother (BNC).

63. The poor centipede worried over the answer until he had a nervous breakdown and lost the ability to walk naturally (BNC).
64. The picture forces the viewer to wonder at the subject of the crowd’s attention, (BNC).

65. Pauline wrote ‘I was thrilled at how quickly and easily the inches melted away, (BNC).

Appeal

66. Kathie is all Nell has got, we’ve been told this several times; he appeals to Nell as the mother of their only child, not to cause her to leave home. (positive meaning), (BNC).

67. He had lost many of the people who mattered to him, and he was unsure of himself and his abilities. (positive meaning), (BNC).

68. The thin man niggled at him like a flea in the hide of a rhinoceros. (negative meaning), (BNC).

69. We are not sure that Latimer’s and Ridley’s sermons would not jar on modern refinement quite as much… (negative meaning), (BNC).

 

 

Desire

Want verbs: “covet, crave, desire, fancy, need, want”.

Long verbs: ache for, crave for, dangle after, fall for, hanker after, hanker for, hope for,

hunger for, itch for, long for, lust after, lust for, pine for, pray for, thirst after, thirst for, wish

for, yearn after, yearn for. (Levin, 1989:194,195). E.g.:

70. To combine forces made supreme sense to him, and the more absurd the reality

seemed, the more deeply he desired it. (want verb), (BNC).

71. He’s perfectly entitled to come here but not to run off with anything he fancies and

sell it. (want verb), (BNC).

72. Performers also crave for power. (long verb), (BNC).

73. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness.12 (long verb)

Judgment

acclaim, applaud, bless, celebrate, commend,

compensate, compliment, congratulate, eulogize, excuse, extol, felicitate, forgive, greet, hail,

honor, laud, pardon, praise, recompense, remunerate, repay, reward, salute, thank, toast,

welcome.” (Levin, 1989:195). E.g.:

74. I had also just complimented her on her dress, (BNC).

75. ‘Jesus forgives you,’ said someone over to my left, (BNC).

 

12 http://bible.cc/matthew/5-6.htm accessed on April 28, 2010

22

76. “Pardon all my past transgressions,

Give me strength for days to come;

Guide and guard me with Thy blessing

Till Thy angels bid me home.” (Dickens)13

 

“abuse, backbite, calumniate, castigate, censure,

chasten, chastise, chide, condemn, criticize, decry, defame, denigrate, denounce, deride,

disparage, fault, fine, impeach, insult, lambaste, malign, mock, revile, ridicule, scold, scorn,

shame, snub, upbraid, victimize, vilify. (Levin, 1989:195). E.g.:

77. But Moscow has consistently disparaged any initiatives for the formal

neutralisation of the country, (BNC).

78. In 1900 a dispute arose because it was said that the Taff Vale Railway Company

had victimized a trade unionist who led a wage demand, (BNC).

79. The horror of bachelorhood which condemns you to arid thought for ever, and the

horror of marriage, which condemns you to lies and hypocrisy for ever. (BNC)

   
   

 

  1. 特徴
    1. VERBS -思考・感情・伝達系

・現在形を用いる(思考・感情は内側から湧き上がる⇒一体感の現在形が用いられる)

I think it’s a waste of time.

I love chocolate crepes.

His fans adore him.

 

  1. Whad do you feel/ like/ think about X?で確認する

メンタルな動詞は、What did she do?に対する答えができない。Doは外部的な動きや変化を表すが、メンタルは内面の抽象的思考であるから、答えることができない。そこでWhat does she think about it?と問いかける。

She thinks (that) it won’t work out.

She thinks (that) it won’t wok out.

What she thought was that it won’t work out.

 

  1. 「人」が主役

The volcanic eruption destroyed homes and forced evacuations.

メンタルな動詞は主語はヒト。

I saw the Southern Star briefly before dawn.

I doubt that it’ll rain.

 

  1. 客体を欠く自動詞用法がない

I arrived at ten.

アクション動詞では目的語を取らない自動詞用法がある。

しかし、メンタルな動詞は自動詞用法がない。

I think that it’s not feasible.

 

 

We have calculated that it would take about 5 days to complete the job.

We deducted from her tone that she was not pleased with our work.

You would never guessed that she was over forty.

I suspect that someone deleted it on purpose.

 

  1. 客体は名詞またはThat節

メンタル動詞の客体は、思考・感覚・知覚の内容そのもの。アクション動詞のように、動作・作用の相手ではない。

  1. 名詞または名詞+分詞句であらわすコト・モノ

I knew something. I thought something.

I saw the development work taking place.

 

  1. THAT節で表すモノ・コト

We didn’t realize that she was a terrorist.

 

  1. AFFECTION <SVO; Senser like Phenomenon> e.g. like, hate

FEELING(感覚、感情)(意欲・喜怒哀楽・好き嫌い)とは少し違うきがする。

主語に人間であるsensorをとり、目的語にその心理状態を与える原因であるphenomenonをとるタイプ

admire, adore, appreciate, cherish, enjoy, esteem, fancy, favor, like, love, miss, respect, relish, savor, venerate, worship; abhor, deplore, despise, detest, dislike, distrust, dread, envy, fear, hate, lament, loathe, mourn, pity, regret, resent, et.

a. People admire novels.

b. ×Novels admire easily.(中間構文は不可能)

 

 

fear, intend, want, wish

 

 

factive mental verb

know, realize, regret

non-factive mental verb

believe, think, assume

 

 

  1. GET PLEASURE

         

    favor

    〈計画・提案などに〉好意を示す,賛成する.

    favor a proposal 提案に賛成する.

    love

       

    like

       

    enjoy

     

    I hope you’ll enjoy your visit to our country. わが国へのご訪問を楽しく過ごされますよう.

     

 

 

  1. HOPE

want

 

  1. DECISION(決心)
     

decide

よく考えた末に決心する

He decided to postpone his departure. 彼は出発を延ばすことに決めた (cf. decide 1b).

He decided that he’d postpone his departure. 彼は出発を延ばすことに決めた (cf. decide 1a).

resolve

最後までやり抜く決意

 

determine

固い決意

He has determined to return home at once. 彼はすぐ故郷へ帰る決意をした

I determined that nothing (should) be changed. 何も変えまいと決心した.

 

 

 

  1. THINK(意識、思考)

believe, consider, expect, feel, find, know, mean, need, rad, remember, see, think, understand

think

feel

find

 

  1. consider, regard,

         

    consider

    十分な考慮と経験の結果の判断

     

    regard

    外見上または視覚による判断

     
         

     

 

 

  1. imagine,suppose, guess
     
     

imagine

ある状況や考えなどを心に思い浮かべる

 

suppose

推測して思う

 

guess

推測して思う(口語的)

 

 

  1. RECALL KNOWLEDGE (REMEMBER)

 

remember

過去のことを覚えている,または思い出す

 

recall

努力して意識的に思い出す

 

recollect

忘れたことを思い出そうとする努力を強調する

 

retrieve

   

call back

   

call up

   

think

   

 

  1. foreget

 

 

 

 

  1. 思案

 

 

 

 

  1. COGNITION <SVO; Phenomenon please Senser> e.g. please, surprise, amaze

主語にphenomenonをとり、目的語に人間であるsensorをとるタイプ

affect, afflict, agitate, agonize, alarm, alienate, amaze, amuse, anger, annoy, appall, arouse, astonish, bore, bother, charm, cheer, comfort, concern, confuse, delight, depress, disappoint, displease, disgust, dismay, dissatisfy, entertain, disturb, excite, frighten, frustrate, humiliate, gratify, interest, intimidate, irritate, offend, perplex, perturb, please, puzzle, satisfy, scare, shame, shock, startle, stimulate, sting, surprise, terrify, threaten, thrill, tire, torment, touch, trouble, upset, wound, etc.

c. Novels amuse people.

d. People amuse easily.(中間構文が可能)

 

 

  1. PERCEPTION(知覚動詞) <SVO; Senser see Phenomenon> e.g. see <SVOC; Percepter see O C>

Set 1(action)

Set 2(non-action)

Set 3(non-action)

perceiver is forcusing on a specific object.

general perception

appearance

progressive

non-progressive

non-progressive

He is listening to the radio.

He hears a noise.

That sounds like thunder.

They are looking at the picture.

They see flames.

This looks terrible.

touch

feel*

feel

smell

smell

smell

taste

taste

taste

 

hear, feel, listen, notice, observe, see, sense, smell

 

 

  1. <SVOC>

(場面に生に接していることを示す形)

知覚(見る・聞く・感じるなど)をあらわす動詞との親和性が高い。

知覚同士がSVOCの形を作ると「生の状況に触れること」を示す。

Cに動詞原形をとることがよくある。

 

see

understandに近い感触で「わかった

I saw Mary crying.

I saw that Mary was crying.

She was happy to see her guest eating her cakes eagerly.

hear

knowに近い意味で「聞き知った

He was almost asleep when he heard his name called.

I heard you play at the party.

I heard that you played at the party.

find

 

We found two windows smashed.

feel

   

smell

   

 

SVOCとSVO+adjectiveとの違い

①I know the girl playing the piano.(私はピアノを弾いているその女の子を知っています。)

②I saw the girl playing the piano.(私はその女の子がピアノを弾いているのを見ました。)

 

 

<SVOinfinitive>目的格補語に原形不定詞を用いるもの

<SVOp.p.>目的格補語に現在分詞を用いるもの

feel

notice

see

look at

watch

observe

hear

listen to

feel

perceive

notice

imagine

see

look at

watch

observe

catch

find

discover

hear

listen to

smell

 

 

  1. Verbal/Reporting:(Saying; Information Providing)(SVO, SVOO);情報を与える・求める・扱う、意思を伝えるなど

say, tell, warn, argue, ask

 

  1. Fundamentals

    1. Sentence Patterns

SVM

Sayer Verbal Matter

He complained about the discomfort.

SVO

Sayer Varbal Verbiage

The x-ray shows a small lump in his throat.

The doctor expressed some concern.

SV Clause

Sayer Verbal [Separete ranking clause]

He mumbled that the ball ruined his appearance.

 

 

  1. 5つのコミュニケーション

         

    SAYING

    陳述する

    that構文の典型(陳述の対象は抽象化された事実)

    argue that~/his position

    assert that~

    cry (out) that~/her name

    deny (to me)e that~/the truth

    DISCLOSIN

    情報を与える

    if構文やwh構文(情報は0/1か疑問文)

    advise if ~/wh-~

    answer (me) if ~

    argue if ~/the facts

    confirm (with me) if ~/wh-~

    disclose (to me) if ~/wh-~/the truth

    ASKING

    情報を求める

    if構文やwh構文(情報は0/1か疑問文)

    ask if ~/wh-~/the question

    enquire(inquire) if ~/wh-~

    qyery if ~/wh-~/the results

    question if ~/wh-~/a witness

    request if ~/wh-~/a reply

    COMMANDING

    命令・要求する

    to不定詞(命令・要求は未実施のこと)

    ask (him) to do it

    beg (him) to do it

    command him to do it

    SUGGESTING

    提供・提案する

    to不定詞

    that節

    agree to do it

    recommend that he (should) do it/the procedure

    propose that he (should) do it/the solution

    suggest that he (should) do it/the solution

     

 

  1. Participant

Sayer

the addresser

 

Receiver

the addressee, or the entity targeted by the saying

 

Verbiage

the content of what is said or indicated

 

 

  1. Direct quote / Indirect quote

 

Direct

Indirect

He said, “I cannot tell a lie.”

He said that he couldn’t tell a lie.

She asked, “May I have a cookie?”

She asked if she could have a cookie.

 

直接話法やthat節を使える。

Saying

border between mental and relational

PARTICIPANT

PROCESS

PARTICIPANT

PARTICIPANT

Sayer (the participant who is speaking)

Process (expresses the relationship between ideas constructed in human consciousness nad the ideas enacted in the form of language)

Receiver (Target, addressee to whom the process is directed is)

Verbiage (what is said is)

Charie

told

him

“What if we talk about a ceasefire?”

 

発言動詞は、心理動詞と同様、進行形がないのが特徴であるが、不特定多数に対する発言の場合は、 必ずしも意識・知覚のある関与者を必要としない。

 

Lucy said, “I love you.”

Lucy said she loved me.

 

主語と動詞を倒置する形もポピュラー

“Let’s have a party,” Tom said [said Tom].

 

  1. 時制の一致

Nancy said, “I will pick up the kids at 10.”

Nancy said that she would pick up the kids at 10.

 

  1. 登場人物に注意する

My Dad said to me, “I‘ll lend you the money.”

My Dad said he would lend me the money.

 

  1. 場所・時間には要注意

My brother called from Paris and said, “I’m leaving here tomorrow.”

My brother called from Paris and said he was leaving there the next day.

 

here

there

now

then

ago

before/ earlier

today

that day

yesterday

the day before / the previous day

next week

the next week / the following weeek

 

The secretary said, “The Headmaster left his office about an hour ago.”

The secretary said the Headmaster had left his office about an hour before.

 

  1. 発言動詞、行動動詞、心理動詞

     

    Behavioral

    Mental

    Verbal

     

    speak, talk

    see, love, think

    say, tell

    意識を備えた参与要素

     

    必須

    不要

     

    発言行為が重要

     

    発言内容が重要

    コミュニケーション動詞

    進行形

     

    無し

    無し

    that節、wh節、名詞+to不定詞

     

    思考内容

    情報

    引用文

     

    考え

    事実としてのことば

    提言

     

    She wanted him to dol.

    She told him to do.

    命題(進行形)

     

    She knew he was going.

    She said he was going.

     

  2. レポート文(think, say etc…)

主語の発言や考えをレポートするタイプの文。

レポート文では、伝えたいことの「欠乏感」を意識すること。

I thinkやTom said to meでは言いたい事がわからない。thinkって具体的になんだ?saidってTomは何て言ったの?

そこで説明をするためにthatを使う。

thatのイメージは「導く」。後続する文に丁寧に滑らかに正確に導きたい、という配慮。フォーマルな文章で多用される。

 

  1. that以下は「説明」。「節」ではない。

レポート文は、一見、動詞+節という形に思えるが、実は説明型の一種(I think Mary is gorgeous.は、thinkをMary is gorgeousが説明している。)

なぜ動詞+節と見てはならないのかというと、
(1)レポート文では主節動詞は一語とは限らないし(Tom said to me he loved me.は動詞+前置詞+名詞+節)、
(2)主節動詞が使われるとは限らない(I’m afraid we cannot give you a refund. とI’m so sad he lost his job.では、afraidやsadは動詞ではなく形容詞)

 

  1. whether/if節(~かどうか)

whether to ~ ~すべきかどうか

 

  1. 遠回し疑問文

OK: Do you know where the nearest convenience store is?

NG: Do you know where is the nearest convenience store?

倒置は疑問の気持ちが宿る箇所だけ、という原則がある。遠回し疑問文では「know」にのみ疑問の気持ちが宿る。

 

遠回し疑問文には会話のクッションとしての役割がある。

What kind of music do you like? は刺激が強い。

Tell me what kind of music you like. は”Tell me”により質問が来るな、と心の準備ができる。

 

 

  1. 特徴

My boss said that she was not happy with the findings of the report.

発言者:My boss

動詞:said

相手:-

対象:that she was …

 

時系列に即したストーリー(ナラティブ)でよく使う

A high official said on condition of anonymity that …

 

She’s a “woman with a past.” She won’t tell me anything about her past.

発言者:She

動詞:tell

相手:me

話題:anything about her

 

  1. 発言の相手とは別の言及対象がいる場合

?DisparagingってReporting Verbなのか?

For some reason, my boss keeps disparaging John to his coworkers.

発言者:My boss

動詞:disparaging

相手:his coworkers

話題:John

 

 

that, what, whether で始まる節を続けることができる。

 

  1. 発言内容+ReportingVerb+発言者

“Pay raises are frozen,” answered the boss.

発言者を代名詞にするのはだめ。

NG: “Raises are frozen,” ansered he.

 

 

  1. 情報の受け手の表示

John told me he would be late.

John promised (me) that he would marry me.

John admitted to me that he was lying.

     

常に目的語が必要なタイプ

情報を伝える動詞。到達が必要。

tell, inform, notify, persuade, remind, assure

目的語をとりうるタイプ(なくてもよい)

受け手も関わるがそれほど重要ではない動詞

promise

前置詞を使うタイプ

受け手は不要。独り言。単独行為。

say, admit, agree, complain, explain

 

  1. 疑問文のレポート

She asked, “Do you like the movie?”

⇒She asked me if (whether) I liked the movie.

She asked, “Where do you live?”

⇒She asked me where I lived.

 

  1. Let’sのレポート(suggest, propose, recommend, advise)

He said, “Let’s try again.”

⇒He suggested we (should) try again.

 

  1. レポート文以外の間接話法

She said to me, “I love you.” ⇒She confessed her love to me.

She asked, “Where is he?” ⇒She asked his whereabouts.

He said, “Let’s try again.” ⇒He suggested trying again.

My mom said, “Beback by midnight” ⇒My mom told me beback by midnight.

The librarian said, “Don’t eat in the library” ⇒The librarian told me not to eat in the library.

My teammates said to me, “Do your best.” ⇒My teammates encouraged me to do my best.

The teacher said to the class, “Study hard for the test.” ⇒The teacher advised us to study hard for the test.

 

 

 

  1. SAYING; Sayer Verbal Verbiage; that構文の典型(陳述の対象は抽象化された事実)    argue that~/his position

 

assert that~

cry (out) that~/her name

deny (to me)e that~/the truth

 

     

acknowledged (to him)

admit to be real or true; recognize the existence, truth, or fact of something

He acknowledge his mistake to me. (formal)

announced (to him)

make something known publicly or officially; proclaim; give notice of something

The couple announced their baby’s birth.

claimed (to him)

state with confidence, strongly, positively, something to be true or right

He claimed to us that he was the rightful owner.

commented (to him)

add a remark, observation, or criticism

He commented to me that he enjoyed my writing.

complained (to him)

express dissatisfaction, pain, uneasiness, find fault:

He complained to them about the lack of hot water.

declared (to him)

make known or state clearly, especially in formal terms

She declared to me that she was old enough to make her own decisions.

denied (to him)

state that something (others believe is true) is not true

He denied to us that he was looking for a new job.

described (to him)

take a visual impression and put it in spoken or written words

He described to us his visit to Disneyland.

emphasized (to him)

lay stress or put importance of something

They emphasized to us that honesty came first.

explained (to him)

make plain or clear, understandable

They explained their plan to us.

expressed (to him)

put into words, utter, state, reveal

He expressed his anger to us.

indicated (to him)

point out, direct attention to, make known

They indicated to us their disapproval of our way of dressing.

mentioned (to him)

refer to briefly, speak about something in passing (not the focus of the conversation)

He mentioned to her that he had seen her ex-husband.

pointed out (to him)

indicate, direct attention to, make known, reveal

The lawyer pointed out to the court the error.

prayed (to God)

to ask for divine assistance

They prayed to God for safe passage.

refer to

To mention or reference someone or something

When you say he’s clumsy, are you referring to what he did the other day?

When we are in the meeting, refer to me as your colleague and not as your sister.

related (to him)

tell, narrate, recount

He related his story to us.

remarked (to him)

say casually, make a comment (in passing, not the focus)

He remarked to us that our dog looked like a wolf.

reported (to him)

tell or describe an event in detail

The journalist reported the events of the day at the court house.

replied (to him)

give an answer in spoken or written words

The landlord replied to us regarding our requests.

responded (to him)

give an answer in spoken or written words

She responded to me that I should call back later.

restated (to him)

say again with different words or in a new way

She restated to the child that there were no more, zero, cookies.

revealed (to him)

make known, uncover, disclose, divulge

He revealed to us that he disliked chocolate.

roared (to him)

utter with a deep, loud sound (like a lion)

Father roared his orders to us.

screamed (to him)

utter a loud, sharp, high-pitched, sound

The woman screamed to us when she needed help.

screeched (to him)

utter a loud, sharp, high-pitched, sound (birdlike, owl)

The unhappy child screeched to us to pick her up.

shouted (to him)

speak out with a loud, strong and clear  voice (sometimes across a long distance)

He shouted to me not to forget to take the parking brake off.

shrieked

utter a loud, sharp, high-pitched, sound (bird-like, ghost-like)

The witch shrieked her name to us.

sobbed (to him)

cry, weep, catching one’s breath in between

She sobbed to us that she had lost her home and family.

sputtered (to him)

utter words explosively (often in anger or frustration (sputter like an old car engine)

He sputtered the situation to us.

stated (to him)

say clearly, definitely, specifically

She stated her mission to the committee.

sighed (to him)

sat under one’s breath, very quietly (as from tiredness, sadness or relief)

She sighed to herself then fell asleep.

squawked (to him)

utter a loud, harsh cry (like a crow, duck or other frightened bird)

She squawked her orders to us.

squeaked (to him)

a short, sharp, cry; a sharp, high-pitched sound (mouse-like)

She squeaked her name to us.

uttered (to him)

let out, sound, pronounce, say

He uttered a curse to us and left.

vowed (to him)

promise; state something will be observed

They vowed to each other to honor their marriage.

wailed (to him)

utter a mournful (sorrowful, sad) cry

She wailed to her mother as the car drove away.

whispered (to him)

speak in soft sounds, without using the voice (vocal chords)

He whispered his secret to me.

whined (to him)

utter a long, nasal-sounding, complaining cry

He whined to us about how unfair the world is.

yelled (to him)

speak out with a loud, strong and clear  voice (angrily)

He yelled to us to come back and finish.

 

 

  1. say以外のレポート動詞

The boys promised that they would stop teasing the girls.

 

The government warned that people should avoid traveling to that country.

Many parents complained that the school fees were too high.

 

  1. Saying + Mental

The new CEO of Katori Warehouse Ltd. has expressed a strong interest in opening a store in Singapore.

 

 

  1. DISCLOSURE 情報を与える    if構文やwh構文(情報は0/1か疑問文)

advise if ~/wh-~

My doctor advised that we should get the flu injection.

answer (me) if ~

 

argue if ~/the facts

 

confirm (with me) if ~/wh-~

 

disclose (to me) if ~/wh-~/the truth

 

 

  1. REQUESTING情報を求める    if構文やwh構文(情報は0/1か疑問文)

ask if ~/wh-~/the question

enquire(inquire) if ~/wh-~

qyery if ~/wh-~/the results

question if ~/wh-~/a witness

request if ~/wh-~/a reply

 

ask (V) – request information → My father always asks how I am doing. (commonly used)

inquire (V) – request information → Mr. Smith inquired how my family was. (formal)

question (V) – settle doubt, challenge someone’s answers → My father questioned where I was last night. (not used with quoted speech)

wonder (V) — question in one’s mind → We wondered where they were last night. (not used with quoted speech)

request (V) – ask for → My father requested information about where I was last night. (not used with quoted speech)

 

  1. COMMANDING命令・要求する    to不定詞(命令・要求は未実施のこと)

     

ask

ask [sb] to do it

He asked us to leave the room. 彼は我々に退室するよう求めた.

beg

beg [sb] to do it

 

command

command [sb] to do it

 
     

 

 

  1. SUGGESTION提供・提案する     that節(To不定詞も可能なのか?)

 

  1. 宣言(宣言行為と宣言内容が同時並行で行われる「一体感」があるから現在形)

I promise I won’t be late again.

I suggest you add more salt.

I apologize for behaving like a jerk last night.

 

※提案は動詞原形だが、宣言は現在形、なぜか?

提案はあくまで提案。宣言は確信を伴う提案内容は存在しないが、宣言内容は現に存在する。

     

agree

agree to do it

 

recommend

recommend that he (should) do it/the procedure

 

propose

propose that he (should) do it/the solution

He proposed a new plan (to us). 彼は(我々に)新しい計画を提案した.

suggest

suggest that he (should) do it/the solution

suggestは

 

 

  1. Relational (Identify/Attribute/Becoming/Having; ):<SVC> e.g. be, have, seem, sound, weigh

  1. Fundamentals

    1. Identifying or Attributing (equivalenceは?)

       

      Identifying process

      Attributive process

      sentence

      Token Rel-Ident Value

      Value Rel-Ident Token

      e.g.

      Today is Independence Day.

       

      reversibility①;

      Swapping positions

      That man is my father.
      ⇔ My father is that man.

      ×

      He is blessed ≠ Blessed is he.

      reversivility②;

      Passivisation

      “The exam takes up the whole day”
      ⇔”The whole day is taken up by the exam.”

      × (never undergo passivisation)

      “The exam lasts the whole day.”
      ≠ “The whole day is lasted by the exam.”

       

    2. two ways of reversibility test

STEP1: Swapping of positions

“That man is my father.”⇔”My father is that man.”(⇒Identifying)

“He is blessed”≠”Blessed Is he.”(⇒Attributive)

 

STEP2: Passivisation (If the sentence is not able to swaped)

“The exam takes up the whole day”⇔”The whole day is taken up by the exam.” (⇒Identifying)

“The exam lasts the whole day.”≠ “The whole day is lasted by the exam.”(⇒Attributive)

 

  1. Relational process manifestated in three ways
     

Intensive (内包的)

X is Y

 

Circumstantial Attribute

X is at/in/under… Y

 

Possessive (所有)

X has Y

 
 

intension

extension

comprehension

 

necessary property, quality

the set of things it extends to or applied to

the totally of intensions

       

e.g. dog

“bachelor” is unmarried man.

United States of America, Japan, China … (all countries listed)

 

 

 

  1. Circumstantial Attribute or Circumstance

     

    Circumstantial Attribute (Participant)

    location (circumstance)

     

    The best hiding place is in the drain.

    He dropped his wallet in the drain.

         

     

 

PARTICIPANT

PROCESS

PARTICIPANT

Carrier

Process (expressing possession, equivalence, attributes…)

Identity

Attribute

There
Both

was
are

a good start
for peaceful settlement

 

属性的(as a property)

同定的(as identification)

内包的(x is a)

Sarah is wise

Tom is the leader

the leader is Tom.

状況的(x is at /in /on /for/ with/ about/ along a)

the fair is on a Tuesday.

tomorrow is the 10th.

the 10th is tomorrow

所有的(x has a)

Peter has a piano.

the piano is Peter’s

Peter’s is the piano.

 

  1. BE動詞(リンクする動詞):何かが+どうである、どうであった+何かについてのコメント
  1. be動詞による説明型

典型例はbe動詞。イコールの意味のみ。つなぎの役割であるから、短縮形があり、強く発音されず、省略されることさえある。

be動詞の後ろには、あらゆる要素を自由に置くことができる。

 

  1. 一般動詞による説明型

主語=説明語句に、一般動詞の意味が加わる。

変化を表す動詞

All the food went rotten.

I’m getting hungry, Mom. When’s dinner?

He becomes a doctor.

ある状態に留まることを表す動詞

The audience remained silent during the national anthem.

知覚印象を表す動詞

Doesn’t she look gorgeous in that dress?

My hair feels much softer with this new conditioner.

The newe video game sounds amazing.

判断をあらわす動詞

She seems / appears stressed out.

His plan proved successful.

Her prediction turned out right.

 

 

be

 

単なるつなぎの意味

   

remain

 

~のままである(とどまる)

 

After the car hit the boy, he remained unconscious for two days.

go

 

ある地点を去って進んでいく⇒変化

 

Something has go wrong with the machine; it makes a strong noise.

go bankruptなど、悪い方向への変化が多

come

     

goと異なり、よい方向への変化が多

 

 

 

  1. X≠Y型とX=Y型
 

X≠Y型(X⊂Y型、X∈Y型)

X=Y型

Yの役割

描写や形容などの属性(attributes)

同一(identical)、言換え

X⇔Y

入れ替え不可

入れ替え可能

e.g.

Jack is tall

Jack is the founder of XYZ.

Yの冠詞

“a” 属性を示すのみ

“the” Yは確定的に決まる(X=Y型は同一性を表す)

 

 

 

 

  1. ATTRIBUTE, IDENTITY X≠Y型(静止画タイプ)

 

  1. be

         

     

Her boyfriend is a prince of a small kingdom in Africa.

 

 

  1. HAVING ATTRIBUTE / EQUIVALENCE関係付け

concern

 

Most of the discussion at the board meeting concerned how to phrase the press release.

 

 

  1. ATTRIBUTES(主体の意味づけ)

indicate

 

The presence of these bacteria indicates water contamination.(バクテリアの存在と水質汚染を関係付ける(証拠関係))

show

   

signify

   

suggest

   

represent

= account for

Exports represent 40 percent of total sales.

 

  1. 状況;xaのどの空間にあるのかを前置詞を用いて表す。

前置詞は空間的位置関係を表す。英語は空間に極めて敏感。

日本語の助詞に相当するが、助詞は動詞で決まる。

 

タイプ

特定の範疇

1

広がり(extent)

距離(distance)、期間(duration)

2

位置(location)

所(place)、時(time)

3

様態(manner)

手段(means)、質(quality)、比較(comparison)

4

要因(cause)

理由(reason)、目的(purpose)、便宜(behalf)

5

条件(contingency)

肯定的条件(condition)、譲歩(concession)、既定値(default)

6

随伴(accompaniment)

同伴(comitaion)、付加(addition)

7

役割(role)

資格(guise)、産物(product)

8

事柄(matter)

  

9

観点(angle)

  

 

  1. 名詞句を続けることができるリンク動詞

リンク動詞には基本的に形容詞が続く。

しかし、appear, be, become, end up, feel, look, seemの7つは名詞句を続けることができる。ただ、硬い響きになる。

そこで、likeを入れたり、やわらかい単語に置き換える。

名詞句を続ける

 

You don’t want to appear a fool, do you?

You don’t want to look like a fool, do you?

I feel an idiot.

I feel like an idiot.

This looks an interesting book.

This looks like an interesting book.

He remained a bachelor all his life.

He was a bachelor.

Our new neighbor seems a nice guy.

Out neighbor seems like a nice guy.

 

 

 

  1. IDENTIFY <SVC; Token Rel-Indent Value>

    1. Participant

Token

The Representer (Representative) in identifying process

Today is Independence Day.

Value

The Representee [st][sb]

Today is Independence Day.

 

  1. REVERSING TEST

If the identifying process is able to undergo passivisation, the subject in active form is always the Token.

If the identifying process is not able to under go passivisation, you go next step “REPRESENT TEST”.

  1. REPRESENT TEST (replacing the verb with “represent”)

e.g. “Today is Independence day”

⇒”Today represents Independence day” is available, whereas “Independence day represents Today” is not.

So, “Today” is Token and “Independence day” is Value.

e.g. “The champion is Jones.”

⇒”The champion represents Jones” is not available, whereas “Jones represents the champion” is available.

So, “Jones” is Token (Representative), “the Champion” is Value.

 

  1. ATTRIBUTE <SVC; Carrier Rel-Attr Attribute>

    1. Participant

Carrier

possessor

He is fantastic during the day.

Attribute

attributes, characters, marks, properties, or qualities, that the object possesses

He is fantastic during the day.

 

The grammatical subject is Carrier, because attributive process are non-passivisable.

 

 

  1. Sentence patterns

 

being

 

He is good-looking.

possessing

 

He has a rib cage.

     

 

  1. LAST

Rechargeable batteries today lasts almosts twice as long as those produced 10 years ago.

 

 

 

  1. ~のようだ、~のように見える

続くto beは省略可能。ただし、a-で始まる形容詞が続く場合、また-INGが続く場合は省略できない。

to beは、人による判断や評価を言う場合は省略する。ただし、テーマを直接指している場合(e.g. This new product seems to be popular.)は省略しない。

     

appear

seemよりフォーマル

見た目(?)

She appears to be all right mentally, but physically, her ribs are broken and her right ankle is sprained and greatly swollen.

seem

 

You seem worried. Let us pray and God will answer our prayers.

look

to不定詞を続けることができない。

You look tired.

 

  1. ~の状態を保つ

keep

 

Please keep still until you hear the shutter sound.

remain

 

She remained certain of what she saw. But the evidence was inconsistent with what she said she saw.

stay

 

She remained certain of what she saw. But the evidence was inconsistent with what she said she saw.

 

fit

異なる要素を関係付ける動詞

I can fit you in on Monday morning. Does that suit you?(私(の予定)とあなた(の予定)を関係付ける(適合する))

say something that doesn’t fit with the fact 事実にそぐわない事を言う

stand

= stay

remain unalteredという意味合いが強調される。

This large plot of land has stood empty for years.

stay

   

 

 

  1. 嗅覚

smell

 

This soap smells nice.

 

 

  1. 聴覚

sound

 

Her voice sounded strange.

 

 

  1. 味覚

tast

 

This soup tastes awful.

 

 

 

  1. EQUIVALENT

リンク動詞は受動態にできないのが原則。しかし、具体例+抽象概念を具現化する動詞+抽象概念という組み合わせ、define, exemplify, represent, signify等の動詞は、受動態を作ることが可能。

 

act as

役目を務める

Her lawyer husband acted as her legal representative.

be

Today is our company’s 100th anniversary.

equal

等しい

Two plus two equals four.

form

具現化する

Revenging his father’s death forms the theme of this film.

mean

意味

“Brief” means “short”.

play

演じる

In this film, she plays Linda, a drug-addicted jazz singer.

suggest

表す

This picture suggests patriotism.

symbolize

象徴する

To many, the dove symbolizes peace. To some, it means a delicacy.

 

 

 

  1. POSSESS/HAVE(X have A; 所有)

include

 

Symptoms of dementia include impairments in memory, rasoning and judgement.

The invitation list includes Jack.

contain

 

The film contains violent scenes.

The liquor contains 60% alcohol.

Many dishes served at the Urban Café contain vegetables harvested by the Chef Duour himself.

 

所有の関係を属性として表現する場合

 

the piano    is    Peter’s

体現者:被所有者    過程中核部:内包的    属性:所有者

所有の関係を過程中核部で表現する場合(その1)

 

Peter    has    a pino

体現者:所有者    過程中核部:所有    属性:被所有者

所有の関係を過程中核部で表現する場合(その2)

 

the piano    belong to    Peter

体現者:被所有者    過程中核部:所有    属性:所有者

  1. BECOMING; X≠Y型(動画タイプ)

    1. ~になる

become

フォーマル。書き言葉で使う。

It’s becoming cold.

get

インフォーマル。会話で使う

It’s getting cold.

go

よくないことに使うことが多い。

My mother’s hair is going grey.

The compay went bankrupt two years ago.

grow

書き言葉的な響き。

ゆっくりした感触(徐々に)があり、to 不定詞を続ける必要がある。

It’s growing cold.

Over time, I grew to love my job.

turn

色の変化はturnのみ。

It’s turning cold.

The traffic light turned red.

 

  1. 結果(結末)~になる

end up

 

He ended up poor.

turn out

 

He claims the credit only when things turn out well.

 

  1. RESULT; 結果(発生・変化・消滅)を言う動詞(SV, SVC)

主語が変化したことを表す。

 

  1. 発生

happen

Where were you when the shooting happended?

occur

This disease typically occurs in men over fifty.

 

 

  1. 変化

 

change

Some of my former classmates have changed drastically and I couldn’t recognize them.

grow

My daughter grew five centimeters last year.

 

  1. 消滅

die

My mother died of heart attack.

 

 

  1. 改善のための積極的努力(これは変化なのか?Doing Verbsでは?SVOだし。)

 

develop

I’m joining a gym to develop my muscles. All I want is to move from pathetic to average.

 

 

  1. 冠詞の使い分け

 

 

  1. There構文(There is a NOUN)

    1. 説明

英語は、まずはTopicを掲げ、「これからこのTopicについて申し上げます」と打ち出してから、Topicについてコメントする言葉。

そうすると、”An accident has occurred.” や “Some water is over the floor.” となりそうである。

しかし、英語は、相手がわかっている事柄(旧情報)で切り出し、相手が手がかりを得たところで、それを起点に相手にとって初耳となる話(新情報)を伝えるのが基本です。

そこで、”There was an accident.” や “There is some water on the floor.”と不確定な名詞句を後ろに回す。

 

 

  1. There構文がよく使われるジャンル

童話の書き出し

Once upon a time, there was a princess living all alone in a castle in a kingdom far, far away.

説明文の書き出し

There are many types of dolphins in all parts of the world. Here are some of the main ones: the common dolphin, the bottlenose dolphin, the killer whale and so forth.

報告書の書き出し

Last week, there were about 10 reports of pretty bad tornadoes in the area.

 

  1. 存在文というジャンル

I saw an accident happen right in front of me.

 

  1. 副詞のThere(There is the NOUN)

There’s the tablet I’m thinking of getting.

 

  1. There + be動詞 + 名詞・代名詞 + 場所

There was nobody [名詞] in the meeting room [場所を示す副詞句]. Either I was misinformed or the meeting has been rescheduled without my knowledge.

There’s 50% off sale on their website.

 

  1. There + be動詞 + 形容詞句・節で修飾されている名詞

There are several routes [名詞] to reach the summit [形容詞句].

 

  1. There + be動詞 + 名詞 + ING/-ed

There’s a sale goint on at their webite.

There’s a suspiciou car parked out front.

 

例外的にINGを使えないケース

In the early hours, there was a huse

 

  1. There + be動詞 + NO/NOT + 動詞のING形

There’s no denying that we’re facing a shortage of shortage of skilled labor.

 

  1. There + AUX + be動詞 + 名詞句 (AUXでニュアンスを調整する)

There must be a power switch somewhere.

 

 

  1. 使い方のポイント
    1. Thereで切り出してItで受ける

There’s quite a heat wave here. It’s really scorching hot, isn’t it?

 

  1. Thereで表すものは不確定的なので定冠詞はまず使わない。

There’s a packet for you.

 

 

  1. a lot of, plenty ofを組み合わせる場合、可算名詞との組み合わせなら動詞も複数形だが、付加さん名詞との組み合わせなら単数形

There are a lot of peole at the workshop, but there are plenty of seats.

There is plenty of wine to go around.

 

  1. There と a number ofを組み合わせるときはA number of = several, manyなので、動詞は複数形

There have been a number of accidents at this crossing.

 

  1. 実質的主語が複数の場合、話し言葉では常に単数形、書き言葉では複数形

話し言葉:There’s two mice somewhere in the house.

書き言葉:There are two mice somewhere in the house.

 

  1. be動詞以外を使うとフォーマル感。ただしThere文の95%はbe動詞を使う。

There remains one more condition to be met.

There lies some truth in what he says.

 

  1. be動詞以外の決まり文句でよく使うもの

①There seems to be ( e.g. There seems to be a problem.)。

There isと比べて断定調が薄らぐので気遣いが要求される場面で使われる。

 

②There happened to be

There happened to be a phone charger in the taxi, so I happily plugged the charger into my dying mobile.

 

  1. IT構文

    1. 内容のあるIT

It’s too cold/hot.

It’s windy.とは言うが、It’s winding.とは言わない。

What’s rainy?との問いに対して、The weather’s rainy.と答えられる。

 

  1. 無内容のIT(形式主語)

It’s raining.

 

  1. 客観的な論評で使う

It is said that nuclear power is not a sustainable energy source.(”said that”以下のコメントをつける対象として”It” をおいた)

 

  1. 時刻、距離、寸法などで使う

時刻

What time is it?

It’s two o’clock?

距離

When was it?

It was Monday the 20th.

距離

How far is it?

It’s a three-hour ride on the bullet train.

寸法

How long is it?

It’s about 10 centimeters long.

 

  1. 重い部分を先送りするIT
    1. That節を先送りする。英語はEnd Focus(既知情報が先で新情報は後)とEnd Weight(重い要素は後ろ)

 

That her interest was in money was plain.では、述語動詞がなかなか出てこないので読みづらい。

It was plain that her interest was in money.

 

appear, follow, happen, seem等は、It構文を使うのが一般的。

It
appears
that safety procedures were not followed.

She may not be talkative but it doesn’t follow
that she is not listening.

It’s not that I don’t like watching TV, but it just so happened
that I didn’t have time to watch that program.

It seems
that nobody knows what happended.

 

  1. INGで始まるフレーズを先送りする

Avoid: Trying to strike a balance between work and life is a major challenge.

Use : It’s a major challenge trying to strike a balance between work and life.

 

  1. To不定詞で始まるフレーズを先送りする

Avoid: To expect advertisers to check the truth of advertisements is unrealistic.

Use :It’s unrealistic to expect advertisers to check the truth of advertisements.

 

  1. WH語で始まる節を先送りする

Avoid: Where she had contracted the disease was unclear.

Use : It was unclear where she had contracted the disease.

 

 

 

 

  1. Existential (存在動詞)

リンク動詞(be動詞やその仲間(appear, seemなど))以外の動詞で、「何かが存在すること」または「何かと何かの関係がどうなっているのかを示す動詞」

be動詞やその仲間よりも具体的な表現

日常の会話よりも、抽象的論議、特に書き言葉で使われることが多い。

 

  1. EXISTENTIAL Process (Existing and Happening) e.g. be, exist, stand, lie

 

  1. Participant

Existent

   

(There)

in subject position (called expletive/empty there)

 
     

 

  1. Sensence Patterns

There V S

expletive there

Once upon a time there was a weird grammarian.

SV

 

We live in the world.

     

 

 

 

there was a little guinea-pig

there seems to be a problem.

存在動詞は、時や場所の状況要素を伴う。この場合主語の

状況要素が主題になる場合はthereが省略される。

 

PARTICIPANT

PROCESS

PARTICIPANT

 

Process

existent

There
Our president
One of conditions

was

a good start
a thir party
safe passage for all his followers.

 

 

  1. EXIST:存在(SV)

exist

= continue in being

I don’t believe such a word exists.

lack

= non-existent

What is lacking in these studies, she contends, is common sense.

live

生活して存在している

It’s a small world we live in. it has been shrinking due to rapid proress in practically all fields.

 

 

  1. THERE IS…

 

 

  1. 基本動詞(いろいろな使い方ができる万能な動詞)

  1. GO;「→」ある場所から立ち去って進んでいく動き

    1. 立ち去る

He went to the museum.

Poor Granny has gone.

You are simply not up to the job. You have to go.

 

  1. 通用する(進んでいく⇒通用する)

As far as dress code is concerned, anything goes.

 

  1. 変化する(ある状態に進んでいく)

The milk has gone sour.

 

  1. have (has) gone(現在完了の「今」への焦点から、立ち去って今はいない)

Your dad has gone to the bank.

 

  1. go (and)動詞(行って~する)

I don’t know where the keys are.――Well, go and find them [Go find them]

 

  1. go + -ing(~しに行く)

Let’s go swimming/skiing.

 

  1. For here or to go?

 

  1. COME;「←」何かが向こうからやってくる

    1. さまざまな「やってくる」

Where do you come from?

A watch like that doesn’t come cheap.(時計がやってくる⇒手に入る)

Mmm…nothing exciting comes to mind.

  1. もうすぐくる・次の(Coming)

the coming year(次の年)

the coming trend(次の流行)

 

  1. 変化する

My all your dreams come true.

Things sometimes go bad but they usually come good again.(goは悪い方向に、comeはいい方向に)

He is completely gone.

 

  1. come to 動詞(~するようになる)

I came to really like spicy food.

 

  1. How come…?(

How come I wasn’t invited?

How come Helen didn’t make it to the party?

 

come along やってくる

 

  1. RUN;走る

    1. さまざまな「走る」

There’s a free shuttle bus that runs between the airport terminals.

That movie made shivers run down my spine.(私の背筋をゾクっとさせた)

 

  1. 走る⇒線状の軌跡が残る⇒線状のものがある

I took the small road that runs parallel to the expressway.

Who left the tap running?(蛇口を出しっぱなしにする)

I have a runny nose.

 

  1. 変化する

The well has run dry.

 

  1. run + 目的語

He gave me trips on how to run a meeting.

 

  1. BRING;「←」COME + モノ

I’ll bring my guiter.

The Internet has brought many changes to our everyday lives.

 

  1. CARRY;支える。移動のフレーバーが加わっている。しかしBringのような方向性はない。

That’s heavy backpack you‘re carrying.

Millions of people now carry the AIDS virus.

 

  1. (店で)商品を取り扱う

Artrox Photography carries just-released products, along with lightly used equipment.

 

 

 

  1. DRIVE;力を入れて動かす

    1. 運転する

My husband always drives too fast.

  1. 力を加えて動かす

My mother-in-law drove me out of the house!

Spam mail drives me nuts.

 

  1. LEAVE;残して去る(出て行くものに焦点を置いた「去る」と、その結果残されたものに焦点を置いた「残す」)

    1. 去る(動作)

He left for Manila this morning.

  1. 残す

Oh no, I left my wallet at home.

Leave everything to me, OK?

 

  1. RISE;「↑」上がる(上昇する、増す、社会的立場が上がる、起きる、など)

Everyone knows hot air rises.

Food prices have risen dramatically.

What happened to him after he rose to fame?

I never rise before midday on weekends.

 

  1. FALL;「↓」下がる(落ちる、倒れる、減る、健康・意識の減退など)

Be careful or you’ll fall!

I lost control and fell head first into the snow.

The number of students is falling every year.

He fell ill while we were on holiday.

He fell asleep on our first date!

 

  1. TURN;クルッと向きを変える

    1. 各種方向転換

Turn left at the next corner.

Turn the steaks after about 3 minutes.

Turn the TV on――the match is about to start.

  1. 変化

I love it when the leaves turn golden yellow in the fall.

  1. PASS;ある場所を通り過ぎる

If you pass a big park, you’ve gone too far.

The days pass too quickly when you’re on holiday.

Hey, I passed my driving test!

  1. TAKE;目の前のものをひょいと手に取る動作。選び取るニュアンスをしばしば伴う。

    1. さまざまな「手に取る」

I think I need to take an aspirin.

The burglars took all my jewelry and cash.

I took lots of photos on my trip.

  1. 受け入れる

We can take up to 100 guests in our restaurant.

He didn’t take his doctor’s advice.

  1. 選択

I’ll take the black boots.

I usually take the bus to school.

  1. take 人・モノ to 場所(もっていく、連れて行く)

I’ll take you to the airport.

  1. PUT;何かをどこかにポンッとする。(「置く」ではない)

    1. さまざまな「なにかをどこかにポンッと」

I put a calendar on the wall.

I put salt in the cake instead of sugar!

I can’t believe they put Jenny on the committee.

The government should put more emphasis on education.

  1. (ことば)を言う・書く

To put it bluntly, you’re an idiot!

 

  1. put A to B

Isn’t it time to put these myths to an end?

 

 

  1. SET;意図的に・慎重に・しっかりと「置く」。SETされたものは揺ぎ無い・動かない。

    1. カチッと置く

Just set those boxes on the table.

I’ve set the alarm for 6:30 am.

Have you set a date for the wedding yet?

  1. 固まる

You have to wait until the plaster sets.

  1. GET;動いて手に入れる(動きに強い意識がある)

    1. さまざまな「手に入れる」

I got a Valentine’s card from Satomi.

How did you get her number?

How about getting Chinese food for dinner tonight?

I don’t get it. I mean, he’s not good-looking but the girls are all over him!

  1. 到着する・~するようになる

We’ll never get there on time with all this traffic.

I’d like to get to know you better.

  1. 変化

I’d better go home――it’s getting late.

Why did she get so upset?((何かきっかけがあって)怒り出した)

⇔Why was she so upset?(単に「怒っていた」)

  1. get + 目的語 + To 不定詞

I often get my older brother to help me with my homework.

  1. Get + 目的語 + 説明語句

My sister likes to get me really worked up.

I have to get all this work done by this afternoon.

I finally got my printer working properly.

  1. get受動態(~される)

I got/was caught speeding yesterday.(予期せぬ・突然・驚きなどの勘定を伴う/伴わない)

  1. MAKE;力をこめて何かを作り上げる

    1. さまざまなモノを「作り上げる」

My husband made a lovely coffee table.

Can you make the tough decisions?

6 and 4 makes 10.

I must make an appointment with the dentist.(appointmentも当事者が作り上げるもの)

  1. make friends with友達になる

I made friends with Chris.

  1. make of (どのような印象を)作り上げたのか

What do you make of the latest fasion trend?

  1. HAVE;接近(近くにある) ※動作ではなく「位置」を表す。物理的な近さ・所有権の及ぶ範囲など近接の意識

Our company has nearly 50 branches.

I have a terrible headache.

How much time do we have?

  1. haveのフレーズ(動作を表すこともあるが、基本イメージは位置。動きは感じない)

have dinner

have a baby

have a bath

have a good time

I had beer.⇔I drank beer.(Drank beerはゴクゴクビールを飲む様子をイメージする)

 

  1. have ~ comply with ~ ~を遵守させる 

(2) When a Certified Organization has published the Investor Protection Guidelines under the preceding paragraph, it shall endeavor to provide the Target Business Operators with guidance, recommendations and other measures necessary for having the Target Business Operators comply with the Investor Protection Guidelines.

2 認定団体は、前項の規定により投資者保護指針を公表したときは、対象事業者に対し、当該投資者保護指針を遵守させるため必要な指導、勧告その他の措置をとるよう努めなければならない。

 

 

  1. LET;同意(許可)する(allowなどより大変軽い感触)

Just let me check my email.

Let me know (LMK)

I won’t let them hurt you.

  1. Let’s ~ ~しようよ

Let’s talk it over.

  1. LOOK;目を向ける動作

I‘ve already looked in my bag――the keys are not there.

Can you look at my computer? It keeps freezing.

Look, I’m really busy right now, OK?

Look no futher than the movie. ~以外は探さなくてよい

 

  1. SEE;見える。(向こうからやってくる感覚。視覚が対象に及ぶ(他動詞)。視覚は脳と直結して心の動きと深くつながる。)

    1. 会う・付き合う(見える⇒会う)

Hey, it’s good to see you again.

Are you still seeing that woman from your office?

  1. 理解する

Yes, I see your point.

  1. 心とつながるsee

OK, I’ll see if I can get some tickets for you.

I just can’t see Gill as a teacher, can you?

See if there’s any mail, will you?

  1. 目配りをする

I’ll see that the apartment is left spick-and-span.

G and chat with the guests while I see to the drinks.

  1. WATCH;じーっと見る。集中力の単語。

I love watching my two puppies at play.

I need to go to the bank. Can you watch the kids for a while?

I have a funny feeling we’re being watched.

  1. watch TV

I watched Pokemon last night.

I saw Pokemon last night.

 

  1. LISTEN;耳を傾ける動作

Do you ever listen to classical music?

My husband hardly ever listens to my opinion.

 

  1. HEAR;音が向こうから耳に入ってくる(動作ではない)

I can’t hear you very well――It’s an awful line.

I hear that Haruka is moving back to Japan.(耳に入ってくる⇒知っている(聴覚も脳の働きに直結する))

Have you heard from your daughter yet? (音が向こうからやってくる⇒連絡がある)

  1. 知覚動詞(see, hear, taste, smell, feel)は進行形と相性が悪い(知覚動詞は動作ではない)

 

NG

OK

see

I’m seeing the pandas.

I can see the pandas.

hear

I’m hearing the bells.

I can hear the bells.

taste

I’m tasting the red wine in the sauce.

I can taste the red wine in the sauce

smell

I’m smelling perfume.

I can smell perfume.

feel

I’m feeling the pain.

I can feel the pain.

find

   

 

  1. SPEAK;音声を出す、口に出す(一方通行の音声の流れ)

She speaks 5 languages fluently.

I would be delighted to speak at the conference.

I’ve spoken to the manager, and we can change rooms immediately.

 

  1. TALK;話し合う・コミュニケーションする(双方向の動詞)

I think we need to talk.

 

  1. speakとtalk

I don’t want to talk/speak about the right now.(話し合いたくない/口に出したくない)

 

  1. SAY;話す・言う(「何」を言ったのか、「言葉」に焦点がある)

I said, “I love you!”

Sorry, what did you say?

He says that he’s tied up at work.

What does the sign say?

My watch says 10:50.

 

  1. TELL;話す、言う(情報・メッセージを「渡す」感触を伴う)

Don already told me the result.

She told me that she didn’t love me anymore.

My intuition tells me I should trust the guy.

 

  1. わかる

How can you tell real leather from imitation?

I could tell straightaway he was lying.

 

  1. Tellのとるパターン

tell 人 to do; I told them to be here by 7.

tell 人 モノ; You already told me that joke.

 

  1. ASK;請う・お願いする(「ちょうだい!?」)⇒尋ねる(情報・答えを請う)、頼む(相手の助力を請う)

He asked me why I stood him up.

I’m going to ask Rebecca to marry me.

 

 

  1. KNOW;情報や知識が頭の中にある

    1. 確信

I know you’re an honest guy.

I know I don’t stand a chance of winning.

  1. わかる・気付く・経験する

Do you know what I mean?

When I saw her face, I knew that something was wrong.

I’ve never known a flood like this.

 

  1. THINK;頭の動き。思考の万能選手。漠然と思うから、頭を使って考えるまで広くカバー

I think she’s an amazing singer.

There’s so much noise I can’t think.

 

  1. BELIEVE;胸で感じる。心に根を下ろす。

Can you believe it?

I believe
in the boss.⇔I belive the boss.

inは内部を感じる。ボスの人格や行いなどの深部に到達している。

 

  1. WANT;切実な欲求(欠けているものを補いたい)。生々しさを感じる単語。

    1. 欲しい

I want some cherry pie.

My Mom wants me to go shopping with her.

  1. 必要

You want to show more respect, young man.

Our bedroom wants painting.

 

  1. would like to(wantの上品な言い換え)

Would you like a glass of wine?

I’d like to speak English fluently.

wantは生々しい単語。「欲しいですか?」と聞くのは気が引けるので言い換える。

 

  1. WISH; 現実感のない、手の届かないことを夢想する状況。「~だったらいいのに」

Wishの後ろはいつも仮定法。

 

 

 

  1. 準基本動詞

    1. HOLD

Each drawer in Klein-Dock file cabinet can hold up to a thousand sheets of letter-sized paper.

 

  1. RIDE

 

 

 

 

  1. ビジネス基本動詞

 

 

  1. WORK

 

  1. work overtime 時間外勤務をする

The sales department manager can take Friday off because the team worked overtime last weekend.

 

  1. CONDUCT 指揮する、ガイドする、実施する

(con:=together・皆、共に、合わせて+duct:=lead・導く=「皆を導く」)

 

指揮する(オーケストラの指揮者は「コンダクター(conductor)」)

たくさんの、さまざまな楽器の音色をひとつの曲にまとめあげて導くのが「指揮者」

He is a world famous conductor.(彼は世界的に有名な指揮者だ。)

 

導く・案内する(「ツアー・コンダクター」でお馴染み。)

団体ツアーのたくさんのお客さん達を全員まとめてひとつの方向へ導くのが「ツアー・コンダクター」

I conducted a tour around Paris.(私はパリの観光旅行を案内した。)

 

(業務・管理・調査等)行なう・実施する

例えばアンケート調査なら、「用紙作成」「配布」「回収」「分析」など、数々の作業をまとめあげて、「分析結果」というひとつの結果を導きだすという意味での「実施」がconduct。

The reserach team conducted a survey.(その研究チームは調査を実施した。)

 

 

 

  1. CLOSE; to put [st] in a position to obstruct an entrance; to stop or obstruct

 

 

  1. LEAD

Taking course at the Bedford Business Center can lead to greater opportunities for professional growth.

 

  1. OFFER

Keola Resorts in Hawaii offer both weekly and monthly rental options.

 

  1. INVEST

    1. invest in ~

Kelang Manufacturing’s decision to invest in new machinery resulted in a 20 percent increase in production.

 

  1. ISSUE

 

  1. issue payment

It’s Calcor Furnishing’S policy to issue payment to its textile suppliers once the shipments have been inspected. 積み荷が検品されたらすぐに記事の代金を支払うのが、Calcor家具の方針です。

 

  1. INDEMNIFY

    1. indemnify someone against harm

(人)を危害から守る

表現パターンindemnify someone from [against] harm

Seller agrees to indemnify Buyer against all consequences of any and all claims, suits, or demands asserted against Buyer directly or indirectly from any product liability claim made by third persons, which claim may be attributable to incorporation of the Product to Buyer’s products by Buyer.

《契》第三者が買い手に対して製造物責任に関するクレーム、訴訟、要求の申し立てを直接的または間接的に行い、買い手が本契約に基づく製品を自己の製品ラインに加えたことが原因となっている可能性がある場合、売り手は買い手に生じた損害を補償することに同意する。

 

indemnify someone for any expenses incurred

発生した費用を(人)に弁償する

 

  1. indemnify [sb] from cost

First Party will indemnify Second Party from any costs, damages and fees incurred by Second Party which are attributable to that claim, provided Second Party promptly notifies First Party in writing of the claim and gives First Party full authority, information, and assistance for the defense.

《契約書》乙が甲に対して、かかるクレームに関して速やかに書面による事前通知を行い、且つ全ての権限および情報を提供し、弁護のために協力することを条件として、甲はかかるクレームから乙に発生する費用、損害、対価の全てを補償する。

 

  1. 請求、要求、求める、述べる

http://eitangotsukaiwake.suntomi.com/index.php?claim%2C%20demand%2C%20require

 

  1. require : (…が必要なので)要求する、命じる、要請する。<法律・規則>が義務付ける

 

(2) A firefighter or a police official, when he/she finds it particularly necessary for prevention of fire involving conveyance of hazardous materials, may stop a mobile tank storage facility while in transit and request the hazardous materials engineer who is riding on said mobile tank storage facility to present his/her hazardous materials engineer’s license. In this case, a firefighter and a police official shall maintain close contact with each other when performing their duties.

2 消防吏員又は警察官は、危険物の移送に伴う火災の防止のため特に必要があると認める場合には、走行中の移動タンク貯蔵所を停止させ、当該移動タンク貯蔵所に乗車している危険物取扱者に対し、危険物取扱者免状の提示を求めることができる。この場合において、消防吏員及び警察官がその職務を行なうに際しては、互いに密接な連絡をとるものとする。

 

 

 権利や職権によって公的に要求することで、「…が必要なので要求する」というニュアンスです。

 例文

 ・To operate the robot, batteries are required.  そのロボットを動かすには、バッテリーが必要です。

 ・Depending on the country, men are required to serve in the military.  国によっては、男性に兵役が義務付けられています。

Most house plants require regular waterring. (ほとんどの室内植物は定期的に水をやる必要がある)

The wearing of seat belts is required by law. (シートベルトの着用は法律によって義務付けられている)

 

  1. claim : (当然のこととして~を)要求(請求)する、求める

 

1. A legal assertion; a legal demand; Taken by a person wanting compensation, payment, or reimbursement for a loss under a contract, or an injury due to negligence. 2. Amount a claimant demands.

 

 

公的機関などから一定の権利を行使して、経済的な支援などをしてもらうようなケースに、「要求する」という意味になります。

 

 claim のあとの目的語には、

  ・補償金   compensation

  ・補償金   damage

  ・給付金   benefit

 といった金銭的な補償を表す単語が多くきます。

 それ以外は、claim right のように「法的権利」を要求する場合になります。

 例文

 ・He claimed the right to terminate the contract.

  彼は、その契約を終了できる権利を主張しました。

 

  1. demand : (~することを強く)求める、要求する

 

 

1. the claim that sum of money is due.

2. both desiring and being able to buy a good. The amount of a product that can be bought at a price. The amount of funds a party can give for goods in a period. Refer to law of supply and demand.

3. the legal right

 

 

 demand は、強い態度で望む依頼であり、要求です。要求の仕方がとても強硬な感じです。

 「当然もらえる権利があるのだからよこせ!」というような断固たる態度を意味しています。

 

 要求するものとしては、

  ・注意    attention

  ・金     money

 に加え、

  ・人の解雇  resignation

  ・解放・釈放 release

  ・領土などの返還  return

 などです。

 

 例文

 ・I demand to know why you are here.  あなたが何でここにいるのか説明してもらおうか。

 

  1. request : (正式にまたは丁寧に~を)依頼する、要請する

  ask より形式ばった語で、改まったところでより丁寧に依頼や要請をすること。

 例文

 ・Active participation is requested in this class.

  このクラスでは積極的な参加が求められています。

 

request は「(正式に)・・・を要請する」

a weeting which had been requested by the Japanese government (日本政府により要請された会議)

 

  1. ask for : ~を求める、~を要求する

 ask は一般的な「頼む」という意味で広く使われます。

 他人の援助・忠告・情報などを「求める/要求する」という意味での

 最も口語的で一般的な表現です。

 

 例文

 ・What else can you ask for?  これ以上何を望む?

 ・You were asking for it.  自業自得です。

 ・I could not ask for more.  願ってもないことです

 

  1. claim / complaint

「クレームをつける」なんて言うので、claimを「苦情」「不平・不満」のことだと思ってしまう人がいます。 complaintとの違いって何でしょうか。

 

claim は動詞では「正当性や権利を主張する」ってことです。「請求する」とか。 そうすると荷物を預けるときの “claim tag” が受け取り券(受け取る正当性を証明する券)ってことが判るし、特許の請求範囲のことを「claim」っていうのも判ります。苦情とか不平とかとは違うんですね。製品の良いところや自分の能力を主張したりするときにclaimを使います。

もしclaim warranty といえば、「保証を請求する」という意味で、「苦情を言う」の意味になるかと思います。 名詞で言えば保証請求です。

 

このclaimは語源をたとれば「叫ぶ」って意味です。前(pro)で叫べば proclaim (宣言する)、外(ex)へ叫べば exclaim(絶叫する)。 権利の主張の意味では、re(元へ)がつくと reclaim(返還を求める)、dis(離れて)がつくと disclaim(権利などを放棄する) です。

 

では

complaintはどういうことでしょう。

これこそ「苦情」です。「自動詞/他動詞」の記事で書きましたが、動詞のcomplainとexplainは「他人のそら似」です。complainは自動詞で「悩んでることや不満や不幸を口に出して言う」です。 「非常に苦しむ」という意味からきていて、その胸の中のものを口に出すのがcomplainです。 名詞の complaint には胸やお腹なんかの身体の部分の病気の意味もあります。chest complaint とか stomach complaint とか。 そのことと結びつけて考えると、「腹に据えかねる」ような気分が感じられます。、「腹に据えかねるような気分を口に出す」というのが自動詞のcomplainで、complaint about として、about 以下でその不平の対象を示すわけです。

 

  1. 明らかにする

 

  1. … make it clear that ~ ~が・・・によって明らかになる

That evidence made it clear there was no halfway house in convicting this extremely violent killer.

この凶悪殺人犯への有罪判決に妥協の余地はないことその証拠によって明らかになった

 

  1. S show O SがOを明らかにする

An MRI examination of the chest showed massive bilateral pleural effusions.

胸部のMRI検査によって両側性の大量胸水が明らかになった

 

  1. 明示して

 

  1. prespecify

As noted in ICH E9, the particular approach for the primary efficacy analysis should be prespecified. ICH E9ガイドラインで述べられているように、主たる有効性解析の方法は事前に明示しておく必要がある。

However, the report fell short of specifying the amount of benefit reductions. しかし、その報告書は、給付金の具体的な削減幅は明示していなかった。

 

 

 

  1. 委託する、再委託する

    1. Delegate 委ねる

1a〈人を〉代表(者)に指名する.

b〔+目的語+to+(代)名詞〕〈人を〉(代表者[使節]として)〔…に〕特派[派遣]する.

用例 He was delegated to the convention. 彼は大会に派遣された.

c〔+目的語+to do〕〈人を〉〈…するように〉代表に指名する,代表として派遣する.

用例 Each party delegated one member to attend the general meeting. 各党は総会に代表 1 名を出席させた.

2〔+目的語+to+(代)名詞〕〈権限などを〉〔…に〕委任[付与]する.

用例 The belligerents should delegate the solution of the conflict to the United Nations. 交戦国は紛争の解決を国連に委任すべきである.

 

  1. Entrust the entrusted services to ~ 委託に関わる業務を~に再委託する

(3) A person who has received entrustment of the services under paragraph (1) may not entrust the entrusted services to another person.

3 第一項の規定により業務の委託を受けた者は、当該委託に係る業務を再委託することができない。

 

We, XXX corporation a citizen/legal entity of Japan entrusts YYY patent office to handle the following matter related to the trademark “XXX” with Application No. 0123456 in Classes10 & 11:

 

  1. May subcontract … to ~ ・・・を~に再委託することができる

Second Party may subcontract translation work pursuant to this Agreement to a company or individual which has executed a strict consignment agreement containing confidentiality provisions, etc equivalent to this Agreement and possess a high level of translating ability equivalent to that of Second Party in order to ensure the provision of high level translation services to First Party, providing that Second Party has obtained prior written approval from First Party.

乙は、質の高い翻訳業務を甲に提供するため、秘密保持等、本契約と同等の厳格な業務委託契約を締結した乙と同等の高度の翻訳能力を有する法人または個人に、甲に書面にて事前の同意を得た場合に限り、本契約に基づく翻訳業務を第三者に再委託することができる

 

  1. 使役、指示、~を・・・とする

    1. direct [sb] to ~ [sb]に~するように指示する、指定する、命令する

After making a contract, an orderer shall not take unfair advantage of the orderer’s position in the transaction to specify purchase outlets for material or machinery to be used in the ordered construction work and direct the contractor to purchase them to the disadvantage of the contractor.

注文者は、請負契約の締結後、自己の取引上の地位を不当に利用して、その注文した建設工事に使用する資材若しくは機械器具又はこれらの購入先を指定し、これらを請負人に購入させて、その利益を害してはならない。

The policeman directed the car to proceed. 警官は車に前進するように指示した.

He directed barricades to be set up around the building. 彼は建物の周囲にバリケードを築くように命令した (cf. direct 2b).

He directed that barricades (should) be built. 彼はバリケードを築くように命令した (cf. direct 2a).

 

  1. make [sb] do ~を・・・とする

make ~ a precondition for future negotiations ~を今後の交渉における前提条件とする

〔that以下〕を条件とする

make it a condition that

make it a proviso that

 

  1. cause … to do ・・・に~させる

(2) The same punishment as in the preceding paragraph shall apply to any person who, with knowledge, has been given the benefit set forth in the same paragraph or has caused a third party to give such benefit.

2 情を知って、前項の利益の供与を受け、又は第三者にこれを供与させた者も、同項と同様とする。

 

(2) If, in the case of the preceding paragraph, the official is unable to cause
a person prescribed in the same paragraph to attend his/her inspection or search, he/she shall cause a neighbor who has attained the age of majority or an official of the local government of that place.

2 前項の場合において、同項に規定する者を立ち会わせることができないときは、その隣人で成年に達した者又はその地の地方公共団体の職員を立ち会わせなければならない。

 

 

  1. 指示する

give instructions to

provide direction

give precise instruction on~について細かく指示する

(5) The Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry shall, when he/she has NITE conduct an on-site inspection or ask questions pursuant to the preceding paragraph, give instructions to NITE with respect to the site to be inspected and any other necessary matters.

5 経済産業大臣は、前項の規定により機構に立入検査又は質問を行わせる場合には、機構に対し、当該立入検査の場所その他必要な事項を示してこれを実施すべきことを指示するものとする。

 

 

  1. talk

 

  1. talk A out of B/ talk A into B(Aを説得してBするのをやめさせる/Aを説得してBさせる)

I’ll try to talk him out of it.

 

 

  1. MANAGE and Supervise

 

Manage

Supervise

Cambridge Online Dictionary

to manage means “to be responsible for controlling or organizing someone or something, especially a business.”

Management is “the group of people responsible for controlling and organizing a company.” And finally,

a manager is “the person who is responsible for managing an organization.”

to supervise means “to watch a person or activity to make certain that everything is done correctly, safely, etc.”

Supervision occurs “when someone watches a person or activity and makes certain that everything is done correctly, safely, etc.”

a supervisor is “a person whose job is to supervise someone or something.”

The core

to control and organize people or things within an organization.

to oversee another person or activity to ensure the satisfaction of certain standards.

the target of responbilitiriy

For people and organization, and

People’s products (what)

For (only) people, and

People’s processes (how)

 

 

  1. Business Situation

  1. 調査

    1. 調査を実施する

      1. conduct necessary surveys 必要な調査を実施するものとする

The State shall conduct necessary surveys to prepare and implement appropriately the policies and measures for establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society, including surveys of the occurrence, cyclical use and disposal of circulative resources, their future outlook, or the environmental impact of disposal of circulative resources.

国は、循環資源の発生、循環的な利用及び処分の状況、これらの将来の見通し又は循環資源の処分による環境への影響に関する調査その他の循環型社会の形成に関する施策の策定及び適正な実施に必要な調査を実施するものとする

 

  1. administer a survey

To ensure that a Web site is effective, it is common practice to administer a customer feedback survey.

 

  1. 人事

    1. assume new role 新しい任務に就く

Mr. Nahm has been promoted to Senior Vice President of Sales and assumes his new role on March 1.

 

 

  1. 受賞

    1. award Prize to [sb]

This year’s Middletown Poetry Prize will be awarded to Mie Hasegawa, whose poem “Venus” was selected from over 500 entries.

 

 

  1. 業務

NTT Communications, for example, established its range of services and then, as any business would, sought to extract as much money from the market as possible.

例えばNTTコミュニケーションズは、まず業務の範囲を特定し、その上で市場からできる限りの利益を得る努力をしている。

 

 

  1. 行為の性質別

 

  1. はじまる⇔終わる

 

 

 

  1. 期限

The time for reply expires on April 15, 2016.

 

 

 

 

  1. 起点・終点、持続を言う動詞

 

After a week, he began to recover.

 

  1. 起点

begin

⇔end

She began to hit/hitting me with her purse.

start

⇔stop

 

 

 

  1. 持続

continue

 

We continued to review/reviewing the draft report late into the night and to keep us awake, we kept drinking loads of strong coffee.

keep

対象が成果物の場合、単一のときはあまり使われず、もっぱらcontinueが使われる。

 

 

  1. 終点

cease

   

complete

 

The students were instructed to complete the survey in a week.

end

⇔begin

= bring to a close

何かしていたこと、続けていたことを打ち切る。

イベントに終止符を打つときはfinishよりendが好まれる。

My boyfriend and I ended our three-year relationship yesterday.

finish

完了させる、完成させる

 

stop

⇔start

移動・作業・機器類の終了

Can’t you stop thinking worst-case scenarios? You’re just too pessimistic. You always are.

 

  1. その他

 

  1. 明確にする

 

  1. define(責任・立場・役割などを)
  2. explain(~の意味を)

 

  1. make ~ clear ~を明確にする

make the sales figures clear販売数値を明確にする

 

 

 

  1. 容易にする、推進する

    1. 推進する

 

  1. Facilitate ~

Patient and reporter identifiability is important to avoid case duplication, detect fraud, and facilitate follow-up of appropriate cases.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕症例の重複を回避し、虚偽を検出し、しかるべき症例の追跡調査を容易にするために、患者及び報告者を特定することが重要である。

 

The purpose of this Act is to provide necessary matters with respect to the commission of counseling service on people’s complaints against public administration in order to facilitate their settlement and thereby to contribute to democratic administration of public affairs.

この法律は、国民の行政に関する苦情の解決の促進に資するため、苦情の相談に関する業務の委嘱について必要な事項を定め、もつて行政の民主的な運営に寄与することを目的とする。

 

 

  1. 条件下に置く、条件を適用する

    1. Expose to conditions

exposure to appropriate conditions 適当な条件下に置くこと

“We took isolated skin biopsies from laboratory mice, exposed those isolated skin biopsies to temperatures of 43 degrees or 48 degrees, and then we looked at what was being released from the skin under those conditions.”「私たちは、実験用マウスから孤立した皮膚生体組織を採取し、その生体組織を摂氏43度あるいは48度の条件に置きました。それから、そうした条件で皮膚から何が放出されるかを調べました」

 

  1. submit to conditions

be submitted to the same conditions as ~と同じ条件下に置かれる

 

  1. 手段を限定する(~によって行う)

(2) Filling complaint set forth in the preceding paragraph shall be made by submitting the document, prepared and sealed by the detainee himself/herself, via the prisoner of war camp commander.  2 前項の苦情の申出は、被収容者が自ら作成し、封をした書面を捕虜収容所長を経由して提出することによって行う

 

  1. 解決する

    1. Wish to resolve the dispute

 

WHEREAS, the Parties wish amicably to resolve their differences, to resolve the disputes between them concerning the facts alleged in the Complaint, and to release, discharge, compromise, settle and resolve all claims or causes of action they may have against the other with regard to such facts or with regard to their conduct of the prosecution or defense of the Action;

 

  1. 添付する

    1. A be attached with B AにBを添付する

(2) The written application for approval set forth in the preceding paragraph shall be attached
with a document containing a pledge that the application does not fall under paragraph (1), item (i), sub-item (c) or item (ii), sub-item (c) of the following Article as well as any other document specified by Cabinet Office Ordinance.

2 前項の承認申請書には、次条第一項第一号ハ及び第二号ハに該当しないことを誓約する書面その他内閣府令で定める書面を添付しなければならない。

 

  1. 省略する

    1. omit

if I should have omitted anything of significance 万一重要な遺漏があれば

 

  1. 加える、増大する

    1. make an addition to ~ ~に加える、~を増大する、~に増補する

 

  1. 減らす

    1. make reduction from ~  ~から引く

make a __% price reduction from one’s list prices 値段表価格より_%の値引きをする

 

  1.  
    1. incorporate

 

 

 

 

  1. 自粛する、差し控える、見送る

refrain from doing

 

abstain from doing

 

forgo/ forego doing

 

  1. 対象別

    1. 対象が物

 

  1. 製造する

    1. Fabricate

 

 

 

  1. 貸す

http://eitangotsukaiwake.suntomi.com/index.php?lend%2C%20rent%2C%20lease

  1. Lend: タダで貸す  「貸す」を意味する最も一般的な語句です。

 

 目的語として、最も使用頻度が高いのは money ですが、これ以外では、

 ・支援する     lend support

 ・重視する     lend weight

 ・わたしを手伝う  lend me a hand

 ・名前を貸す    lend my name

 などの「手渡す」ことができない抽象的なものになっています。

 

Could you lend a little money to me ?  わたしにお金を少し貸してもらえませんか?

I just can’t lend support to your organaizetion.  到底あなた方を支援できるような状態ではありません。

 

  1. rent:賃貸する  主に「家やアパートなどの宿泊施設を賃貸する」を表します。

 

土地を賃貸する  rent a land

車を賃貸する   rent a car

ビデオを賃貸する rent a video

 

I’m renting a room to a young woman. 若い女性に部屋を貸しています。

We can rent you an accommodation for this weekend. この週末でしたらお部屋をご用意できます。

 

  1. lease:特定の期間だけ賃貸する  「土地や建物(mill, pub, building)を賃貸する」が基本的意味

I will not lease my land to them.わたしは彼らには土地は貸さない。

I leased a pub downtown to my brother.  ダウンタウンのパブを、弟に貸した。

 

  1. 守る、維持、修理

    1. 守る
      1. safeguard〔…から〕〈もの・人を〉守る,保護する 〔against,from〕.

safeguard one’s property 財産を守る.

safeguard children against traffic accidents 子供を交通事故から守る.

 

  1. Protect (危険や害から防御に役立つものを用いて)守る

1a(外被や見張りなどで)〈…を〉保護する,防ぐ; 庇護する

The outer cover protects the inside. 外被が内部を守っている.

May God protect you! あなたに神のご加護がありますように.

b〔+目的語+前置詞+(代)名詞〕〈…を〉〔攻撃・危害などから〕守る,保護する; 〔攻撃・危害を受けないように〕〈…を〉守る 〔against,from〕.

The walls protected the city against enemies. 外壁が敵から都市を守っていた.

She wore a hat to protect her skin from the sun. 彼女は日ざしで肌を痛めないように帽子をかぶっていた.

[ラテン語「前をおおう」の意 (PRO‐1+tegere 「おおう」); 【名詞】 protection,【形容詞】 protective]

 

  1. Defend (差し迫る脅威や攻撃に積極的に抵抗してそれを排除し)安全を保つ

 

  1. guard (注意深く見張って危険から)安全を保つ

 

  1. 維持、保管、保存

 

  1. keep

 

  1. hold

 

  1. Maintain 持続する、維持する、(補修管理を行って)整備・保全する

maintain diplomatic relations with foreign countries 外国と外交関係を維持する.

He maintained a speed of 60 kph. 彼はスピードを時速 60 キロに維持した.

maintain the roads 道路を保全する.

 

 

  1. Preserve

Maintain (something) in its original or existing state: ‘all records of the past were zealously preserved’

preserve special characteristics of ~の特性を失わないようにする

 

  1. Retain

【動詞】 【他動詞】

1a〈人が〉〈…を〉保つ,保持する,維持する.

用例 retain a receipt レシートをとっておく.

retain one’s balance バランスを保つ.

retain one’s dignity [pride] 威厳[誇り]を失わない.

Do you retain the custom of saying grace? お宅では食前・食後のお祈りをする習慣をまだ続けていますか.

b〈物が〉〈…を〉保つ,抑える,あるべき場所に留める.

用例 China dishes retain heat well. 磁器製の皿は熱を長もちさせる.

The dam retains millions of tons of water. ダムは何百万トンもの水を支えている.

2〈…を〉忘れないでいる,記憶している.

用例 I retain a clear memory of those days. そのころのことはまだはっきりと覚えている.

3〈弁護士などを〉(依頼料を払って)雇っておく.

 

  1. 修理
    1. Repair

 

•Seller shall undertake to repair or replace the Products immediately.

《契約書》売り手は、製品の修理、交換を速やかに行うことを約束する。

•Product repairs and replacements covered by the above warranty are warranted to be free from defects as set forth above except that the defect must appear within two years from the date of shipment of the repaired or replacing Product.

《契》上記の保証に含まれる製品の修理および交換については、上記の欠陥がないことを保証するものとする。ただし、欠陥とは、修理または交換した製品の発送日から2年以内に現れたものとする。

•The foregoing warranties do not extend to pre-production samples or to Products which have been subjected to misuse, neglect, accident or abuse or improperly stored or maintained or repaired or altered by anyone other than Maker.

《契》メーカー以外の者による誤用、過失、事故、酷使、不適切な保管・保守・修理・改造がなされた試作サンプルまたは製品については、上記の保証を適用しない。

 

 

 

 

  1. mend

《★【類語】 mend は大した技術を要しないものを修理する; repair は多少とも特殊な技術を要するものを修理する》.

 

 

 

  1. 引き取る

    1. pick up(預けていたものを)

 

  1. take back

Article 8  Duty to Re-import

When a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes to which the consent of the States concerned has been given, subject to the provisions of this Convention, cannot be completed in accordance with the terms of the contract, the State of export shall ensure that the wastes in question are taken back into the State of export, by the exporter, if alternative arrangements cannot be made for their disposal in an environmentally sound manner, within 90 days from the time that the importing State informed the State of export and the Secretariat, or such other period of time as the States concerned agree. To this end, the State of export and any Party of transit shall not oppose, hinder or prevent the return of those wastes to the State of export.

第8条  再輸入の義務

この条約の規定に従うことを条件として関係国の同意が得られている有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物の国境を越える移動が、契約の条件に従って完了することができない場合において、輸入国が輸出国及び事務局に対してその旨を通報した時から90日以内に又は関係国が合意する他の期間内に当該有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物が環境上適正な方法で処分されるための代替措置をとることができないときは、輸出国は、輸出者が当該有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物を輸出国内に引き取ることを確保する。このため、輸出国及び締約国である通過国は、当該有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物の輸出国への返還に反対し、及びその返還を妨害し又は防止してはならない。

 

 

  1. take in(子どもを)
  2. take off(~を物・場所から)

 

 

  1. 捨てる

 

 

 

  1. 処分する、処理する、取り除く、除外する、排除する

    1. Dispose of [sth] 〔+of+(代)名詞〕〔…を〕片づける,処置[処分]する,始末する 《★受身可》.

(dispose of) Get rid of by throwing away or giving or selling to someone else:

The Company may not sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its assets.

当該会社は、全部または実質的に全部の自己の資産を、売却または処分してはならない。

 

  1. manage 処理する

8. Each Party shall require that hazardous wastes or other wastes, to be exported, are managed in an environmentally sound manner in the State of import or elsewhere.

締約国は、輸出されることとなる有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物が輸入国又は他の場所において環境上適正な方法で処理されることを義務付ける。

 

 

  1. get rid of…

〈望ましくないもの〉を免れる, 取り除く; 追い払う, 処分する 《★受身可》.

I can’t get rid of this cold. このかぜがどうしても抜けない.

 

  1. Discard 〈…を〉(不要なものと)捨てる,処分する.

Get rid of (someone or something) as no longer useful or desirable:

 

  1. Eliminateある物や事を望ましくないものとして「取り除く(排除する)」

原義は「境界から出す→屋外に追う」。

 

  1. remove 移動させる

Take (something) away or off from the position occupied:

 

  1. preclude〈事を〉起こらないようにする,不可能にする; 排除する

preclude all doubt すべての疑惑をあらかじめ排除する。

That will preclude his escaping. そうすれば彼は逃げ出せなくなるだろう。

My present finances preclude the possibility of buying a house. 今の私の財政状態では家を買うのはまず無理だ。

 

2〔+目的語+from+doing〕〈人が〉〔…するのを〕妨げる,〈人に〉〔…できなく〕する。

用例 My tight schedule will preclude me from attending the party. スケジュールが詰まっていてそのパーティーには出席できないだろう。

 

  1. exempt

be exempted from the application of の適用から除外される

be exempted from sugar rationing砂糖の配給の適用から除外される

 

  1. exclulde

be excluded from the secrecy obligations《契約書》秘密保持義務の適用から除外される

 

  1. 適合させる

     

adapt

新しい目的に適するよう適合させるまたは変化させる

make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose

 

adjust

   

accommodate

   

reconcile

不仲なモノ同士・論争・対立・違いなどを調和させる、調整する

 

conciliate

   

 

 

★【類語】 adapt は; adjust は二つのものの比較的小さな違いを技術または計算・判断によって調節する》.

 

  1. shall be done

Management of the company and decision-making shall be done under the instructions of JAMES with effect from 1 July 1998 while Mr. A and Mr. B remains as directors.

《契約書》会社の経営および意思決定は、JAMESの指示に従って行い、A氏およびB氏が取締役として残留中、1998年7月1日から効力を有する。

 

 

  1. 支障を来たす

    1. cause hindrance to ~ ~に支障を生ずる

(3) The reinsurance premium rate for reinsurance underwritten by NEXI pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be determined so as not to cause any hindrance to the sound operation of the business operations set forth in paragraph (1).

3 前項の規定により日本貿易保険が引き受ける再保険の再保険料率は、第一項の業務の健全な運営に支障を生ずることのないように定めなければならない。

 

  1. cause interference with ~ ~に障害を及ぼす

Where plants cause or are likely to cause interference with Electric Lines to be used for Electricity Business or plants cause hindrance to taking measurements or field investigations with regard to Electric Facilities to be used for Electricity Business or a construction project with regard to Electric Lines to be used for Electricity Business, an Electricity Utility may, when it is unavoidable, clear or transplant such plants with permission from the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry.

電気事業者は、植物が電気事業の用に供する電線路に障害を及ぼし、若しくは及ぼすおそれがある場合又は植物が電気事業の用に供する電気工作物に関する測量若しくは実地調査若しくは電気事業の用に供する電線路に関する工事に支障を及ぼす場合において、やむを得ないときは、経済産業大臣の許可を受けて、その植物を伐採し、又は移植することができる。

 

  1. Interfere with ~ ~に支障をきたす

In order to avoid insect damage, suitable fumigants may be used to preserve crude drugs, provided that the fumigants are so readily volatilized as to be harmless at the usual dosage of the crude drugs, and such fumigants that may affect the therapeutic efficacy of the crude drugs or interfere with the testing are precluded.〔【出典】第十六改正日本薬局方(平成23年3月24日 厚生労働省告示第65号)〕

虫害を防ぐため、適当な薫蒸剤を加えて保存することができる。ただし、この薫蒸剤は常温で揮散しやすく、その生薬の投与量において無害でなければならない。また、その生薬の治療効果を障害し、又は試験に支障をきたすものであってはならない。

 

  1. 支障を来たす be an obstacle

 

 

  1. 対象が事態

 

  1. 対策をとる

    1. take measures against ~ ~への対策をとる

The U.S. government plans to take measures against the possibility of terrorist attacks around the first anniversary by reducing all flights on September 11th and 12th.

米政府は、9月11日と12日の航空便の数を減らすことにより、ほぼ1周年に起こる可能性のあるテロ攻撃への対策をとる計画です。

 

  1. do what it takes to prevent a recurrence 再発を防止するために対策をとる

President Barack Obama described the incident as a “systemic failure” of America’s security apparatus, and U.S. officials have pledged to do what it takes to prevent a recurrence.

バラク・オバマ大統領は、今回の事件を、米国の保安機構の「組織的な欠陥」だと評しました。そして、米国政府担当者は、再発を防止するために対策をとると約束しました。

 

  1. 対処する

    1. Take appropriate actions 適切に対処する

The Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare shall establish and make public the necessary guidelines for employers to take appropriate actions with respect to the particulars prescribed in the preceding two Articles.

厚生労働大臣は、前二条に定める事項に関し、事業主が適切に対処するために必要な指針を定め、これを公表するものとする。

 

  1. take action 行動をとる、処置する、対策をとる、措置をとる

・The operator must take action when the green light flashes. : 《マニュアル》オペレーターは、緑ランプが点滅したら、(次の操作を)行わなければなりません。

 

  1. deal with~に対処する、取り組む

*Japanese farmers are trying hard to deal with cheap vegetable imports.日本の農家は、安い野菜の輸入品の対応に力を注いでいる。

*You should always be ready to deal with unexpected chages in the market. 市場での予期しない変化こ常に即対応できる体制を整えねばならない。

*The service staff have been reinforced to deal with increasing complaints from our customers. 顧客の苦情増加に対応するため、サービススタッフを増強した。

原義(deal)は「分配する→処理する→扱う」。一般的な用法の第一の意味は、他動詞用法で「分配する、取引する」。科学技術論文では、deal with (自動詞用法)で、1.文献などで、事を「扱う」、2.困難な問題や状況などに「(うまく)対処する」という意味で使う。treatと違い、「物を扱う」という意味はない。

 

deal cooperatively with continuing problems継続的な諸問題に協力して対処する

 

  1. work in concert with ~ ~と協力して対処する

work in concert with the international community国際社会と協力して対処する

 

  1. 注意を払う

For some medications (e.g., medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as those used in oncology), surface-area-guided dosing may be necessary, but extra care should be taken to ensure proper dose calculation.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕

体表面積換算による用量が必要である医薬品(例えば、悪性腫瘍に使用される医薬品など治療域の狭いもの)に対しては、適切な用量換算を確実にするために特別な注意を払うべきである。

 

During the design of a clinical programme careful attention should be paid
to the uniform definition and collection of measurements which will facilitate subsequent interpretation of the series of trials, particularly if they are likely to be combined across trials.

臨床プログラムの設計段階では、特に試験を通じてよく結合される測定値に対して、後になって一連の試験の解釈が容易になるように測定値を統一して定義し収集するよう、慎重な注意を払うべきである

 

 

  1. 対象がお金・金額・収益・利益

 

  1. 支払う

    1. pay off

If you want to pay off the loan early, the amount you need to close out the loan may be different than the current balance.

 

  1. pay

Buyer shall pay all of its own expenses, including but not limited to, office, communication, transportation, hotel, and meal expenses.

《契約書》事務所、通信、交通、ホテル、食事などの経費を含む(ただし必ずしもこれらに限定されない)一切の経費は買い手が支払うものとする。

 

 

  1. 相殺する

    1. set off (相手の債務) against (自分の債務)が基本パターン

 

offsetよりset offの方がフォーマルとされます。通常は句動詞の方がインフォーマルなのですが、offsetはアメリカ英語であるため、set offをフォーマルなものとして扱います。

 

http://www.newpark.com/documents/Terms%20and%20Conditions/Purchase.pdf

Any indebtedness of Seller to Buyer may, at Buyer’s option, be set off and credited against Buyer’s indebtedness to Seller.

 

If any sums are due to the Company from the Agent, the Company shall be entitled to exercise the right to set off such sums against any Commission due to the Agent in relation to this Agreement.

本件代理店より当社に支払うべきものがある場合、当社は、本契約に関して本件代理店に支払うべき本件手数料とこれを相殺する権利を行使することができる。

 

  1. set off (自分の債務) in or towards (相手の債務) 自分の債務をもって相手の債務の弁済に充当する

The Advisor may set off any amount standing to the credit of any such Accounts in or towards satisfaction of any of the Client’s Liabilities to the Advisor.

本件投資顧問は、本件取引口座上、入金されている金額をもって、本件投資顧問に対して本件顧客が負っている債務額の弁済に充当することができる。

 

  1. Netting

Netting: The amounts due from one party shall be set off
against the amounts due from the other and only the balance of account shall be payable by the party having the claim valued at the lower amount.

差額決済:一方当事者が支払義務を負っている金額は、相手方のそれと相殺されるべきものとし、この場合において支払額が受取額を超過する当事者の方から決済尻が支払われるものとする。

 

  1. ★ to set off/ offsetの使いかた

これまで集めてきた相殺関係の用例を整理すると、以下のとおり、四つのパターンがあります。最初の二つが動詞 offsetを使うパターン、残り二つが主流と言える、set off を使うパターンです。

1) to offset 自分の支払額 against 自分の受取額、というパターン

XYZ shall be entitled to offset any sum or sums owing by it to the Buyer against any sums owed by the buyer to XYZ.

Should termination occur as a result of Contractor’s default, XYZ shall be entitled to damages from Contractor resulting from Contractor’s default, XYZ shall be entitled to offset any amounts payable to Contractor for work satisfactorily completed against such damages.

2) to offset 自分の受取額 against 自分の支払額、というパターン

The Company is entitled to offset any amount owing to it from the Customer against any amount owed to the Customer by the Company.

We shall be entitled to offset any receivables owed to us by the contract partner against any receivables owed to the contract partner by us.

3) to set off 自分の支払額 against 自分の受取額、というパターン

XYZ may set off the amount of such liability against any sums that would otherwise be due to XYZ under this agreement.

We have the right to set off any of your money or property which may be in our possession against any amount owed to us under this Agreement.

4) to set off 自分の受取額 against 自分の支払額、というパターン

The Association shall be entitled to set off any amount due from the member against any amount due to the member.

The Company shall have the right to set off any debt(s) a Representative owes to the Company against his bonuses and/or commissions.

Upon termination of this Agreement we shall have the right to set off any amounts due from you against the Deposit.

The Bank may decide to exercise the right to set off any legitimate right or lien for any other claim against the borrower.

Company shall have the right to set off any sum due to Company from customer against any sum due or to become due to customer from Company

We also reserve the right to set off any debt you may owe us against any funds you may have on deposit with us.

Buyer has the right to setoff a claim of $10,230 under the invoice of December 20, 1999, against Seller’s claim for payment of the purchase price.

以上を通じて、誰が誰に対して債務を負っているのか、あるいは債権を有しているのかを表す上で、due to と due fromが、また、owing to X from Y やら owed to X by Y といった言い方が使われていることに着目し、こうした用法に慣れておくと、翻訳の際、楽です。逆にこうした定型的言い回しを知らないで、何やら勝手なものを作り出すと、一気に素人っぽいというか、うそくさい訳文になってしまいます。

 

  1. 対等額について相殺

Article 505 (Requirements for Set-offs)

(1) In cases where two persons mutually owe to the other any obligation with the same kind of purpose, if both obligations are due, each obligor may be relieved from his/her own obligation by setting off each value thereof against the corresponding amount of the obligation of the other obligor; provided, however, that, this shall not apply to the cases where the nature of the obligation does not permit such set-off.

第五百五条(相殺の要件等)

 二人が互いに同種の目的を有する債務を負担する場合において、双方の債務が弁済期にあるときは、各債務者は、その対当額について相殺によってその債務を免れることができる。ただし、債務の性質がこれを許さないときは、この限りでない。

 

 

  1. 割り引きする

Students can receive extra 15 percent off ‘Timber!’ tickets on Sept. 26

Apple employees will get 50% off Apple Watch, 1000+ apps submitted

 

  1. 対象が費用・損失・損害

    1. 費用を差し引く

      1. deduct expenses 費用を差し引く

● postponement/Cancellation of the Exhibition

If holding the exhibition is deemed unfeasible due to a natural or man-made disaster, or other uncontrollable circumstances, the organizer may postpone or cancel the exhibition. In the case of cancellation, the organizer will deduct necessary expenses from exhibition fees and refund the balance to exhibitors. The organizer will not be liable for any other expenses or damages incurred by exhibitors as a result of the cancellation.

● 展示会の延期・中止

天災・人災等の災害や、不可抗力により展示会の開催が困難と判断された場合、主催者は展示会の延期・中止を決定します。

中止の場合、出展料金は代償すべき経費を差し引いた上で、 出展者に返却します。その他に生じた費用・損害等については、主催者は補償致しかねます。

  1. 費用を負担する

    1. bear expense (費用)を負担する

The expenses required for the documentary arrangement and consultation for the takeover of the company shall be borne by ABC.《契約書》

•会社の買収に関する書類作成、専門家との相談に要する費用は、ABC社が負担する。

Seller will bear all traveling and living expenses per person a day for the personnel of Seller rendering technical assistance in the Territory, as requested by Buyer.《契約書》

•買い手の要請により、売り手が契約地域での技術援助のために派遣する社員の交通費および生活費はすべて売り手が負担する。

 

  1. incur a loss [cost, damage]

Before releasing the public opinion, Judge Karas ruled that IBM must pay a $3,000,000 bond to Papermaster for any costs or damages that Papermaster might incur, meanwhile still unable to work at Apple.

The company incurred a loss of $3 million last year. その会社は昨年 300 万ドルの損失を負った

 

  1. 費用を折半する

    1. Go halves on expense

go halves [fifty-fifty] on expenses費用を折半する

go halves with someone in (人)と~の費用を折半する

  1. Split the cost

split the cost between A and B AとBで費用を折半する

Up until that time, I had been splitting the cost of the apartment and food with my boyfriend. 彼とは生活費は折半でした。

 

  1. 損害を受ける、損害を被る

 

Japan has incurred
damage due to a number of large-scale natural disasters owing to its geographical and natural features, and natural violence has caused unthinkable suffering to the citizens of Japan. The Great East Japan Earthquake brought to mind again the forces of nature, which are entirely outside our control, and the fact that we cannot escape from natural threats.

我が国は、地理的及び自然的な特性から、多くの大規模自然災害等による被害を受け、自然の猛威は想像を超える悲惨な結果をもたらしてきた。我々は、東日本大震災の際、改めて自然の猛威の前に立ち尽くすとともに、その猛威からは逃れることができないことを思い知らされた。

 

The court may not give the permission referred to in paragraph (2) or the preceding paragraph if it finds that JOIN would incur substantial damage due to inspection or copying under a request as set forth in an item of paragraph (2) or a request as referred to in the preceding paragraph.

裁判所は、第二項各号に掲げる請求又は前項の請求に係る閲覧又は謄写をすることにより、機構に著しい損害を及ぼすおそれがあると認めるときは、第二項又は前項の許可をすることができない。

 

without incurring damage

損害を被ることなく

 

  1. 損害を与える cause damge to ~

cause incurable damage to ~に修復不能な被害を及ぼす[回復不能な障害を起こす]

Any other transaction that is found to involve no risk of causing damage to the trust property.

その他信託財産に損害を与えるおそれがないと認められる取引

 

  1. 損害を賠償する

compensate someone for his loss

indemnify someone for [against] loss

(人)に損害を賠償する

 

  1. 対象が制度・条文・規定

    1. 一致する、調和する、合致する、即する、基づく

 

meet

vt

「会う」⇒「合致する」

   
         

 

  1. be consistent with

《be ~》〔意見・行動などが〕~と一致する、~と調和する

・The witness testified, and it was consistent with other testimony heard. : 証人は証言をしたが、それは聴取した他の証言と一致していた。

・The theory and practice are not always consistent with each other. : 理論と実践とは必ずしも合致しない。

・Everything I have written is consistent with that. : 私が書いてきたことすべては首尾一貫している。

・That would be legally consistent. : それは法律的には矛盾がない。

 

  1. Complyとconform

Comply

• verb (complies, complied) (often comply with)

1 act in accordance with a wish or command.

2 meet specified standards.

 

conform

• verb

1 comply with rules, standards, or conventions.

2 be similar in form or type.

 

 

  1. correspond

【動詞】 【自動詞】

1a〈二つのものが〉一致する.

用例 His words and actions do not correspond. 彼の言行は一致しない.

b〔+前置詞+(代)名詞〕〔…と〕一致する,符合する,調和する 〔to,with〕.

用例 The result of his experiment corresponded with mine. 彼の実験結果は私のと一致した.

The goods do not correspond to the samples you sent me. 品物は送っていただいた見本と同じでない.

2〔+to+(代)名詞〕〔…に〕相当する,該当する,対応する.

用例 The broad lines on this map correspond to roads. この地図の太い線は道路を示すものである.

3a文通する.

用例 He and I have corresponded for years. 彼と私は何年も文通し合っている.

b〔+with+(代)名詞〕〔人と〕通信[文通]する.

用例 I am corresponding with him about that. そのことで彼と通信をしている.

 

  1. 違反する、抵触する

conflict with

be incompatible with

infringe of

run counter to

 

~を禁じる原則に抵触する

infringe on the prohibitions against

 

  1. 定める、規定する、記載する、具体的に示す

    1. establish 時間・体制などを(厳格に)定める(確立する)

「しっかりと立っていられるものにする→強固(堅固)なものにする」

科学技術論文では、手法などを「確立する、揺らぎのないものにする(強固にする)」という意味で使う。

 

ensure the establishment of

 

  1. establish the system of ~の体制を確立する

Each manufacturer should establish, document, and implement an effective system for managing quality that involves the active participation of management and appropriate manufacturing personnel.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕

製造業者は、効果的な品質マネージメント体制を確立し、それを文書化し、実施すること。なお、この品質マネージメント体制は、経営者及び製造に従事する者が積極的に関与すべきものであること。

  1. time is established

In storing Water for Injection temporarily, adequate measures able to prevent microbial proliferation stringently, such as circulating it in a loop at a high temperature must be taken, and an appropriate storage time should also be established based on the validation studies, in consideration of the risks of contamination and quality deterioration.

注射用水の一時的な保存については、微生物の増殖を厳しく抑制するために高温で循環するなどの方策をとると共に、汚染並びに品質劣化のリスクを考慮し、バリデーションの結果に基づいて適切な保存時間を設定する

 

  1. specify

(2) The matters to be provided for in the Institute’s Business Rules under the preceding paragraph shall be specified by an Ordinance of METI.

2 前項の業務方法書で定めるべき事項は、経済産業省令で定める。

 

  1. prescribe 〔規則などを〕指示する、〔罰則などを〕規定する

The duration of the Land Lease Right shall be thirty years; provided, however, that if a period longer than this is prescribed by contract, that period shall apply.

借地権の存続期間は、三十年とする。ただし、契約でこれより長い期間を定めたときは、その期間とする。

 

  1. 本契約で規定するもののほか、…は~で定める

in addition to what is provided for in this Act, … shall be prescribed by … この法律に規定するもののほか、…は、…で定める

 

 

  1. stipulate 〔契約条項として〕~を規定する[明記する・要求する・約束する・保証する・取り決める・定める]

・Any matter not stipulated herein shall be determined through mutual consultation at the Executive Meeting. : 《契約書》この規約に定めない事項については、幹事会で協議の上決定するものとする。

 

(stipulation) A material article In an agreement In practice. An engagement or undertaking in writing, to do a certain act; as to try a cause at a certain time. 1 Burrill, Pr. 389. The name “stipulation” is familiarly given to any agreement made by the attorneys engaged on opposite sides of a cause, (especially if in writing.) regulating any matter incidental to the proceedings or trial, which falls within their jurisdiction. Such, for instance, are agreements to extend the time for pleading, to take depositions, to waive objections, to admit certain facts, to continue the cause. See Lewis v. Orpheus, 15 Fed. Cas. 492. In admiralty practice. A recognizance of certain persons (called in the old law “fide jurors”) in the nature of bail for the appearance of a defendant 3 Bl. Comm. 10S.

 

  1. set forth in ~  ~に規程する、定める

shall mean ~ set forth in Exhibit A attached hereto 本契約書に添付の付属書Aに規定される~を意味するものとする

Now, therefore, in consideration of the rights and obligations herein set forth, the PARTIES hereto agree as follows.《契》よって本契約書に定める権利および義務の約因に基づき両当事者はここに次の通り合意する。

 

Except as set forth in Articles 434 to the preceding Article inclusive, any circumstance which arises with respect to one joint and several obligor shall be void vis-a-vis other joint and several obligor(s).

第四百三十四条から前条までに規定する場合を除き、連帯債務者の一人について生じた事由は、他の連帯債務者に対してその効力を生じない。

 

  1. (documents shall) contain statements of ~  書面には~を記載しなければならない

(4) A complaint shall contain statements of the postal code and telephone number (including the facsimile number) of the plaintiff or his/her agent, in addition to the matters prescribed in paragraph (1).

4 訴状には、第一項に規定する事項のほか、原告又はその代理人の郵便番号及び電話番号(ファクシミリの番号を含む。)を記載しなければならない

 

A written departure order delivered pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (2) of the preceding Article shall contain the full name, age and nationality of the foreign national who has been given the departure order, the reason for the departure order, the time limit for departure, the date of issuance of the departure order, and other matters provided by Ordinance of the Ministry of Justice, and the name and seal of a supervising immigration inspector shall also be affixed thereto.

前条第二項の規定により交付される出国命令書には、出国命令を受ける者の氏名、年齢及び国籍、出国命令の理由、出国期限、交付年月日その他法務省令で定める事項を記載し、かつ、主任審査官がこれに記名押印しなければならない。

 

  1. give descriptions 具体的に示す

反応変数は、試験開始前に規定され、観察及び定量化の方法を具体的に示すものでなければならない。

Response variables should be defined prospectively, giving descriptions of methods of observation and quantification.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕

 

  1. (period) may be limited 〔期限を〕定めることができる

(5) In the case referred to in the preceding paragraph, if the Minister of Justice deems it necessary, the validity period for re-entry with a refugee travel document may be limited to not less than 3 months and less than 1 year.

5 前項の場合において、法務大臣が特に必要があると認めるときは、三月以上一年未満の範囲内で、当該難民旅行証明書により入国することのできる期限を定めることができる

 

  1. decide 《on》〈決める〉

 

  1. determine 《a date》【形式ばった表現】
  2. appoint 《a place, an hour》【形式ばった表現】
  3. fix 《a date》《price》

 

  1. fix the price at ~  価格を~に設定する

fix the price at a reasonable level 価格を適正な水準に設定する

 

  1. fix the date as ~

In 1931, a British Columbia MP, Alan Neill, introduced a bill to fix the date as Nov. 11 and rename it Remembrance Day.

But Stanhope wrote as Post-master-general and did not become such until June 20, 1590, while other circumstances fix the date as not later than that year.

 

  1. lay down 《a rule》

 

  1. provide 《that…》 (条文などで) (provisionの動詞形)

in addition to what is provided for in this Act, … shall be prescribed by … この法律に規定するもののほか、…は、…で定める

 

  1. set a date / date shall be specified

set a clear date of~ ~という明確な期日を定める

The date when this Act shall come into force shall be specified by an Imperial Ordinance. この法律施行の期日は、勅令で、これを定める。

 

  1. formulate a policy 方針を定める

(5) After formulating the Basic Policy on Measures for Part-Time Workers, the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare shall publicize it without delay.

5 厚生労働大臣は、短時間労働者対策基本方針を定めたときは、遅滞なく、これを公表しなければならない。

 

 

 

  1. 適用・準用

    1. 適用
      1. applyの説明

 

他動詞

自動詞

[sb] apply A to B

[sb]がAをBに適用する

A apply to B

AをBに適用する

The provision of … shall be applied to ~

The provision of … shall apply to ~

 

apply only to ~にのみ適用する

  1. 適用

the provision of … shall also apply to … …の規定は、…についても適用する 

pursuant to the provision ofの規定により 

 

the provisions of … shall be applied to

 

  1. ~の場合においては、~の規定は適用しない。In this case, the provision of ~ shall not apply.

In this case, the provision of Article 10, paragraph (4) shall not apply.

この場合においては、第十条第四項の規定は、適用しない

(3) In the cases referred to in the preceding two paragraphs, the provisions of Article 63 and Article 129 of the Civil Execution Act (including cases where these provisions are applied mutatis mutandis pursuant to the provisions of said Act and other laws and regulations concerning a procedure for compulsory execution) shall not apply.

3 前二項の場合には、民事執行法第六十三条及び第百二十九条(これらの規定を同法その他強制執行の手続に関する法令において準用する場合を含む。)の規定は、適用しない

 

 

  1. ~の場合においては、~の規定は、~のときに限り適用する

(3) In the case referred to in the preceding paragraph, the provision of Article 468, paragraph (2) of the Civil Code shall apply
only when notice is given as prescribed in the preceding paragraph. In this case, the obligor of the claim may assert vis-a-vis the assignee, any grounds that could be a defense against the assignor that have arisen before the obligor receives notice as prescribed in said paragraph.

3 前項の場合においては、民法第四百六十八条第二項の規定は、前項に規定する通知がされたときに限り適用する。この場合においては、当該債権の債務者は、同項に規定する通知を受けるまでに譲渡人に対して生じた事由を譲受人に対抗することができる。

 

  1. AをBとみなして、・・・を適用する
    1. A shall be deemed as B, and … shall apply

A contract concluded for the purpose of completing construction work for remuneration regardless of whatever name is given to it shall be deemed as a contract for construction work, and the provisions of this Act shall apply.

委託その他いかなる名義をもつてするかを問わず、報酬を得て建設工事の完成を目的として締結する契約は、建設工事の請負契約とみなして、この法律の規定を適用する

 

  1. [provision] shall be applied by deeming A as B    AをBとみなして、(規定)を適用する

(10) When the Effective Date has been changed pursuant to the provision of paragraph (8), the provisions of this Subsection shall be applied by deeming the new Effective Date to be the Effective Date.

10 第八項の規定により効力発生日を変更したときは、変更後の効力発生日効力発生日とみなして、この款の規定を適用する

 

(4) Where the subsidiary stock company independently holds or the parent stock company and the subsidiary stock company jointly hold the majority of voting rights of all shareholders of another stock company, the provision of the preceding paragraph shall be applied by deeming such other stock company as a subsidiary stock company of the parent stock company.

4 子株式会社又は親株式会社及び子株式会社が他の株式会社の総株主の議決権の過半数を有する場合には、当該他の株式会社当該親株式会社の子株式会社とみなして、前項の規定を適用する

 

 

 

  1. For the purpose of applying [provisions], A shall be deemed to be B

For the purpose of applying the provisions of Article 205 of the New Act, an action prescribed in Article 22, paragraph (1) of the Former Foreign Insurance Providers Act that was taken before the Effective Date by a Foreign Insurance Company, etc. Licensed under the Former Foreign Insurance Providers Act shall be deemed to be
the action prescribed in Article 205, item (i) of the New Act.

旧外国保険事業者法の免許を受けた外国保険会社等が施行日前にした旧外国保険事業者法第二十二条第一項に規定する行為は、新法第二百五条第一号に規定する行為とみなして、同条の規定を適用する

 

(3) In the case referred to in paragraph (1), if the high pressure gas to be stored is liquefied gas, or liquefied gas and compressed gas, 10 kilograms of the liquefied gas shall be deemed to be 1 cubic meter in volume for the purpose of application of said paragraph.

3 第一項の場合において、貯蔵する高圧ガスが液化ガス又は液化ガス及び圧縮ガスであるときは、液化ガス十キログラムをもつて容積一立方メートルとみなして同項の規定を適用する

 

  1. 同様とする
    1. ~の場合も同様とする。以下同様

The same shall apply hereafter.《契》〔E=170〕 以下同じ、以下同様

hereinafter the same shall apply in this …以下この…において同じ 

 

  1. The same shall apply even after ~ ~後においても同様とする

Labor standards inspectors shall not reveal confidential information learned in the course of their duties. The same shall apply even after the labor standards inspector has retired from office.

労働基準監督官は、職務上知り得た秘密を漏してはならない。労働基準監督官を退官した後においても同様である

 

 

  1. The same shall apply to the case ~ ~の場合も同様とする。

(2) When the mayor of a municipality is unable to notify the relevant person as set forth in the preceding paragraph or when no person applies for the correction of the family registry in response to his/her notice, he/she may correct the family register, with the permission of the head of the competent Legal Affairs Bureau or District Legal Affairs Bureau. The same
shall apply to the case referred to in the proviso to the preceding paragraph.

2 前項の通知をすることができないとき、又は通知をしても戸籍訂正の申請をする者がないときは、市町村長は、管轄法務局又は地方法務局の長の許可を得て、戸籍の訂正をすることができる。前項ただし書の場合も、同様である

 

(2) When the mayor of a municipality is unable to notify the relevant person as set forth in the preceding paragraph or when no person applies for the correction of the family registry in response to his/her notice, he/she may correct the family register, with the permission of the head of the competent Legal Affairs Bureau or District Legal Affairs Bureau. The same shall apply to the case referred to in the proviso to the preceding paragraph.

2 前項の通知をすることができないとき、又は通知をしても戸籍訂正の申請をする者がないときは、市町村長は、管轄法務局又は地方法務局の長の許可を得て、戸籍の訂正をすることができる。前項ただし書の場合も、同様である

 

  1. 準用
    1. … shall apply mutatis mutandis to ~ …は、~について準用する 

The preceding Article shall apply mutatis mutandis to the marital property regime.

前条の規定は、夫婦財産制について準用する

 

(6) The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be applied mutatis mutandis to the general meeting of class shareholders set forth in paragraph (4).

6 前項の規定は、第四項の種類株主総会について準用する。

 

(3) The provisions of Article 15, paragraphs (5) to (9) inclusive shall apply mutatis mutandis to permission under paragraph (1) of the preceding Article.

3 第十五条第五項から第九項までの規定は、前条第一項の許可について準用する

 

  1. shall be applies correspondingly to ~

The provisions of Article 16 shall be applied correspondingly to the performance requirements for dikes.

第十六条の規定は、堤防の要求性能について準用する

 

  1. 対象が契約・合意・申込・承諾

    1. 注文する

 

 

  1. 契約書を作成する

draw up a contract 契約書を作成する

We will draw up a contract as soon as our lawyer comes back from his vacation in Florence. 私どもの弁護士がフィレンツェでの休暇から戻りましたら、すぐに契約書を作成します。

draw up a formal contract 正式な契約書を作成する

 

  1. 契約が成立する

If a Commodity Exchange has another member, etc. complete the settlement of transactions pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, an entrustment agreement is deemed to be established between the member, etc. and the person entrusting the original member, etc. with the transactions.

前項の規定により商品取引所が他の会員等をして当該取引の決済を結了させるときは、当該会員等と当該取引の委託者との間には委任契約が成立しているものとみなす。

 

 

  1. 契約を締結する

    1. Conclude a contract

When a Bank intends to conclude or terminate a contract for entrustment of each act listed in each item of Article 2(14) in a foreign state, the Bank shall obtain authorization from the Prime Minister pursuant to the provisions of a Cabinet Office Ordinance.

銀行は、第二条第十四項各号に掲げる行為を外国において委託する旨の契約を締結しようとするとき、又は当該契約を終了しようとするときは、内閣府令で定めるところにより、内閣総理大臣の認可を受けなければならない。

 

  1. sign up for a contract

I’d like to look up some more information about this before signing up for a whole contract.

 

  1. 契約を破棄する

新しい契約によって古い契約は破棄された。

The new contract superseded the old one.

現時点では弊社は貴社と法的な契約を結んでおりますので、提携を解消するためにはこの契約を破棄する必要があります。

Since we have a legal contract with your company at this time, we realize that we will have to break the contract to dissolve the partnership.

 

  1. 契約を終了させる

terminate a contract契約を終了させる

 

termination means;

1. last step of employment where a worker is let go.

2. Customer cancellation of remaining work of a contract. See termination for default and termination for convenience.

       

Invalidate

無効

To deprive (an official document or procedure) of legal efficacy because of contravention of a regulation or law (Oxford Dictionary)

Any special provisions that run counter to the provisions of the preceding paragraphs and that are disadvantageous to the Multilevel Marketing Affiliate are hereby invalidated.

前各項の規定に反する特約で連鎖販売加入者に不利なものは、無効とする。◆

rescind

取消(遡及効有)

To abrogate, annul, avoid, or cancel a contract; particularly, nullifying a contract by the act of a party (Blacke’s Law Dictionary).

 

Cancel

解除(遡及効有)

To obliterate, strike, or cross out; to destroy the effect of an instrument by defacing, obliterating, expunging, or erasing it.

Before departure, a passenger may cancel the contract by paying half the amount of the freight charge.

発航前ニ於テハ旅客ハ運送賃ノ半額ヲ支払ヒテ契約ノ解除ヲ為スコトヲ得

Terminate

解除(遡及効無?)

 

3.1. The Employee’s employment with the Employer will terminate on [enter date DD/MM/YYYY] (‘the Termination Date’).

mutually terminate and cancel

合意解約

   

On-sided terminate and cancel

解除

   

 

 

※同じ契約書に解除も解約も使われる場合があります。この場合解除をcancellation解約をterminationと訳せます。

 

解除は当事者間に有効に締結された契約関係を終了させて、最初から契約を無かったことにするという意味です。英語ではcancellationもrescissionも使えます。

 

解約は、最初から無かったことにできない契約(賃貸契約や労働契約)を当事者同士の合意のうえ途中で行う解除です。解除の時点で契約期間は終了します。英語ではterminationも使えます。

 

 

  1. 契約が切れる

The contract will expire at the end of this month.  契約が今月末で切れる。

 

  1. 契約を変更する

     

    Modification

    amendment

     

    some minor change in the substance of the tiling, without reference to its improvement or deterioration thereby

    an amelioration of the thing (as by changing the phraseology of an instrument, so as to make it more distinct or specific) without involving the idea of any change in substance or essence.

    Substance change

    ×

    Improvement or deterioration

    neither refer to improvement nor deterioration

    Refer only to improvement

     

 

  1. 合意する

    1. agree on

Maybe the agency can suggest a location that we’ll agree on.

 

  1. 承諾を得る、手に入れる

    1. 承諾を得る Gain approval/ consensus

gain consensus from the researchers 研究者たちの同意を得る

A Incorporated Commodity Exchange Surviving an Absorption-Type Merger shall gain approval for the Absorption-Type Merger contract by a resolution of a general meeting of shareholders by the day preceding the Effective Date.

吸収合併存続株式会社商品取引所は、効力発生日の前日までに、株主総会の決議によつて、吸収合併契約の承認を受けなければならない

 

  1. Obtain the consent of ~ ~の同意を得なければならない

 

(2) With respect to drafting and/or alteration of provisions concerning items (i) through (iv) of the preceding paragraph, the Employer shall obtain the consent of a person representing a majority of the Workers living in the dormitory.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

2 使用者は、前項第一号乃至第四号の事項に関する規定の作成又は変更については、寄宿舎に寄宿する労働者の過半数を代表する者の同意を得なければならない

 

 

  1. 対象が権利

    1. 権利を取得する

In the case referred to in the preceding paragraph, the second and subsequent freight forwarders shall acquire the rights of each of their predecessors when they perform their obligations to their predecessors. 2 前項ノ場合ニ於テ後者カ前者ニ弁済ヲ為シタルトキハ前者ノ権利ヲ取得ス

be desirous of acquiring the right to《契約書》~する権利を取得することを希望している

 

 

  1. 権利を行使する

(2) Holders of filed reorganization claims, etc., only where their claims have been determined, may exercise their rights approved pursuant to the provisions of the reorganization plan.

2 届出をした更生債権者等は、その有する更生債権等が確定している場合に限り、更生計画の定めによって認められた権利を行使することができる

 

  1. 譲渡する、移転する

 

譲渡

Transfer

原則

assignment

財産権一般の譲渡

conveyance

不動産譲渡

disposition

遺言による財産譲渡

negotiation

証券の譲渡

 

 

Convey: Transfer the title to (property).

 

 

transfer

assign

 

The passing of a thing or of property from one person to another; alienation; conveyance. 2 Bl. Comm. 294. Transfer is an act of the parties, or of the law, by which the title to property is con- veyed from one living person to another. Civ. Code Cal. $ 1039. And see Pearre v. Hawkins, 02 Tex. 437; Innerarity v. Minis, 1 Ala. 009; Sands v. Hill, 55 N. Y. 18; Pi- rie v. Chicago Title & Trust Co., 182 U. S. 43S, 21 Sup. Ct. 906, 45 L. Ed. 1171. In procedure, “transfer” is applied to an action or other proceeding, when it is taken from the jurisdiction of one court or judge, and placed under that of another.

 

1. Banking. Funds moved between accounts.

2. Real estate. Property title conveyance moved from seller to buyer through deed transfer.

3. Securities trading. Share certificate delivery by the seller’s broker to the buyer’s broker that is followed by recording change of title in share register.

In conveyancing. To make or set over to another; to transfer; as to assign property, or some interest therein. Cowell ; 2 Bl. Comm. 320; Bump v. Van Orsdale, II Barb. (N. Y.) 038; Iloag v. Mendenhall, 19 Minn. 33G (Gil. 2S9). In practice. To appoint, allot, select, or designate for a particular purpose, or duty. Thus, in England, justices are said to be “assigned to take the assises.” “assigned to hold pleas,” “assigned to make gaol delivery,” “assigned to keep the peace,” etc. St. Westm. 2, c. 30; Reg. Orig. OS, 09; 3 Bl. Comm. 58, 59, 353; 1 Bl. Comm. 351. To transfer persons, as a sheriff is said to assign prisoners in his custody. To point at, or point out; to set forth, or specify; to mark out or designate; as to assign errors on a writ of error; to assign breaches of a covenant. 2 Tidd, Pr. 11GS; 1 Tidd, GSG.

     

 

 

  1. Transfer 所有権の移転

provisional registration for the transfer of real property 不動産の所有権移転の仮登記

a change of ownership/ ownership transfer/ transfer of title 所有権の移転

 

  1. Convey

 

  1. Assign

 

  1. 権利を放棄する

A piscary, the duration of which is not particularly prescribed, shall be deemed to continuously exist during the duration of the fishery right covered by the piscary; provided that the piscary holder may waive the right at any time.

存続期間について別段の定がない入漁権は、その目的たる漁業権の存続期間中存続するものとみなす。但し、入漁権者は、何時でもその権利を放棄することができる

 

The Employee agree that the terms of this Agreement are offered by the Employer without any admission of liability on the part of the Employer and are in full and final settlement of all and any claims or rights of action that the Employee has or may have against the Employer or any of its or their respective current, former or future officers, workers or employees arising out of the Employees employment with the Employer or its termination or from events occurring after this Agreement has been entered into whether under common law, contract, statute or otherwise, whether such claims are, or could be, known to the parties or in their express contemplation at the date of this Agreement, including claims which as a matter of law do not at the date of this Agreement exist and whose existence cannot currently be foreseen in any jurisdiction and including, but not limited to, the following (each of which is hereby intimated and waived):

 

 

  1. 権利が帰属する

    1. 帰属する vest

(Renunciation of Shares and Death of Co-owners)

(持分の放棄及び共有者の死亡)

Article 255 If one of co-owners renounces his/her share or dies without an heir, his/her share shall vest in other co-owners.

第二百五十五条 共有者の一人が、その持分を放棄したとき、又は死亡して相続人がないときは、その持分は、他の共有者に帰属する

 

  1. belong to【自動詞】所属する、属する

原義(belong)は「すぐ手に届く所にある」。ある物や事が、ある種類に「所属する、属する」という意味で使う。

 

 

 

  1. 有効・無効

 

  1. become valid

A change in the articles of incorporation, sanction rules, or dispute resolution rules of an Association does not become valid without the authorization of the competent minister.

協会の定款、制裁規程又は紛争処理規程の変更は、主務大臣の認可を受けなければ、その効力を生じない。◆【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム

 

  1. become effective

After any disposition under the preceding Article has become effective, no person who was an official or member of the Organization on or after the date on which the Terroristic Subversive Activity occasioning the disposition was committed shall perform any act in the interest of the Organization; provided that this does not apply to any act which is deemed necessary for litigation involving the validity of the disposition or for the liquidation or winding up of the property or affairs of the Organization.

前条の処分が効力を生じた後は、当該処分の原因となつた暴力主義的破壊活動が行われた日以後当該団体の役職員又は構成員であつた者は、当該団体のためにするいかなる行為もしてはならない。但し、その処分の効力に関する訴訟又は当該団体の財産若しくは事務の整理に通常必要とされる行為は、この限でない。

 

  1. 対象が義務・責任

    1. 義務を課す

      1. impose obligation on ~

前二項の条件は、指定又は許可に係る事項の確実な実施を図るため必要な最小限度のものに限り、かつ、指定又は許可を受ける者不当な義務を課することとならないものでなければならない。

The conditions set forth in the two preceding paragraphs shall be limited to the minimum necessary to ensure the enforcement of matters pertaining to the designation or permission, and shall not impose an undue obligation on the person obtaining the designation or permission.

 

 

 

  1. 責任を負う、債務を負う、債務を負担する

 

be liable for 人

人に対して責任がある

 

be liable to do

~する責任がある

 
     

 

You are liable for the cost of repairs. 修理は有償となります.

 

  1. undertake obligations 義務を負う

・Licensee agrees to enforce all reasonable regulations and precautions to cause its officers and other employees to undertake the same obligations as stipulated in this Paragraph __. : 《契約書》ライセンシーは、自己の役員および社員が第_条の規定と同様の義務を負うように、あらゆる妥当な規制および事前措置を講じることに同意する。

 

  1. be responsible for ~ ~に関する責任を負う(~に関して責任を負う)

We are not responsible for any defects or malfunction due to your invalid operation.

不正な操作によって発生した欠陥や機能不良に関する責任は一切負いません。

 

  1. bear liability against

(2) A member shall bear liability against a Financial Instruments Membership Corporation within the limit of amount of the contribution, in addition to the liability for expenses prescribed in its articles of incorporation and the liability for damages which said member has caused to the Financial Instruments Membership Corporation.

2 会員の金融商品会員制法人に対する責任は、定款に定める経費及び当該会員が当該金融商品会員制法人に与えた損害の負担のほか、その出資額を限度とする。

 

  1. owe

(2) In order to provide for the matters in a reorganization plan under the provision of the preceding paragraph, consent shall be required from the person who will owe the debt or provide the security.

2 更生計画において、前項の規定による定めをするには、債務を負担し、又は担保を提供する者の同意を得なければならない。

 

  1. assume ラテン語「装う」の意 (AS‐+sūmere 「つかむ,取る」);

(d) if the guarantor assumes the debt jointly and severally with the principal debtor, a statement to that effect.

ニ 保証人が主たる債務者と連帯して債務を負担するときは、その旨

 

A trust property administrator, when performing the duties, shall assume the same duties and liabilities as a trustee.

信託財産管理者は、その職務を行うに当たっては、受託者と同一の義務及び責任を負う

 

(iii) Where the bankruptcy creditor has assumed a debt to the bankrupt after the bankrupt suspended payments, and the bankruptcy creditor knew, at the time of assumption of the debt, the fact that the bankrupt had suspended payments; provided, however, that this shall not apply if the bankrupt was not unable to pay debts at the time when the bankrupt suspended payments.

三 支払の停止があった後に破産者に対して債務を負担した場合であって、その負担の当時、支払の停止があったことを知っていたとき。ただし、当該支払の停止があった時において支払不能でなかったときは、この限りでない。

 

  1. incur (ある行為の結果として)〈負債・損失などを〉負う,受ける [ラテン語「…に突入する」の意 (IN‐2+currere 「走る」)]

incur a person’s displeasure [wrath] 人の不興を買う[怒りを招く]。

The company incurred a loss of $3 million last year. その会社は昨年 300 万ドルの損失を負った

 

The Licensor shall not be responsible for any loss, damages, costs or expenses which may be incurred by the Licensee. : 《契約書》ライセンサーは、ライセンシーが被る損失・損害賠償・費用に対する責任を負わないものとする。

•expenses actually and reasonably incurred by someone with respect to

~に関連して(人)が実質的かつ合理的に支出した経費

 

Men contract debts ; they incur liabilities. In the one case, they act affirmatively; in the other, the liability is incurred or cast upon them by act or operation of law. “Incur”

 

 

  1. 他者の行為について責任を負う

 

take full responsibility for someone’s action

(人)の行いに対して全責任を負う

 

In the case of having caused damage to third parties through an act outside the scope of the purpose of a religious corporation, the representative director or any other representative who has performed such act and any directors, their substitutes, or temporary directors who approved the resolution pertaining to such matter shall be jointly and severally liable to compensate for such damage.

宗教法人の目的の範囲外の行為に因り第三者に損害を加えたときは、その行為をした代表役員その他の代表者及びその事項の決議に賛成した責任役員、その代務者又は仮責任役員は、連帯してその損害を賠償する責任を負う。

 

A Foreign Company shall be liable for damage caused to third parties by its representatives in Japan during the course of the performance of their duties.

外国会社は、その日本における代表者がその職務を行うについて第三者に加えた損害を賠償する責任を負う。

 

 

  1. 債務免除

 

     

relieve [release]

 

relieve someone from his obligation(人)の責任を放免する

relieve someone from any obligations expressly assumed by someone under this agreement 本契約書において(人)が明示的に負担する義務から(人)を免除する

relieve someone from fulfiling the obligations(人)を義務の履行から解放する

release

(~を…から)

 

absolve

(人を義務などから)

 

excuse

   

exempt

(義務などから人を)

No enterprise or trade association may be exempted from the liability provided in the preceding paragraph by proving the non-existence of intention or negligence on its part.

事業者及び事業者団体は、故意又は過失がなかつたことを証明して、前項に規定する責任を免れることができない。

exonerate

(義務・責任などから人を)

 

forgive

   

separate

(仕事や軍務などから人を)

 

free someone from an obligation

(人)の責務を解除する

 

 

  1. discharge

discharge someone from a debt (人)の債務を免除する

discharge someone from his debt (人)の負債を免除する

discharge of debts 債務免除

She decided to apply the fund to the discharge of debts. 彼女はその資金を借金の返済に当てることにした。

 

 

  1. 遵守・厳守

Follow

それほど厳格でない(ゆるい)ルールや、提案に従う

 

observe

注意事項に従う

規則などを〉遵守する,遵奉する

observe the traffic regulations 交通法規を守る.

observe silence 沈黙を守る.

comply with

命令・同意事項に従う

(4)A worker and an employer shall comply with the labor contract and shall exercise their rights and perform their obligations in good faith.

4労働者及び使用者は、労働契約を遵守するとともに、信義に従い誠実に、権利を行使し、及び義務を履行しなければならない。

 

Maker agrees to comply with requirements set in the Specification.《契約書》メーカーは、仕様に規定された要件に従うものとする。

be governed by

州法と連邦法、刑法と民法、契約法と知的財産法、条例と協定書など、どの法律で規定されるか区別する場合

両当事者間の製品の開発および販売に関する一切の取引は、本契約書の条件に従うものとする。

Any transaction between the parties with respect to Development and sale of the Product shall be governed by these Terms and Conditions.

be bound by

~で拘束される、というニュアンス

 

abide by

順守する

 

adhere to

否応なしに固守する

〈二つの面が〉(互いにしっかりと)くっつく、〔+to+(代)名詞〕〔信仰・考え・計画などに〕執着[固執]する; 〔…を〕支持[信奉]する

Mud adhered to his shoes. 泥が彼の靴にこびりついた.

adhere to a plan 計画をあくまでも実行する.

adhere rigidly to the rules 規則を厳守する

conform to

規定に合致する

 

be subject to

 

信託の会計は、一般に公正妥当と認められる会計の慣行に従うものとする。

The accounting for a trust shall be subject to accounting practices that are generally accepted as fair and appropriate.

 

  1. 遵守義務

(1) observance obligation

(2) compliance obligation

Compliance with this principle would necessitate complete follow-up of all randomised subjects for study outcomes.〔【出典】ICHガイドライン 〕

この原則を遵守するには、臨床結果を得るためにランダム化が行われた全被験者を完全に追跡することを必要とするであろう。

  1. 遵守事項

(1) matters to be observed

(2) condition(s) [更生保護法の場合]

 

 

  1. shall be submitted to

Should the negotiations fail, the dispute shall be submitted to arbitration by Arbitration Committee of the Central Chamber of Commerce in __ and the rules of the said committee are to be followed in the arbitration procedure.

万一、交渉が決裂した場合、仲裁は_国商務省の仲裁協会が行い、仲裁協会の規則に従うものとする

 

  1. 基準に従い(~に基づく)
    1. 基準を設定する場合の注意

外部の基準に基づく義務負担は避けること。100%自分の力で成し遂げられるものだけに限られるべき。

外部の基準に基づく義務を作成する場合、その基準をよく理解すること。

 

  1. Shall conform to the standard

CSA maintenance shall conform to the standards of the United States Federa Aviation Authority (FAA).

 

  1. 数値の基準の設定

Nagano Investments Company shall pay interest of 4% over the Bank of Japan Prime Lending Rate.

 

  1. 認可・承認された approved

This new product uses UL-approved parts. この新製品は、UL対応の部品を使用している。(UL = Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.)

We sell FDA-approved supplements. 当社は、FDA対応の栄養補助食品を販売している。(FDA = Food and Drug Administration)

 

  1. 基準人の設定
    1. Objective, neutral and fair manner

(3) The Assessment of the Effect of Food on Health provided in the preceding two paragraphs shall be conducted in an objective, neutral, and fair manner on the basis of the state-of-the-art scientific knowledge of the time.

3 前二項の食品健康影響評価は、その時点において到達されている水準の科学的知見に基づいて、客観的かつ中立公正に行われなければならない。

 

  1. Objectively reasonable grounds 客観的に合理的な理由

Article 16 A dismissal shall, if it lacks objectively reasonable grounds and is not considered to be appropriate in general societal terms, be treated as an abuse of right and be invalid.

第十六条 解雇は、客観的に合理的な理由を欠き、社会通念上相当であると認められない場合は、その権利を濫用したものとして、無効とする。

 

 

  1. 違反する

 

 break the rule

 disobey the rule

 violate the rule

 

 

act [be] against 《a law》

break 《one’s promise, a contract》

disobey 《the orders》

offend against 《the rules》

【形式ばった表現】 violate 《a regulation》

•保証違反 breach of warranty

 

  1. 履行する・措置をとる・実行する/自粛する

 

execute

完了感、達成感を伴う

execute this agreement..は

「この契約を締結する(成立させる)」

implement

進行中感がある

implement this agreement..は

「この契約(で定められていること)を実施する」

enforce

To put into execution; to cause to take effect; to make effective; as, toenforce a writ, a judgment, or the collection of a debt or fine.

 

 

Implement: Put (a decision, plan, agreement, etc.) into effect: ‘the regulations implement a 1954 treaty’

•Maker agrees that it shall maintain or keep the capacity to implement the Process for a minimum period of __ years.

《契約書》メーカーは、最低_年間、製造工程の運転能力を維持することに同意する。

•This Notification Letter of Approval shall be automatically null and void by itself if you don’t make any implementation for this plan within __ years since issuing date.

《レ》この承認通知書は、発行日から_年以内にこの計画が実行されない場合、自動的に無効となります。

 

  1. fulfill an obligation債務を履行する

 

 

 

do; 主に何かを行うというケースで使用

do something/nothing/anything etc

do the laundry/ironing/dishes etc

do well/badly

 

perform; 何かの役割をこなすというケースで使用

 perform a study/experiment/analysis etc

perform a task/job/duty

perform a function/role

 perform well/badly etc

 

work; 仕事に関係するものを行う場合に使用

 work for ~

 work at/in ~

 work as ~

 work in industry/education/publishing etc

 work part-time/full-time 

 

execute; do と似ているがよりformalな場面で使用

execute somebody for something

 

fulfill; 希望や目的を達成する場合

 fulfil a hope, wish, or aim, you achieve the thing that you hoped for, wished for etc.

fulfil an aim/a goal/an objective

fulfil a role/duty/function etc

fulfil a requirement/condition/obligation etc

fulfil a promise/pledge etc

fulfil your potential/promise

fulfil yourself

put something into practice;

if you put an idea, plan etc into practice, you start to use it and see if it is effective

 

carry something ↔ out;

to do something that needs to be organized and planned 計画や予定を実行する場合

to do something that you have said you will do or that someone has asked you to do 自分が行うと言ったことを実行する場合

 

push something ↔ through;

to get a plan, law etc officially accepted, especially quickly 計画や法律などを実行する場合

 

enforce;

enforce a law/ban etc 法の施行の場合

enforce something on somebody 人に何かをさせる場合

 

practice;自分のスキルアップのために習慣的に行っていることを実行する場合、習慣として行っていることを実行する場合。

 when you do a particular thing, often regularly, in order to improve your skill at it:

 

implement;決まった手順を実行する場合

 implement a policy/plan/decision etc

 

conduct;ある情報を得たり、明確にするために特定の手順を実行する場合

to carry out a particular activity or process, especially in order to get information or prove facts

 

handle;

 to do the things that are necessary to complete a job -> do work

to deal with a situation or problem by behaving in a particular way and making particular decisions -> deal with a situation

 

 

  1. perform

(2) Where the new trustee has succeeded to the obligations prescribed in the main clause of the preceding paragraph, the new trustee shall only be liable for using property that belongs to the trust property to perform those obligations.

2 新受託者は、前項本文に規定する債務を承継した場合には、信託財産に属する財産のみをもってこれを履行する責任を負う。

 

guarantee the performance of an obligation by the principal主たる債務者が責務を履行することを保証する

 

(i) Said Futures Commission Merchant has completely repaid to the Consumer Protection Fund, from which it intends to withdraw, the liabilities it has borne as a member by the time of filing such application for approval and said Futures Commission Merchant is expected to perform the obligation prescribed in the preceding paragraph without fail.

一 当該商品取引員が、その承認の申請の時においてその脱退しようとする委託者保護基金に対し会員として負担する債務を完済しており、かつ、前項に規定する義務を履行することが確実と見込まれること。

 

  1. (業務を)執行する
    1. execute

(2) The provisions set forth in the preceding paragraph shall not preclude a Legal Professional Corporation from specifying certain members who are to execute its practice as its representatives, in accordance with its articles of incorporation or pursuant to the consent of all its members.

2 前項の規定は、定款又は総社員の同意によつて、業務を執行する社員中特に弁護士法人を代表すべき社員を定めることを妨げない。◆

 

make good(約束・義務などを)

【他動】

execute(契約を)

fulfill(約束・契約・計画などを)

honor(合意や約束を)

implement(計画・政策などを)

redeem(義務・約束を)

 

  1. 措置をとる、扱う、対処する、取り組む、実施する
    1. take the measures to ~ ~するための措置をとる

2. Each Party shall take the appropriate measures to prevent the import of hazardous wastes and other wastes if it has reason to believe that the wastes in question will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner;

当事者は、有害廃棄物及び他の廃棄物が環境上適正な方法で処理されないと信ずるに足りる理由がある場合には、当該有害廃棄物及び他の廃棄物の輸入を防止するため、適当な措置をとる

 

 

  1. implement necessary measures必要な措置を講じる

the Representative Director of the Stock Company shall implement measures in lieu of the affixing of the signature (会社法682 条3 項) 【例】株式会社の代表取締役が…署名…に代わる措置をとらなければならない

 

 

 

  1. 対象が手続、手順、措置

 

  1. carry out the procedures

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1), a foreign national shall not be required to appear at a regional immigration bureau in the event that the director of the regional immigration bureau finds the nonappearance reasonable. In this case, a travel agent whom the director of the regional immigration bureau finds appropriate shall submit the written application provided for in paragraph (1) and carry out the procedures provided for in paragraph (2).

4 第一項の規定にかかわらず、地方入国管理局長において相当と認める場合には、外国人は、地方入国管理局に出頭することを要しない。この場合においては、旅行業者で地方入国管理局長が適当と認めるものが、第一項に定める申請書の提出及び第二項に定める手続を行うものとする。

 

  1. undergo; Experience or be subjected to (something, typically something unpleasant or arduous)

he underwent a life-saving brain operation

 

  1. experience

 

 

  1. encounter; Unexpectedly experience or be faced with (something difficult or hostile)

 

  1. shall be conducted upon ~に基づいて行う

(1) A public prosecutor, a public prosecutor’s assistant officer or a judicial police official may, if necessary for investigation of an offense, conduct search, seizure or inspection upon a warrant issued by a judge. In such cases, the inspection and examination of a person shall be conducted upon a warrant for physical examination.

1 検察官、検察事務官又は司法警察職員は、犯罪の捜査をするについて必要があるときは、裁判官の発する令状により、差押、捜索又は検証をすることができる。この場合において身体の検査は、身体検査令状によらなければならない

 

  1. 対象が紛争

    1. compromise 妥協による解決

An arbiter compromised their differences. 仲裁者が彼らの争いを妥協によって解決させた。

He compromised his reputation

 

  1. 対象が期間・期限

    1. may request the extention of the Due Date 期限延長の要求

In the event the Project tender closing date (scheduled for ____) is extended, First Party shall separately notify Second Party of the extended closing date, to the extent known by the supervisor of First Party, and First Party may request additions, amendments or the extension of the Due Date of translation work according to this Agreement.

甲は、本プロジェクトの入札締め切り日(_年_月_日を予定)が延期となった場合、乙に対し、延期された締め切り日を甲担当者が分かり次第別途通知し、本契約に従い翻訳業務の追加、修正、納期延期の依頼を行うことができるものとする。

You have an option to request an extension on the payment due date by submitting a payment extension form.

《レ》支払期限延長フォームにご記入、ご郵送いただくことにより、期限を延長することができます

 

 

 

  1. 対象が情報

 

 

  1. 通知・連絡・提出

    1. 通知する、知らせる
      1. provide ~ with notice of … ~に…を通知する

provide Maker with written notice of acceptance or rejection of the commercial samples of the Products《契約書》

モーターの商品サンプルの合格/不合格について書面にてメーカーに通知する

 

  1. notify ~ of …  ~に…を知らせる[通知する](事態を知らせる、というニュアンスか??)

・Her face clouded over momentarily when she was notified of the accident. : 事故の知らせを聞いて彼女の顔は一瞬曇った。

・Management notified the labor union of its plan to rationalize operations by closing down five plants. : 経営側は労働組合に対して五つの工場を閉鎖し、操業を合理化する案を通告した。

 

 

•If an employee is sick, injured or for any reason unable to attend work, he/she must notify his/her supervisor or the General Affair & Personnel Manager before 9:00 a.m. on the first day of absent.

《就業規則》従業員が傷病などの理由により勤務できなくなった場合、休職する1日目の午前9時までに管理者または総務部長に通知しなければならない。

 

 

  1. inform A of B  AにBを連絡する

(a) Parties exercising their right to prohibit the import of hazardous wastes or other wastes for disposal shall inform the other Parties of their decision pursuant to Article 13.

有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物の処分のための輸入を禁止する権利を行使する締約国は、第13条の規定に従ってその決定他の締約国に通報する

 

  1. 連絡する、伝える

tell (一般的な意味で)相手に内容を伝える

inform (かしこまって)知らせる、報告する

relate 経験したことを順番に伝えるGive an account of (a sequence of events); narrate: ‘various versions of the chilling story have been related by the locals’

narrate Give a spoken or written account of:the tough-but-sensitive former bouncer narrates much of the story’

report 自分が調べたことを他の人に伝える Give a spoken or written account of something that one has observed, heard, done, or investigated

convey 考えたことや感じたことを伝える

give an account of

 

  1. require

 

  1. Demand

 

  1. 連絡を取り続ける
    1. maintain close contact with~ ~と緊密な連絡を取り続ける、~と親しい付き合いを続ける、~との親密な[緊密な]関係を維持する

 

(2) The Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism shall, in taking such measures set forth in the preceding paragraph, maintain close contact and coordination with heads of relevant administrative organ and domestic scheduled air transport service operators etc.

2 国土交通大臣は、前項の措置を講ずるに際しては、関係行政機関の長及び国内定期航空運送事業者等と相互に緊密に連絡し、及び協力するものとする。

 

  1. 届出
    1. notify
    2. report

 

  1. written notice/ report/ notification 届出書

 

 

  1. 提出
    1. Submit ~ to 人 

direction to submit written answer (民事訴訟規則201 条) 答弁書提出命令

order to submit a document文書提出命令

 

  1. produce [証拠等]

 

  1. advance [攻撃防御方法]

 

  1. (電子メールを)送信する

transmit electronic mail 電子メールを送信する

 

 

  1. 記録する

    1. 記録する

 

  1. record〈…を〉記録する,書き留める; 登録する.

I record my thoughts and experiences in my diary. 私は自分の思想や経験を日記に記録している.

 

  1. 対象が事実

    1. 保証する、確実にする、確保する

      1. ensure確実に~する

ensure a predictable result 予想通りの結果を確実にもたらす

ensure an optimum result 至適結果を確実に得る

•Place the coated side of the paper face up to ensure an acceptable result. 《マニュアル》用紙のコーティング面を上にしないと良い印刷結果が得られません。

•ensure a mutually beneficial result for both parties 双方[両者]にとって有益な[メリットのある]結果を出すことを約束する

•ensure someone’s desired end result (人)が望んでいる最終結果を確実にもたらす

•to help ensure accurate test results より正確な検査結果を得られるように

•ensure effective implementation of~の効果的な履行を確保する

•ensure full implementation of~の完全履行を確保する

•ensure implementation of the peace agreement和平合意の履行を確保する

•ensure the continuous and proper implementation継続的かつ適切な履行を確保する

 

The Security Council must ensure that both Israel and Hamas report to them on the progress of their investigations and prosecutions.

安保理は、イスラエルとハマスの両者に対し自らの調査と訴追の進捗状況について確実に報告させなければならない。

 

Seller and Buyer ensure that without the consent of the other party, no information regarding the extent and nature of this Agreement and/or technical information exchanged between themselves in the course of the implementation of this Agreement, will be brought to the knowledge of any third party.

《契約書》いずれの当事者も他の当事者の同意を得ずに、本契約の範囲および性質、および/または本契約の期間中に当事者間で交わした技術情報を第三者に開示しないことに同意する

 

Employee should be careful when accepting gifts from clients, salesmen, consultants, etc. to ensure that the giving and receiving of the gift was not intended or accepted as a bribe.

《就業規則》従業員は、顧客、営業担当者、コンサルタントなどから贈答品を受け取るときは、贈答品が贈賄目的ではないことを確認しなければならない。

 

The last person leaving the office is responsible for checking the entrance door to ensure that it is locked.

《就業規則》最後にオフィスを出る者は、入り口のドアが施錠されていることを確認する義務がある。

 

  1. assure

1a〔+目的語+of+(代)名詞〕〈人に〉〔…を〕保証する,請け合う 《★【比較】 1b のほうが一般的》.

用例 I can assure you of his sincerity. 彼の誠実なことはあなたに請け合うよ (cf. assure 1b).

b〔+目的語+(that)〕〈人に〉〈…だと〉保証する,確かに〈…だと〉言う.

用例 I can assure you that he’s sincere. 彼が誠実なことはあなたに請け合うよ (cf. assure 1a).

I assure you I won’t let you down. 大丈夫あなたを失望させることはないよ.

c[I (can) assure you で主な文に並列的または挿入的に用いて] 大丈夫,確かに.

用例 Her conversation, I can assure you, is very entertaining. 彼女の会話は確かにとてもおもしろい.

  1. Insure
  2. secure
  3. guarantee

 

  1. make sure

 

  1. warrant that ~

ABC warrants
that the Software will substantially conform to its user manual, as it exists on the date of your purchase, for a period of __ days from the date of your purchase.

《使用許諾契約書》ABC社は、ユーザーが本ソフトウェアを購入後_日間、購入日の状態と同様に本ソフトウェアがそのユーザーマニュアルに合致していることを保証します。

 

  1. 保証違反 breach of warranty

If a warranty is breached the innocent party may claim damages but can not end the contract:

 

 

  1. 確定する

確定する

become final and binding

 

  1. 証明する、証明しうる

    1. Verify

・verify the authenticity of a payment order 支払い要求が正規のものであることを証明する

・a verifying party 認証者

・MO drives verify the written data after recording. MO ドライブは記録後に書き込まれたデータの照合をする.

 

  1. as evidenced by ~ ~で証明できる

as evidenced by the fact that 〔that以下〕という事実から明らかなように

information which is in the possession of Licensee before the disclosure by Licensor hereunder as evidenced by written documents

《契約書》ライセンサーが開示する前にライセンシーが所有していたことを文書で証明できる情報

She was furious, as evidenced by her slamming the door.

 

  1. prove

Where a person who was served the document stipulated in Article 24 (1) has appointed an agent to express his/her opinion or submit evidence pursuant to the provisions of Article 49 (3) of the Act, when the agent is an attorney-at-law or a law firm, the agent shall prove his/her authority to act in that capacity by means of a written document.

第二十四条第一項の文書の送達を受けた者が法第四十九条第三項の規定により意見を述べ、又は証拠を提出するに当たって代理人を選任した場合において、代理人が弁護士又は弁護士法人であるときは、代理人はその権限を文書をもって証明しなければならない。

 

  1. 状況を調査する

~における病院の状況を調査する

examine the situation of hospitals in 

 

~に関する状況を調査する

study the situation regarding

 

 ~の推進状況を調査する

study the implementation status of

 

 ~の状況を調査する

make investigation of the status of

 

 ~の現在の状況を調査する

explore the present situation of

 

 (人)の死を取り巻く状況を調査する

examine the circumstances surrounding someone’s death

 

 

 

  1. 対象が計画・期待・目標

fall short

〔要求・期待・目標・水準・基準などに〕及ばない、達しない、届かない、足りない、不十分である

表現パターンcome [fall] short

 

A joint AI-Global Witness report and survey of the diamond industry has shown that the diamond industry continues to fall short of implementing basic measures of industry self- regulation it has promised to adopt.

アムネスティとグローバル・ウィットネスが共同で発表したダイヤモンド企業に関する共同報告書および調査は、ダイヤモンド企業が、自ら約束したはずの自主規制の基本的措置を実施し切れていないということを示した。

 

 

  1. 立証責任

 

bear the burden of proof立証責任を負う

have the burden of proof(主語に)立証責任がある

The burden of proof is on 立証責任は(人)の側にある

 

 

  1. 意思行為

    1. 一方的意思行為(賛成、同意、通知、要求、反対など)

      1. Agree (Vi, 「うん」とうなづく動作)

Agreeは自動詞(「うん」とうなづく動作)。同意対象Agree with

 

  1. Agree toとAgree that

agree以下の主語がagreeする人達と同じときはagree to、違うときはagree thatの形をとります。

Japan and Turkey agreed that Iran should not possess nuclear weapons and that they will seek a solution to the problem through diplomatic not military means.

Japan and Turkey have agreed to strengthen bilateral cooperation in stabilizing Afghanistan and dealing with Iran’s nuclear development problem.

The two forein ministers agreed that their countries will step up cooperation for Afghanistan by setting up joint working groups between their ministries.

The government has agreed not to apply its sanctions against North Korea to that country’s woman soccer team, so that they can join in an international soccer tournament in Tokyo in February.

 

  1. assent

同意(する)、賛成(する)、賛同(する)、承認(する)、承知(する)、受諾(する)、協賛(する)、納得(する)、一致(する)

 

 

  1. concur (vi)

concur with someone’s proposal (人)の提案に同意する

 

 

  1. contradict 反対する

音節con・tra・dict 発音記号/kὰntrədíkt|k`ɔn‐/音声を聞く

 

【動詞】 【他動詞】

1a〈陳述・報道などを〉否認する,否定する; 〈…が〉正しくない[間違っている]と言明する 《★【類語】 ⇒deny》.

用例 The statement has been officially contradicted. その声明は公式に否定された.

b〈人(の言葉)に〉反対する,逆らう.

用例 I’m sorry to contradict you, but… お言葉を返すようですが….

2a〈事実・陳述が〉〈…と〉矛盾する.

用例 The two accounts contradict each other. その二つの報告は互いに矛盾している.

b[contradict oneself で] 矛盾したことを言う.

【自動詞】

1反対の意見を述べる,反駁(はんばく)する.

2〈二つの事が〉矛盾する,相反する.

用例 The two accounts contradict. その二つの報告は矛盾する 《★【比較】 【他動詞】 2a を用いるほうが一般的》.

【語源】ラテン語「反論する」の意 (CONTRA‐+dīcere 「言う」); 【名詞】 contradiction,【形容詞】 contradictory

 

  1. Intent

Intentは意思に過ぎず、ConsentやAgreementとは異なる。

•intent of the invention 発明の意図

•intent of the parties 当事者の意図

•intent of the provision 規定の趣旨

 

  1. acquiescence  おとなしく従うこと、黙諾

 

 

  1. 許可、認可、承認、権限付与

 

  1. Permit (法律上、ルール上問題無しとして)することを認める、許可する

permitは法律上、ルール上問題がないので「〜すること」を認める。または許可する。(letやallowに似ていますが、これらは法律やルールなどは考慮せず、勝手に〜させておくというように、自由・放置のニュアンスが感じられます。)

 

 

  1. Approve (申し入れや依頼の内容に賛同して)承認、認可する

approveは、申し入れや依頼があった際に、その内容に同意・賛同をもって正式に受け入れる。

 

1〈…を〉よいと認める,〈…に〉賛成する.

He approved the scheme. 彼はその案に賛成した.

2〈…を〉(正式に)承認する,認可する.

The committee approved the budget. 委員会は予算案を承認した.

 

【自動詞】 〔+of+(代)名〕〔…に〕賛成する,満足の意を表わす,〔…を〕満足に思う 《★受身可》.

His father did not approve of his choice. 彼の父は息子の選択を快く思わなかった.

I don’t approve of cousins marrying. いとこ同士の結婚には賛成しない.

[ラテン語 approbāre 「認める」から (AP‐+probāre 「認める」); 【名詞】 approval,approbation]

 

  1. Permitとapprove

“permit”は「発行される許可証」のようなもので、単に条件を満たしていればOKが出るもので、対して”approval”は、何かの要請があったときに、会議などで検討された結果、認可される、というもの、という区別があるように思います。

 

 

  1. Authorize (上位者が下位者に対し権限・権利を)与える

 

authorizeは上の二つと比較すると難しいですが、権限・権利を与える、といった感じで、明白に上下関係を感じます。また、同意や賛同は必ずしもあるとは言えません。

 

  1. concede

 

  1. concession

A grant; ordinarily applied to the grant of specific privileges by a government; French and Spanish grants in Louisiana. See Western M. & M. Co. v. Peytona Coal Co., 8 W. Va. 44a CONCESSIT SOLVERE 237 CONCORDAT

 

  1. mandate

【名詞】【可算名詞】

[通例単数形で]

1(選挙民が議会などへ与える)権限.

用例 The party has a mandate to implement these policies. その政党にこれらの政策を実施する権限がある.

2命令,指令; 任務.

3(上級裁判所から下級裁判所への)職務執行令状.

4委任統治(領).

【動詞】 【他動詞】

1〈…に〉〈…する〉権限を与える 〈to do〉.

2〈領土を〉〔…の〕委任統治に指定する 〔to〕.

【語源】

ラテン語「手にゆだねる」の意; 【形容詞】 mandatory

 

  1. 双方的意思行為(合意、協議)

 

  1. 協議する
     

consult

[vi]相手は専門家などの相談相手

The doctor consulted with his colleagues about the operation on the patient. 医師は患者の手術のことで同僚と相談した.

Below they consulted together; 下で一同集って相談をしたところ

confer

[vi]対等な相手

The president conferred with his advisers on the matter.

     
     

 

 

  1. deliberate[審議・評議等]

 

 

  1. negotiate

In the event the pre-production samples meet the Specification, but do not function, the parties shall negotiate needed amendments to the Development Schedule, Specification and the Development Cost.《契》

試作サンプルが仕様に適合するものの、機能しないときは、両当事者は、開発スケジュール、仕様、開発費に必要とされる修正について協議するものとする。

 

 

  1. Meet and confer concerning ~

ABC and KVC agree to meet and confer concerning extension of the term of this Agreement no later than three (3) months prior to its expiry.

In case either party is likely to breach this contract, both parties shall meet and confer concerning response to such case.

 

  1. agree [合意]

協議上の離婚divorce by agreement (民法767 条)

 

  1. 協議の上決定する shall be settled upon consultation

Any question arising out of, or in connection with, this Agreement or any matter not stipulated herein shall be settled each time upon consultation between both parties.《契》この契約に関する疑義が生じたとき、または、この契約に定めのない事項については、その都度甲乙協議の上決定するものとする

Any matter not stipulated herein shall be determined through mutual consultation at the Executive Meeting.《契約書》この規約に定めない事項については、幹事会で協議の上決定するものとする。

 

 

  1. 契約する
    1. contract

 

 

  1. undertake

A promise, engagement, or stipulation. Each of the promises made by the parties to a contract, considered independently and not as mutual, may, in this sense, be denominated an “undertaking.” “Undertaking” is frequently used in the special sense of a promise given in the course of legal proceedings by a party or his counsel, generally as a condition to obtaining some concession from the court or the opposite party. Sweet.

「約束」の意味。片務であり双務ではない場合、契約当事者間の約束は”undertaking”と呼ばれる。”undertaking”は、法的手続において当事者またはそのカウンセルから与えられた約束(一般には法廷または相手方当事者の許諾を取得した状態)という、特別な意味で用いられる。

 

  1. engage

In French law. A contract. The obligation arising from a quasi contract The terms “obligation” and “engagement” are said to be synonymous, (17 Toullier,no. 1;) but the Code seems specially to apply the term “engagement” to those obligations which the law imposes on a man without the intervention of any contract,either on the part of the obligor or the obligee, (article 1370.) An engagement to do or omit to do something amounts to a promise. Rue v. Rue, 21 N. J. Law, 309.In English practice. The term has been appropriated to denote a contract entered into by a married woman with the intention of binding or charging her separate estate,or, with stricter accuracy, a promise which in the case of a person sui juris would be a contract. but in the case of a married woman is not a contract because she cannot bind herself personally, even in equity. Her engagements, therefore, merely operate as dispositions or appointments pro tanto of her separate estate.

 

  1. 解除・解約・取消・撤回・無効

 

  1. Verbs

rescission or cancellation

解除

rescission of contract 解約、契約の解除[取り消し]

right of rescission 契約解除権

termination

解約

upon termination of the agreement 契約終了時に

revoke

取消

decision to revoke the patent 特許を取り消すべき旨の決定

exercise the right to revoke contracts 契約の取り消し権を行使する

withdrawal

撤回

 

invalid

無効

 

Defease

Vt; 無効

What is DEFEASANCE?

An instrument which defeats the force or operation of some otherdeed or estate. That which is in the same deed is called a “condition;” and that which is in another deed is a “defeasance.” Com. Dig. “Defeasance.”In conveyancing. A collateral deed made at the same time with a feoffment or otherconveyance, containing certain conditions, upon the performance of which the estatethen created may be defeated or totally undone.

 

rescission:取消

解除

 

契約を締結させるために行われた表示が虚偽(misrepresentation)であった場合、衡平法上の救済として契約取消権が認められる。

 
 

In contract law, rescission has been defined as the unmaking of a contract between parties.[1] Rescission is the unwinding of a transaction. This is done to bring the parties, as far as possible, back to the position in which they were before they entered into a contract (the status quo ante).

 
     

 

 

  1. Adj; null and void    無効

Any assignment or transfer without such consent shall be null and void.

かかる同意がない譲渡は無効とする

 

 

 

  1. Vt; revoke〈命令・約束・免許などを〉取り消す,廃止する,無効にする,解約する

He had his driving license revoked. 彼は運転免許証を取り上げられた.

•revoke a contract 契約を破棄する

•revoke a someone’s authority (人)の権限を取り消す

•revoke an agreement 協定を解約する

•revoke an injunction 差し止め命令を取り消す

•revoke an order 注文を取り消す、命令を撤回する

 

  1. 代表する、代理する

    1. represent

A liquidator shall represent the Specific Purpose Company in Liquidation; provided, however, that this shall not apply to cases where any other Representative Liquidator (meaning a liquidator representing the Specific Purpose Company in Liquidation; the same shall apply hereinafter) or any other person who represents the Specific Purpose Company in Liquidation has been specified.

清算人は、清算特定目的会社を代表する。ただし、他に代表清算人(清算特定目的会社を代表する清算人をいう。以下同じ。)その他清算特定目的会社を代表する者を定めた場合は、この限りでない。◆【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム

 

The president shall represent the Consignor Protection Membership Corporation and preside over its affairs.

理事長は、委託者保護会員制法人を代表し、その業務を総理する。

The president shall represent the Corporation and preside over its business.

理事長は、機構を代表し、その業務を総理する。

 

The chief defense counsel or deputy chief defense counsel shall represent all other defense counsel in the receipt of notices and the delivery of documents to other defense counsel.

主任弁護人又は副主任弁護人は、弁護人に対する通知又は書類の送達について他の弁護人を代表する。

 

  1. 準意思行為(判断・決定・評価・指定・指示・考慮・)

    1. 判断、決定

 

(1) ruling [手続内での決定・証拠の採否, 手続に関する申立ての許可・不許可などについての裁判所の判断]

(2) decision [事実問題・法律問題の双方を考慮して得られた結論(司法判断のほか行政判断等にも用いられる)]

(3) order [裁判形式としての「決定」]

 

  1. 判断する

calculate(結果などを)

estimate(人や物事を)

evaluate(~の重要性や品質などを)

gauge(人の能力や性格などを)

judge〈話〉(人の意見などを熟慮して)

 

  1. Find

However, as they found they could not complete the integration process by October, they have decided to delay the merger of their core banking units for three months.しかし、10月までに統合作業を完了できないと判断し、主要な銀行部門の統合を3カ月間遅らせることを決めました。

 

  1. Settle 決定する

Any question arising out of, or in connection with, this Agreement or any matter not stipulated herein shall be settled each time upon consultation between both parties.《契》この契約に関する疑義が生じたとき、または、この契約に定めのない事項については、その都度甲乙協議の上決定するものとする。

 

  1. determine

Any matter not stipulated herein shall be determined through mutual consultation at the Executive Meeting.《契約書》この規約に定めない事項については、幹事会で協議の上決定するものとする。

 

  1. 認める、評価する

    1. recognize

前条の規定による懲戒の処分は、聴聞を行った後、相当な証拠により同条に該当する事実があると認めた場合において、審議会の意見を聴いて行う。

The disciplinary disposition pursuant to the provision of the preceding Article shall be made after hearing the opinions of the council in a case where it has been recognized that there are grounds for a patent attorney to fall under the preceding Article with reasonable evidence after having conducted a hearing.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

委員会は、正当な理由があると認めた場合には、職権又は申立てにより、前項第三号の期限を延長することができる。

Where the Commission has recognized that there is a justifiable reason to do so, it may extend the deadline stipulated in item (iii) of the preceding paragraph on its own authority or upon petition.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

 

  1. find

 

 

  1. approve

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 37 to the preceding Article inclusive, this shall not apply in cases where the Minister of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism approves that there is no hindrance in that regard.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

第百三十七条から前条までの規定にかかわらず、国土交通大臣が支障がないと認めた場合は、この限りでない。

 

 

  1. evaluate A as B AをBと評価する

evaluate dreams as the most important source of

夢は~に関する最も重要な情報源であると評価する[みなしている・考えている]

 

 

  1. When it is evaluated that ~, or there is any potential for such circumstances 又はそのおそれがあると認められる場合

When it is evaluated that the Client Account or other Individual Transaction is utilized for the activities which violate the Laws and Regulations or the public order and morality, or there is any potential for such circumstances in the Bank’s judgment;

⑥お客様口座、又は他の個別取引が、当行の判断において、対象法令又は公序良俗に反する行為に利用され、又はそのおそれがあると認められる場合

 

 

  1. 確認する

    1. shall confirm

A worker and an employer shall confirm the contents of the labor contract (including matters concerning a fixed-term labor contract), whenever possible in writing.

労働者及び使用者は、労働契約の内容(期間の定めのある労働契約に関する事項を含む。)について、できる限り書面により確認するものとする

 

Both parties shall confirm the commercial production date, in writing, as soon as it is achieved.《契約書》

両当事者は、かかる数量を達成したとき、ただちに書面にて量産開始日を確認する

 

 

  1. 指定する、指名する、選任する

    1. Specify 指定する

Maker will further mark the massproduced Products with such codes which Buyer shall specify and maintain such recording systems which enable the traceability of the Products.《契約書》

メーカーは、量産する製品に買い手が指定するコードを付け、製品の追跡調査を容易にするための記録システムを管理するものとする。

  1. appoint / assign / designate / nominate

appointもassignも「〈人を〉〔役職や任務に〕任命する.」という概念を共有していますが、それぞれの派生語からニュアンスの違いを感じ取るのが分かり易い。

・ Appoint => Appointment(指定された日時の約束事、予約、任命)

指名した人を指定した役職に就任させるとの権威を持った決定

・ Assign => Assignment(宿題、割り当てられた仕事、任命)

特定の人に特定の役職・任務を割り当てる(配属する)

Designateはdesignから派生しています。Designの持つ計画する,立案する; 企てる、〈…する〉つもりであるという概念を引き継いで、「…との計画を持って指名した」、「…とのつもりで(専任として)指定した」というニュアンスを持っています。The President has designated him as the next secretary of state. 大統領は彼を次期国務長官に指名している。(まだなっていない)実際に任命する場合は、appointです。

Designated hitterは(守備をしないで)打撃に専念する野球選手。Designated driverは(お酒を飲まないで)運転に専念する人。

 

ここまで調べると、設問には含まれていませんでしたが、nominateも同じ仲間に加えてやる必要がある思われます。また「指名」は色々な意味で使われている広い概念を持った日本語で、英語=>日本語で「指名」になっても、指名を英訳するときは厳格にその意味を限定しないと間違えてしまう危険があることも分かります。

 

  1. have a supervisor 責任者を選任する

Furthermore, when you hire more than 10 non-Japanese nationals as regular employees, you are required to have a supervisor responsible for the foreign employees.

なお、外国人を常勤として10人以上雇用する場合は、外国人労働者雇用労務責任者の選任が必要となります。

 

  1. appoint a controller 責任者を選任する

(iii) The purport and the name of the overall safety and health controller when it is required to appoint an overall safety and health controller pursuant to the provision of Article 15 of the Act.〔【出典】日本法令外国語訳データベースシステム 〕

三 法第十五条の規定により統括安全衛生責任者を選任しなければならないときは、その旨及び統括安全衛生責任者の氏名

 

 

  1. designate とspecify

to designateはある意図をもってグループの中から選ぶ、選択する、指定するという意味があるようです。

to specifyにはそういうグループ的なニュアンスはないようです。

 

【動詞】 【他動詞】

1〈…を〉(明確に)示す,指示する.

用例 The red lines on the map designate main roads. この地図で赤線は主要な道路を示している.

2a〔+目的語+(as) 補語〕〈人などを〉〈…に〉指名する,選定する; 任じる 《★しばしば受身で用いる》.

用例 The President has designated him (as) the next secretary of state. 大統領は彼を次期国務長官に指名している.

He has been designated (as) my successor. 彼は私の後継者に指名された.

b〔+目的語+前置詞+(代)名詞〕〈人などを〉〔任務・官職などに〕任命する 〔for,to〕.

用例 Who was designated for [to] the command? だれが指揮官に任命されたか.

c〔+目的語+to do〕〈人などに〉〈…するように〉指名する,任じる.

用例 He designated me to work under [for] him. 彼は私に彼の部下として仕事をするように指名した.

3〔+目的語+(as) 補語〕〈…を〉〈…と〉名づける,呼ぶ.

用例 The ruler of a monarchy is designated (as) king or queen. 君主国の統治者は王または女王と呼ばれる.

 

 

  1. 指示する

    1. indicate

(ii) In addition to the administrative affairs listed in the preceding item, where the Minister of Finance and the minister having jurisdiction over the business have indicated
otherwise, administrative affairs involving noting the shortened period on a certificate of receipt of the notification on the day that they have indicated.

二 前号に掲げる事務のほか、財務大臣及び事業所管大臣が別に指示した場合における当該指示した日に届出受理証に短縮の期間を記入する事務

 

  1. give an instruction

(ii) In addition to the affair set forth in the preceding item, the affair of writing the period to be shortened in a certificate of receipt of a notification on the day instructed, when the Minister of Finance and the minister having jurisdiction over the business have given an instruction
separately.

二 前号に掲げる事務のほか、財務大臣及び事業所管大臣が別に指示した場合における当該指示した日に届出受理証に短縮の期間を記入する事務

 

  1. instruct

(v) An act of failing to use a safety belt without any proper reason in a take-off, landing, or any other case where the pilot in chief instructs the use of it.

五 離着陸時その他機長が安全バンドの装着を指示した場合において、安全バンドを正当な理由なく装着しない行為

 

  1. 考慮する/考慮しない

 

  1. X is to be disregarded

(2) The fact that the parties have their places of business in different States is to be disregarded whenever this fact does not appear either from the contract or from any dealings between or from information disclosed by, the parties at any time before or at the conclusion of the contract.

(2) 当事者の営業所が異なる国に所在するという事実は、その事実が、契約から認められない場合又は契約の締結時以前における当事者間のあらゆる取引関係から若しくは契約の締結時以前に当事者によって明らかにされた情報から認められない場合には、考慮しない

 

  1. Yの決定にあたりXを考慮する X is to be taken into consideration in determining Y

(3) Neither the nationality of the parties nor the civil or commercial character of the parties or of the contract is to be taken into consideration in determining the application of this Convention.

(3) 当事者の国籍及び当事者又は契約の民事的又は商事的な性質は、この条約の適用を決定するに当たって考慮しない。

 

 

 

  1. 理解・認識

figure out, understand,

 

 

  1. 異議がある

(9) When the Governor concerned receives the application set forth in the preceding paragraph, he/she shall notify the person pertaining to the application to the effect that if the person has an objection, he/she should offer it within a certain period of time.

9 都道府県知事は、前項の申請を受けたときは、その申請に係る者に対して、異議があれば一定の期間内に申し出るべき旨を催告しなければならない。

 

  1. 異議を述べる

(2) The bankrupt may make an objection in writing to the court, within the ordinary period for investigation, with regard to the amount of the bankruptcy claim set forth in the preceding paragraph.

2 破産者は、一般調査期間内に、裁判所に対し、前項の破産債権の額について、書面で、異議を述べることができる。

 

 

  1. 読み替え規定、読替適用

「擬制する」ではない。英文では推定とみなすの区別はない。

Unless otherwise proved by the party

 

  1. 読み替えて適用する

    1. 個別契約書に別の基本契約を読み替え適用する

The “Basic Agreement”, which was made and between ABC, DEF dated Jan 1st 2000, shall apply mutatis mutandis, deeming the word “ABC” of the Basic Agreement as “XYZ”.

The “Basic Agreement”, which was made and between ABC, DEF dated Jan 1st 2000, shall apply mutatis mutandis to the individual contract regarding the order, deeming the word “ABC” of the Basic Agreement as “XYZ”.

 

  1. 読み替えるものとする

    1. A shall be deemed to be replaced with B        AはBに読み替えるものとする

(2) As regards the application of provisions listed in the left column of the following table concerning the accreditation listed in the preceding paragraph, the terms listed in the middle column of the table shall be deemed to be replaced with the terms listed in the right column.

2 前項の認定についての次の表の上欄に掲げる規定の適用については、これらの規定中同表の中欄に掲げる字句は、それぞれ同表の下欄に掲げる字句に読み替えるものとする

 

Until the date of whichever registration filed under Article 293 of the New Act first becomes effective, with regard to the application of the provisions of Article 80, paragraph (2), item (iii), the term “Consignor Protection Fund” in the same item shall be deemed to be replaced with “the Association of Compensation Funds for Consigned Liabilities in Commodity Futures, Inc. (hereinafter referred to as the “Association of Compensation Funds”) established on October 31, 1975.”

新法第二百九十三条の登録のうち最初のものの効力が生じる日までの間は、第八十条第二項第三号の規定の適用については、同号中「委託者保護基金」とあるのは、「昭和五十年十月三十一日に設立された社団法人商品取引受託債務補償基金協会(以下「補償基金協会」という。)」と読み替えるものとする

 

  1. In this case the term ” ” shall be deemed to be replaced with ” ”

(12) The provisions of Article 39-12, paragraph (2) and paragraph (3) shall apply mutatis mutandis where the provisions of paragraph (9) or paragraph (10) shall apply. In this case the term “50 percent or more” in paragraph (2) and paragraph (3) of the said Article shall be deemed to be replaced with “over 50 percent.”

12 第三十九条の十二第二項及び第三項の規定は、第九項又は第十項の規定を適用する場合について準用する。この場合において、同条第二項及び第三項中「百分の五十以上の」とあるのは、「百分の五十を超える」と読み替えるものとする。

 

  1. AはBに含まれるものとみなす

    1. In the case of applying the provisions, A shall be deemed to be included in B    AはBに含まれるものとみなす

(4) The amount listed in paragraph (2), item (i), (b) shall be, in the case of applying the provisions of Article 150, paragraph (2), item (viii) and Article 158, item (viii), (b) of the Ordinance on Accounting of Companies and Article 446, item (ii) and Article 461, paragraph (2), item (ii), (b) and item (iv) of the Companies Act, said amount shall also be deemed to be included in the amount of the treasury share value.

4 第二項第一号ロに掲げる額は、会社計算規則第百五十条第二項第八号及び第百五十八条第八号ロ並びに会社法第四百四十六条第二号並びに第四百六十一条第二項第二号ロ及び第四号の規定の適用については、当該額も、自己株式対価額に含まれるものとみなす

 

(3) The acceptance of a statement made under the provision of the preceding paragraph, for the purpose of application of the Act on Adjudication of Domestic Relations, shall be deemed to be included in the matters listed in Article 9(1), Type I, of said Act.

3 前項の規定による申述の受理は、家事審判法の適用に関しては、同法第九条第一項甲類に掲げる事項とみなす

 

 

  1. [読み替え規定]により読み替えて適用する

(4) The Minister of Labor shall listen to the opinions of the Central Labor Standards Council prior to planning the establishment or revision of the order set forth in paragraph (1) of Article 32, which applies by replacing its terms pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (1).

4 労働大臣は、第一項の規定により読み替えて適用する第三十二条第一項の命令の制定又は改正の立案をしようとするときは、あらかじめ、中央労働基準審議会の意見を聴かなければならない。

(including the case where it is applied by replacing the terms pursuant to the provisions of the preceding paragraph)

(前項の規定により読み替えて適用する場合を含む。)

 

  1. 解釈条項

    1. shall not be construed [interpreted] / Nothing shall be construed [interpreted] as ~

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as

《法律》本段落のいかなる内容も~と解釈されてはならない

Nothing stated in this Clause __ shall be construed to limit Buyer’s right to recover damages from Maker in case Maker is in delay.

《契》第_条に記載した一切の内容は、メーカーが遅延を生じた場合に買い手がメーカーに損害の補償を請求する権利を制限するものではない。

Nothing stated in this Clause __ shall be construed to limit Buyer’s right to recover damages from Maker in case of breach of Agreement.

《契》第_条に記載された一切の内容は、契約違反時に、買い手がメーカーに損害の補償を請求する権利を制限するものではない。

nothing in this paragraph shall be interpreted as

《法律》本段落のいかなる内容も~と解釈されてはならない

 

  1. A shall include B    AにはBを含む

(2) The labor contract without a definite period set forth in the preceding paragraph shall include such a labor contract with a definite period that is repeatedly renewed and is therefore reasonably deemed to be a labor contract without a definite period under socially accepted conventions.

2 前項の期間の定めのない労働契約には、反復して更新されることによって期間の定めのない労働契約と同視することが社会通念上相当と認められる期間の定めのある労働契約を含むものとする。

 

  1. The provisions of A shall not be interpreted to exclude the application of B    AはBを妨げるものと解してはならない

The provisions of Article 4, paragraphs (1) to (3) shall not be interpreted to exclude
the application of Article 96 of the Civil Code (Act No. 89 of 1896) to the manifestation of an intention to offer or accept a Consumer Contract falling under these paragraphs.

第四条第一項から第三項までの規定は、これらの項に規定する消費者契約の申込み又はその承諾の意思表示に対する民法(明治二十九年法律第八十九号)第九十六条の規定の適用を妨げるものと解してはならない。

 

  1. When there is a contradictory stipulation in B, A shall control

When there is a contradictory stipulation in another law, the provisions of this law shall control. 他の法律の規定と矛盾する場合は、この法律の規定が優先する

 

  1. 【:=】定義条項

 

  1. 「および」はandではなくor(集合論のUNION)

 

       

AおよびB

A∪B

A or B

 

AまたはB

A∪B

A or B

 

A且つB

A∧B

A and B

 
       

 

 

  1. 条件分岐付定義 ”S” means A or, if ~, B; ”S”とはAをいい、~のときは、Bをいう。

18. “Generator” means any person whose activity produces hazardous wastes or other wastes or, if that person is not known, the person who is in possession and/or control of those wastes;

「発生者」とは、その活動が有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物を発生させる者をいい、その者が不明であるときは、当該有害廃棄物又は他の廃棄物を保有し又は支配している者をいう。

 

  1. 以下「…」という  hereinafter referred to as “…”

・hereinafter referred to as the “Date of Enforcement”

・collectively means  《契約書》総称して~と称する、まとめて~と呼ぶ

・hereinafter collectively called  以下これらをまとめて~と呼ぶ◆文書などで

・hereinafter collectively referred to as the “Purchaser”

 X and Y are hereinafter referred to collectively as the “Parties” and individually as a “Party”.(本契約では,XY両者を合わせて「当事者ら」といい,個別には「当事者」という。)

 

  1. (hereinafter referred to as “~” in this Article) (以下本条において「~」という)

(2) In the case where the amount of profit (excluding any reversal of liability reserve) for a business year is below the amount of costs of such business year, the Corporation shall reduce the liability reserve by and up to said amount below the amount of costs (hereinafter referred to as “Amount of Loss” in this Article) to compensate for the Amount of Loss.

2 機構は、毎事業年度の収益(責任準備金戻入を除く。)の額が当該事業年度の費用の額を下回る場合は、その下回る部分の金額(以下本条において「損失額」という。)を限度として責任準備金を取り崩し、当該損失額を補てんするものとする。

 

  1. 定義文言の位置

    1. 原則は説明文言の後ろ

 

Employers shall not assign pregnant women or women who are within one year since childbirth (hereinafter referred to as “expectant or nursing mothers”) to work involving the handling of heavy materials, work in places where harmful gas is generated, or other work injurious to pregnancy, childbirth, nursing and the like.

使用者は、妊娠中の女性及び産後一年を経過しない女性(以下「妊産婦」という。)を、重量物を取り扱う業務、有害ガスを発散する場所における業務その他妊産婦の妊娠、出産、哺育等に有害な業務に就かせてはならない。

 

  1. 定義文言の後ろの説明文言は定義に含まれない

(2) In addition to what is provided for in the preceding paragraph, a complaint shall have attached a copy of any document that is to serve as evidence (hereinafter referred to as a “copy of documentary evidence”) which is material, with regard to any grounds that require proof.

2 前項に規定するほか、訴状には、立証を要する事由につき、証拠となるべき文書の写し(以下「書証の写し」という。)で重要なものを添付しなければならない。

 

  1. 関係代名詞の非制限用法は後ろにおいてもOK

Registration affairs shall be administered by the Legal Affairs Bureau or District Legal Affairs Bureau or the branch bureau thereof or the branch office of any of those bureaus (hereinafter simply referred to as a “registry office”), which has jurisdiction over the location of the business office of the party concerned.

登記の事務は、当事者の営業所の所在地を管轄する法務局若しくは地方法務局若しくはこれらの支局又はこれらの出張所(以下単に「登記所」という。)がつかさどる。

 

  1. 後で定義する場合の表現

SELLER is willing to furnish the Product, as hereinafter defined, to BUYER.

売主は買主に対して製品(後に条項を追加する表現

 

1. Purpose. This Agreement shall apply to Confidential Information (as defined in paragraph 2 below) disclosed only for the purpose of:

 

  1. 括弧内に意味内容を記載して定義する (meaning~; the same shall apply hereinafter )

(vii) When social medical corporation bond certificates (meaning securities that represent the social medical corporation bonds; the same shall apply hereinafter) will be issued, a statement to that effect.

七 社会医療法人債券(社会医療法人債を表示する証券をいう。以下同じ。)を発行するときは、その旨

 

  1. be identified as

《be ~》~と認定[確認]される、~だと身元が判明する、~と分かる、~だとされる、~と言ってもいい

The differences in the samples for the same drug product should be identified as, for example, covering different batches, different strengths, different sizes of the same closure and possibly, in some cases, different container/closure systems.

同一製剤での試料の違いのうちには、例えば、バッチの違い、含量違い、同一の栓でサイズ違い、あるいは可能性としては、容器/栓が異なる場合などが含まれている。◆【出典】ICHガイドライン

Intermediates and APIs failing to meet established specifications should be identified as such and quarantined. 設定規格に適合しない中間体・原薬は、その旨を識別し、区分保管すること。◆【出典】ICHガイドライン

 

 

  1. 対象が適用範囲、定義

 

  1. be excluded from the scope 適用範囲から除外する

3. Wastes which, as a result of being radioactive, are subject to other international control systems, including international instruments, applying specifically to radioactive materials, are excluded from the scope of this Convention.

放射能を有することにより、特に放射性物質について適用される国際文書による規制を含む他の国際的な規制の制度の対象となる廃棄物は、この条約の適用範囲から除外する。

 

 

 

  1. Confirmation Clause    確認条項

原則を確認して疑義を払拭するための条項。

 

  1. shall not deprive someone of right    人の権利を奪うものではない

Delay or failure of notice shall not deprive the affected party of the right to claim Force Majeure.

通知の遅滞もしくは不到達があったとしても、不可抗力の影響を受けた当事者の不可抗力を主張する権利は奪われるものではない。

 

  1. ~ shall not relieve [sb] of its responsibilities ~は[sb]の責任を免れさせるものではない

Buyer has the right to approve documentation but such approval shall not relieve Seller of any of its responsibilities under the Purchase order.

 

  1. A shall not exclude B

The delay penalty shall not exclude the right to cancel the Agreement.

遅延損害賠償によって、本契約を解除する権利が除外されることはない。

 

  1. shall not precludeすることを妨げない

「なお」から始まる文書 訳しなくていい

 

 

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一般条項_権利放棄(Waiver)

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