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契約英語の基礎

 

文法理論

SUBJECTS, VERBS, BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS (主語・動詞・基本文型)

 

Basic Sentence Patterns

他動型

対象に力を及ぼす

I got a fantasic present. 

自動型

動作を表す

I got there at 3 o’clock. 

説明型

主語を説明する

John is yelling. 

授与型

手渡しを表す。

I’ll get you a nice T-shirt. 

 

SUBJECTS (主語)

STEP1:文の主題(テーマ)。主語の後ろに述語を置く。

 

どのような語句も、主語の位置にあれば、いつでも名詞扱い。但し、名詞(代名詞)以外を主語に置くと、高尚な出だしであり複雑だ、という印象を与える。したがって、主語には名詞(代名詞)を置くことが一番自然でとっつき易い滑り出しになる。

たとえば、”That he was faking his illness was obvious to everyone.”は複雑な印象だが、”The fact that he was faking his illness was obvious to everyone”とするだけでとっつき易くなる。

 

無生物主語:文をコンパクトにする方法

When we heard the news, we all became excited.(そのニュースを聞いたとき、僕らはみんなワクワクした。)

The news made us all excited.(そのニュースは僕らみんなをワクワクさせた。)

 

 

VERBS (動詞)

 

be

一般動詞

 

主語と説明語句のつなぎ

実質的な意味を持たない

実質的な意味がある

 

主語により大きく変わる

am,are,is 

三人称の”s”がある位で、主語による変化がない。

 

 

自動型と他動型

 

他動型

自動型

動詞

「行為」を表す。なお、多くは「性質」も表すことができる。

「動作」を表す。

 

動詞の「力」が対象物(目的語)に加わる・及ぶ

 
 

I know Monet. よく知っている(知識が直接Monetを覆う⇒いろいろ知ってる。)

I know about Monet. だいたい知っている。

I know of Monet.     聞いたことあるよ。

 

「行為」として用いれば受動文になるが、やや不自然である。(e.g. These batteries are charged quickly.)

「性質」として用いれば自然な能動文になる。(e.g. These batteries charge quickly)

 

 

他動型 (SVO)

動詞の「力」が対象物(目的語)に加わる・及ぶ

My boyfriend kissed my sister!

Some students teased the new teacher.

Ellie has beautiful eyes.

 

目的語の感覚(他動詞の力が向かう対象)

目的語には「指し示す」感触が伴っている。

John protected his kid sister. (ジョンは妹を守った)    力(protect)がここに及んでいる(妹に及んでいる)、という感覚。

John lives in Urawa.(ジョンは浦和に住んでいる)    どこの中(in)かというと浦和だよ、という感覚。

 

他動型と自動型の感触の違い

I know Monet.    よく知っている(知識が直接Monetを覆う⇒いろいろ知ってる。)

I know about Monet.    だいたい知っている。

I know of Monet.    聞いたことあるよ。

 

自動型 (SV)

目的語がない。単なる動作を示す。

(1)He shot the bird.

(2)He shot at the bird.

(1)は他動型であり、鳥にめがけて撃った動作に加えて、鳥に命中したことまで含む。

(2)は自動型であり、鳥にめがけて撃った動作まで含む。(命中したことまでは含まない。)

 

自動型の動詞は、動作が向かう方向を示すには「to」が必要(apologize to人など)

 

 

命令文

動詞原形を相手にぶつけるイメージ。

Concentrate!

Don’t speak to me like that again, OK?

Let’s order pizza tonight.

 

命令文を依頼の形にするには、オブラートに包むこと。

Please lend me 5 bucks.

Will you lend me 5 bucks.

Would you lend me 5 bucks.

Would you plase lend me 5 bucks.

 

There文

初めて話題にのぼる事物を「~がいてね」「~があってね」と話題の中に引っ張り込む。

Mommy, there is a strange-looking guy at the door.

 

配置転換

配置転換には感情・意図がある。

疑問文:Are you a student?

感嘆文:What a nice camera you have!

 

 

TEMPORAL EXPRESSIONS

時表現選択の基準は「心の中」でどう感じるか。

 

時表現がない(動詞原形)

非事実

【命令】Kiss me!

【願望】I always insist that my staff be well dressed.

【要求】They are demanding that she pay in cash..

【提案】

時表現がある(現在形・過去形・進行形など)

事実

【現在】

【過去】

【進行】

仮定法

反事実(事実ではない、可能性が大変低い)

 

 

 

時のない文(動詞原形)

命令文

命令文は動詞原形を使う理由は、命令内容が過去や現在の事実ではなく、まだ起こっていないことだから。

まだ起こっていないからKiss me!と命令する。

 

願望・要求・提案

願望・要求・提案は、実現していないことを述べる表現。だから動詞原形。

I always insist that my staff be well dressed.

They are demanding that she pay in cash.

I propose that the money be spent on library books.

It is important that you give 100% to your job.

 

なお、shouldを使うこともできる。

I propose that the money should be spend on library books.

 

時のある文(現在形、過去形、未来形etc…)

 

感覚

 

過去形

遠く離れた

I ate alligator tails.(遠い過去として)僕はワニの尻尾を食べたよ。

現在形

包み込む

 

現在完了形

迫ってくる

I’ve eaten alligator tails.(現在持っている経験として)僕はワニの尻尾を食べたことがあるよ。

 

現在形と現在進行形

 

現在進行形

現在形

 

現在の行為の客観的描写

行為との一体感

 

What are you doing?は今現在の行為を尋ねている

What do you do?は普段何をやっているのか、職業を尋ねている。

 

I’m living in NY at the moment.(僕は今まさにNYに住んでいる)

Which team are you supporting?(どっちのチームを応援しているの?)

I live in NY.(私はNYに住んでいます)

 

Which team do you support?(どっちのチームのファンですか?)

 

I’m apologizing.(今こうして誤ってるだろ)

I apologize.(誤るよ)

 

現在形(できごとや状態が自分に寄り添い包み込んでいる一体感。現在だけでなくはるかに広い時間幅を表す。)

現在を含め広く成り立つ状況

I’m a student.

I know 3 languages.

Humans are social animals.

Did you know that a hen lays about 228 eggs a year! ――Who care?!

広く安定した状況、コロコロと変わることのないことを表す。

よって、学術論文では、現在形は非常に多様される。

 

現在の習慣

My Dad catches the commuter train into the city.

I practice karate really hard.

I’m a soccer player. I practice 6 hours a day, and I play 2 matches a week.

 

思考・感情(思考・感情は内側から湧き上がる⇒一体感の現在形が用いられる)

I think It’s a waste of time.

I love chocolate crepes.

His fans adore him.

 

宣言(宣言行為と宣言内容が同時並行で行われる「一体感」があるから現在形)

I promise I won’t be late again.

I suggest you add more salt.

I apologize for behaving like a jerk last night.

 

※提案は動詞原形だが、宣言は現在形、なぜか?

提案はフィクション。宣言は、宣言が実現するかどうかは別として、宣言内容は現に存在する。

 

実演(今まさに展開していく状況)

I chop the carrot into small cubes like this.

Watch carefully. First, I shuffle the cards like this. Then, …

Here come the bus. Hurry!

 

言葉と出来事が同時進行している一体感。

 

道案内は現在形(出来事との同時進行感がある)

The Savoy Theater? That’s easy. You go straight down this street to the first traffic signal. Then turn right, and you’ll see the theater on your left.

 

時や条件をあらわす修飾節は現在形

When you arrive at the hotel, please give me a call.

If you exercise every day, you’ll soon lose weight.

 

時や条件をあらわす修飾節では、未来のことであっても現在形を用いるのがふつう。

When you arrive…は前提。その前提発生を仮定しての話なのだから現在形。

If you exercise…は条件。条件も前提と同じく、条件成就を仮定しての話なのだから現在形。

 

Give me a call before you arrive at the hotel.

I’ll get back to you as soon as I know the exact dates.

We can go for lunch after I finish my class.

 

現在完了形が用いられる場合

終わっていること、すなわち「完了」に焦点がある場合は、現在完了形を用いる。

The garage will give us a call when they‘ve
finished the repairs.

 

willやbe going toが加えられる場合

前提や条件が、「つもり」や「その意思」にあるなら、be going toやwillを使う。

If you are going to ditch me, just say so.

If you will keep pulling its tail, of course it will bite you.

 

出来事との一体感があれば過去のことでも現在形になっちゃう

I was reading a book in bed last night when suddenly the room starts to shake and the lights go out. I freaked out!

過去進行形で始まり、                現在形になり、         過去形に戻る

 

未来のことに過去形を使うこともある(自分の意識がどの時点にいるかによって時表現は決まる)

You’re going to see Johnny Depp’s latest movie tonight? Tell me what it was like tomorrow, OK?

 

過去形(距離感⇒①丁寧表現、②控えめな過去の助動詞、③仮定法)

It started raining.(あの時降り始めたね。。。)

Look! It has started raining.(窓の外をみて)「見ろよ、降り始めたぜ」

丁寧表現

I hoped you could lend me some money.(お金をいくらか貸していただけるといいのですが)

I hope you can lend me some money.(お金をいくらか貸してくれるといいんだけど)

How many nights did you wish to stay, sir?(何泊程ご宿泊の予定でしょうか?)

 

I hopedはI hopeの丁寧表現。I hopeは厚かましいので、距離をとる意識が過去形を用いさせる。

 

控えめな過去の助動詞(大人の会話・ビジネスで使われる)

This would be my 8th trip to Japan, I think.

This will be my 8th trip to Japan.

Geoff can/could fix it.

I may/might have a quick drink with Terry on my way home.

 

助動詞を過去にすると控えめになる。「退く」意識。

mayは「するかもしれないし、しないかもしれない」、大体50%。

mightは「ひょっとすると」30%以下。

 

This area of town can/could be dangerous at night.

Bungee jumping is a real buzz. I won’t/wouldn’t do it through.

May/Might I suggest a quieter place?

 

仮定法(現実からの乖離⇒過去形を用いる)

I wish I had a girlfriend.

 

進行形(be + -ing) (現在行っていることを客観的に外側から描写する表現)

躍動感(~しているところです)

My parents are holidaying in Kenya.(両親はケニアで休暇を過ごしているところです)

 

短期間(躍動感⇒一時的なニュアンス。安定した現在形と異なる)

I‘m living in NY at the moment.(僕は今まさにNYに住んでいる)⇔I live in NY.(私はNYに住んでいます)

Which team are you supporting?(どっちのチームを応援しているの?)⇔Which team do you support?(どっちのチームのファンですか?)

 

躍動感がない状況は進行形にできない
状態を表す動詞

haveは「持っている」という動きではなく、「所有権が及んでいる状態」を表す

NG; I’m having a pen.

OK; I’m holding a pen.

 

knowは動きではなく、

NG; I’m knowing the answer.

 

知覚動詞

seeは目に入ってくる視覚を表す動詞。

NG; I’m seeing the sea.

OK; I’m looking the sea.

NG; I’m hearing the waves.

OK; I’m listening the waves.

 

思考・感情(思考や感情は内側から湧き上がるもの。)

I’m thinking it’s delicious.

I’m loving Johnny Depp.

 

 

We are having a good time.

My wife is seeing someone.

I’m thinking we should have a big party for Dad’s 60th.

I’m loving it!

 

状態の移行をあらわす動詞の進行形(「~しかけている」のニュアンス)

The bus was stopping.

I think my poor cat is dying.

The helicopter is landing.

瞬間的動作を意味する動詞の進行形(「繰り返し」の意味)

She was coughing.

My husband was snoring noisily all night.

 

~してばっかりいる

He is always picking his nose.

My mother is constantly worrying about something or other.

 

現在完了形(「今」に焦点があり、状況が現在に「迫ってくる」ダイナミックな動きを伴う感触)

ただの助動詞文。

I have finished my homework.

Ken has been busy since last week.

 

haveの短縮形は

I have (=I’ve)

He has (= He’s)

have not (= haven’t)

has not (= hasn’t)

 

間近に起こった出来事をあらわす

Oh my gosh, he has peed his pants!

Look. It‘s stopped raining.

Have you heard from Geoff?

 

「間近に起こった」と相性のいい表現

just(たった今):「手元感」の強調。

   

just(たった今、ピタッの感触)

I’ve just met her.

already(すでに完了している)

I’ve already done that.

yet(未完成)

Have you finished your dinner yet?

疑問文と否定文で使われる。

 

経験(~したことがある)

I‘ve eaten fried ants.

I‘ve enjoyed many fascinating adventures.

We‘ve been to Machu Picchu.

 

経験と相性のいい表現

 

ever(いつでもいいんだけど)

Have you ever loved someone?

never(~したことない)

I have never played golf.

 

 

「行ったことがある」のbe動詞

We need to be at the theater at 7 so please be here by 6.

「7時にそこにいる」⇒「そこに行く」が間接的に出てくる。

だから現在完了形になると、「行ったことがある」となる。

Colin‘s been to over 70 countries.

My older sister has been to Great Wall of China.

 

継続(過去から現在に迫ってくる⇒ずっと~している)

We‘ve been partners for 3 years.(3年の間、今に至るまで、パートナーです)

⇔We were partners for 3 years.

I‘ve lived in Nagoya since 2001.

The M40 has been under construction for weeks.

How have you been?(How are you?の現在完了形バージョン。しばらく会っていなかった人に使う。過去から現在への道のりが意識されている。)

14 years have passed since I came to Japan.

 

「継続」と相性のいい表現はforとsince

 

期間のfor

起点のsince(~から)

 

We’ve been best friends for 10 years.

We’ve been best friends since 2000 [our junior high school days/ we started playing tennis together].

 

Keep driving along this road for another 2 kilometers.

Since my parents were not well off, I had to pay my own way through college.

 

結果(「だから今…だ」という含み)

I‘ve dislocate my shoulder, so I can’t play tennis.(肩を脱臼した(今も続いている)からテニスはできない)

I dislocated my shoulder.(肩を脱臼しました(今は治っている?))

 

Where’s Mom? ――She‘s gone to the hair salon.(美容院に行ったよ(だから今はいないよ))

Don’t worry. I‘ve cleaned your room.(片づけておいたよ(だから今はきれいだよ))

I‘ve worked hard all day.(一生懸命はたらいたよ(だから今つかれているよ))

ネイティブの現在完了

I‘ve just painted the bench. So be careful.

Where did I park my car?(あのときどこに停めたんだっけ?)⇔Where have I parked my car?(どこに停めたっけ?今どこにあるんだ?)

I told you not to play soccer here!(あのとき言ったよね!)⇔I‘ve told you not to play soccer here!(言ったわよね。それでなんでこうなってるの?)

 

その他の完了形

過去完了形(過去のある時点に焦点があり、その時点からその前に遡る)

The poor man had already died when the ambulance got there.

He wasn’t in a good mood because his boss had ordered him to work overtime.

Ben was over the moon. He had just got promoted.

 

These two bullies came up to me, pushed me against a wall, punched me in the face, and took all my money.

The fire had already spread throughout the building when the fire engines arrived.

 

助動詞+完了形

I will have finished my homework by 10.

They will have arrived in Los Angeles by now.

Something may have happened to her.(何かが起こったのかもしれない)⇔Something may happen to her.(何かが起きるかもしれない)

He must have forgotten to cancel the reservation.

I should have studied harder.

 

現在完了進行形(連続した動作の強調)

I‘ve been cleaning the kitchen since this morning. I’m exhausted.

I‘ve been waiting for you for ages!

 

未来完了進行形

By the time you arrive, I‘ll have been working for over 8 hours. No way am I cooking dinner for you!

 

未来

未来表現のまとめ

     

will

予測と意思

It will rain tomorrow.

Hey, the movie starts in just 15 minuites.――Don’t worry, we‘ll make it in time.

I‘ll give you a hand with the dishes.

 

OK, OK, I‘ll clean my room!

I think I’ve been given the wrong grade.――OK, I’ll check it out.

be going to

原因(goingは「流れ」。そのまま進むとto以下の状況に向かう。)

 

意図(goingは「流れ」

It‘s going to pour down any minute.

Watch out! The boxes are going to fall.

Look. He is going to do some magic.

Hurry. We‘re going to be late for class.

 

Are you going to attend the party?

I‘m going to check out the new bookshop.

Lucy‘s going to prepare dinner tonight. Bring some stomach medicine!

be –ing

(具体的)予定

I‘m playing badminton at 3.

I‘m having lunch with Keiko on Thursday.

She’s flying to Singapore this Friday.

現在形

(確定的)予定

My birthday is Next Tuesday.

What time does this train arrive at Tokyo Station?

His presentation begins at 1:30 p.m.

I leave for London on Thursday.

will be –ing

想像し見通している未来

This time next week, I‘ll be sunbathing on the beach.

I‘ll be playing golf at 3.

be to

進むべき道を指し示す

You‘re to finish your homework before watching TV.

2 students from my class are to be awarded study-abroad scholarships.

At my best friend’s wedding, I met the woman who was to become my wife.

 

 

willとbe going to

 

will

be going to

 

It will rain tomorrow.

【単なる予測】現在晴天で雨の予兆が全くなくてもかまわない。

It’s going to rain soon.

【原因】今、雲で覆われているなど、目に見える明らかな原因がある。

 

I’ll try to talk him out of it.

【意思決定】スイッチが入って今決める。

I’m pretty sure my boyfriend is going to dump me.

【意図】

 

I’ll help you with your English homework if you like.

I’

 

 

be going toとbe –ing

I’m going to leave for London on Monday.

I’m leaving for London on Monday.

 

be –ing / be going to / will be –ingの違い

Are you going on a trip?(出かける予定ですか?)直接的な言い方であり失礼。

Are you going to go on a trip this summer?(出かけるつもりですか?)直接的な言い方であり失礼。

Will you be going on a trip this summer?(お出かけになりますか?)非常に丁寧な印象。

仮定法(「時をずらす」ことによる「反事実」のニュアンスの表現)

仮定法の心理(「時をずらす」ことによる「反事実」のニュアンスの表現)

I wish I had a girlfriend. 彼女がいたらなぁ(実際にはいないんだな)

If you kissed me, I‘d scream.(どう考えてもしないだろうけど)キスしたら大声出すよ。

If you kiss me, I‘ll scream. (するのかしないのかは知らないけど)キスしたら大声出すよ。

 

一番シンプルな仮定法(If節を伴わない)

仮定法は「時をずらす」ことにより「反事実」のニュアンスを表現する。

 

My cas is really slow. I wish I had a Nissan GTR.

Can you speak a foreign language?

――I wish I could.

I wish I were/was richer.

 

仮定法が「時をずらす」理由は「距離の意識」

仮定法は反事実。可能性が著しく低い。距離を感じる。だから現在のことは過去形、過去のことは過去完了形。

I wish I had been more attentive. Now I have to retake the class.

I have a terrible bellyache. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much chocolate!

 

If 節+ Modal型の仮定法の作り方

現実離れ+控えめ

STEP1: 現実離れの感触をIf you stopped smoking,と時制をずらして表現し、

STEP2: その現実離れが成り立つ場合のことは、控えめな表現でyou would feel much healthier.。

 

If you stopped smoking, you would feel much healthier.(どうせできないだろうけど)煙草をやめたらもっと健康になれるよ。

If you stop smoking, you will feel much healthier.(できるかできないかは知らないけど)煙草をやめたらもっと健康になれるよ。

 

 

過去の出来事についての仮定法

If I had studied harder, I would have got a higher TOEIC score.

If her had been less greedy, he would not have lost so much at the pachinko parlor!

If I had saved more money, I could have gone to Hawaii.

If you had called me earlier, I might have been able to meet you.

 

過去の出来事を仮定し、今を想定

If you had followed the instructions, you wouldn’t be in this mess now.

If I had planned a bit better, everything would be fine.

 

ifを述べない仮定法(「~だったら」)

話の前後関係で反事実について述べていることが明らかなとき、「もし~なら(If ~)」は省略できる。

 

You know, I’m up to my ears in debt, but I have no idea what to do.

I would start by spending only on absolute necessities.(僕だったら)

 

Jane has taken her cheating husband back.

Really? I would have kicked him out for good!

Without my parents’ support, I couldn’t have started my business.

Something strange is going on. Otherwise, he would not act like this.

Fifty years ago, nobody could have imagined such advanced in technology.

In my place, what would you do?

In your shoes, I wouldn’t accept their offer.

 

仮定法を伴うフレーズ

仮定法を伴うフレーズは下表のとおり。

if only ~

(~でさえあったらなぁ)

Oh, if only Bob was/were here.

If only she would give me another chance.

as if ~

(あたかも~のように)

My boyfriend acts as if he was/were my boss.

It’s (high) time~

(そろそろ~する時間だ)

It’s time we said good-bye.

Suppose/Imagine ~

(~と仮定してみようか)

Suppose I was/were to offer you a job here, would you accept?

But for ~

(~がなかったら)

But for your encouragement, I would have given up a long time ago.

If it were not for ~

(~がなかったら)

If it weren’t for sport, my life would be pretty dull.

If it had not been for the pilot’s skill and cool head, the plane would certainly have crashed.

 

時制の一致

時制の一致は、主にレポート文に見られる現象。

主説が過去なら従属節(レポート内容)も当然過去

John said Ken loved Nancy.

I thought Mary was really attractive.

He promised me that he would never leave me.

 

レポートが完了形の場合、レポート内容の時制は一致しない(現在完了の視点は現在)

I‘ve always thought that it‘s good to have school uniforms.

 

レポートより前にレポート内容が起こっている場合

I heard that Judy had had another baby. Terrific news!

I found out that she had lied to me. I was furious.

The police said they had searched everywhere.

 

過去完了形は時間関係を明確にしたいときに使う

Everybody tells me they know nothing about the meeting, but Sayuri assured me she contacted everyone by email I don’t get it.

You’re wrong, Dad, because my teacher told us that man first landed on the moon in 1969, not 1967.

 

時制の一致と助動詞・仮定法

She said she would go out with me, but she changed her mind.

I told them we might be a bit late.

What? But you promised you could finish the job by today.

must/ shouldには過去形がない

My Mom said I must be home by 11 p.m.

My doctor advised I should quit smoking.

 

will, may, canは過去形にすればよいが、助動詞には過去形がないものもある(must, should)。

 

used to/ ought toも過去形がない

My Granddad boasted he used to walk 10 kilometers to school every day.

My boss said I ought to get up to speed on the latest software.

 

主節より以前に起こっている場合

Tom said his Dad would often enjoy an after-dinner stroll when he live in the country.

She said her daughter could play the piano when she was only 5 years old

 

控えめ表現のwould, could, mightはそのまま

Rebecca said that she could make a pumpkin pie for the Halloween party.

I said I wouldn’t ask Gary because he’s not reliable.

 

レポート内容が仮定法の場合、時制の一致は起こらない

He said he would buy me a diamond if he were rich.

She wished she had a child.

 

時制の一致を意図的にキャンセルして、レポート内容がいまでも成り立っていることを表現する

Our geography teacher taught us that Greenland is the world’s largest island.

Eri said her Dad plays mahjong every Saturday.

Brian wrote that he will reach Kathmandu on April 1st.

 

Your English teacher informed me that he was not at all happy with your performance.(単に先生の発言をレポートしているだけ)

Your English teacher informed me that he is not at all happy with your performance.(not at all happyが現在の問題として目の前に置いている)

 

全体のストーリーに合わせる

She only got the job because she was beautiful.

I had a great time in Australia because everyone spoke English.

 

レポート文でも時制が一致しない

Last Saturday, I played soccer wish a few friends. I took a wild kick at the ball, and it smashed my neighbor’s window. We all ran as fast as we could along the path that went through the woods near my house Then we climbed up the hill that overlooked my area and watched my neighbor screaming and shouting. It was great fun!

 

 

DISLOCATION(配置転換)

配置が動かされるときには、感情・意図がある。

VARIOUS TYPES OF DISLOCATIONs

主語―助動詞倒置

Oh, man. Am I angry!

Did I put my foot in my mouth!

I love banana pancakes. ――So do I!

I’ve not seen his latest movie yet! ――Neither have I.

 

So do I!はMe too.よりもはるかに勢いがある表現。

 

相手の発言が肯定文のときはSo…(…もそうだよ)、否定文のときはNeither …(…もそうじゃない)

I love Justin Bieber. ――So does Momoe.

I’ve not prepared for this test. ――Neither have I.

 

否定的語句+倒置

通常はI have never seen such terrible behavior.だが、これでは言い足りない。

そして否定語句でガツンと始めて、Never I have seen such terrible behavior.とするが、まだ足りない。

そこで倒置を加えて、Never have I seen such terrible behavior!

 

Never have I seen such terrible behavior!

Rarely have I laughed so hard.

Little did they know how tough this challenge was going to be.

No sooner had I entered the interview room than I knew I had no chance.

 

So boring was his lecture that almost all the students fell asleep!

 

仮定法+倒置

Had he not braked so quickly, he would have run over the child.

Had there not been a doctor neaby, my son might have died.

 

phrasal verb

in, on, at, up, down, out, offなどの軽い単語が使われる。

I ascertained how to get to the Tokyo Dome! (ascertain(=突き止める)なんてビッグワードは会話ではなじまない)

Oh, you mean you found out hot to get there? (会話ではfind outといった軽い言葉が好まれる)

 

句動詞全体で「単なる動作」をあらわす(自動詞と同じ使い方)※目的語がない!

He didn’t show up for the meeting.

My car broke down in the middle of the freeway.

All the students stood up when the Principal entered the classroom.

 

句動詞全体で他動詞と同じ使い方(分離されないで一体で用いるもの)

I ran into an old frind of mine.

I’m looking for my car keys.

It’s wrong to pick on somebody.

 

句動詞全体で他動詞と同じ使い方(分離されるもの)

I think I’ll put the green sweater on.(セーターをonの状態に置く⇒セーターを身に着ける)

Let’s put that decision off until our next meeting.(決定をoffの状態に置く⇒決定を延期する)

Put the box down next to the desk.(置いてね)

 

この分離型は分離しないで使うこともできる。

I’ll put the green sweater on.

= I’ll put on the green sweater.

 

ただし代名詞を目的語とする場合は必ず分離する。

I’ll put it on.

N.G.; I’ll put on it.

 

このタイプの句動詞はまとまりが薄い。

目的語に軽い説明を付け加える修飾語として「+α」の軽い単語に感じられるから、分離が定位置。

 

putとonが離れすぎるとput + onが理解しづらくなる。

そこでputとonのつながりを保つためにも、長い名詞の場合はput on the green sweaterと分離しないで使う。

 

補助動詞(BE, DO, HAVE)

BE動詞

 

What are differences between Circumstances and Participants

 

Circumstances 

Participants 

 

to add information 

 
 

When, Where, How, Why (for what/who) 

who, which, what 

     

 

NOUNS; Fundamentals

名詞の基本

     

①可算・不可算

   

②可算ならば単数か複数か?

   

③限定詞

文脈上の意味(特定・不特定など)

a, the, many, thisなど

 

 

可算名詞・不可算名詞

 

可算・不可算の判断

可算・不可算の区別は、具体的で決まった形があるかどうか。常識的に判断できる。

間違え易いのは分類を表す名詞や包括的な名詞。furniture, fruit, food, luggage, baggage, machinery, jewely, clothingなど。

 

可算名詞・不可算名詞の特徴

 

可算

不可算

複数形

“s”が付く

付かない

多い・少ないのあらわし方

many

a few 

much

a little 

限定詞

必要

不要

 

a lot ofは両者共通

 

不可算名詞の数え方

不可算名詞の数え方は、入れ物や形状・量・重さの単位でカウントする。

a cup of coffee, two glasses of cola, 4 pieces of cake, 50 liters of gasoline

最も汎用性が高いのは、a piece of(全体から取り出された一部)。形の制限がないため広く使える。

 

可算不可算は臨機応変に

具体的で決まった形があれば可算名詞を使う。

可算・不可算で意味が異なる名詞がある。

例えば”paper”は、

The suspicious parcel was wrapped in brown paper.

Your idea is great on paper, but it’ll never work in practice.

I saw the ad in a paper.

例えば”room”は、

My suitcase was so full of souvenirs I didn’t have room for my clothes!

That’s absolutely clear. There’s no room for doubt.

This hotel has 200 guest rooms.

 

物の状態

Look at the size of those pumpkins!

How much pumpkin did you put in the soup?

 

物に対する見方

「形あるカタマリ」を意識する場合

How many cakes did you eat?

How often do you eat cake?

 

「手段」をあらわす前置詞と共に

Two buses came at the same time.

I go to school by bus.

 

「種類」を表現する場合、不可算名詞も可算で扱う。

There are many different foods in the world.

We all drink a lot of wines at the barbecue.

 

見えないモノを区別する

My neighbors were making so much noise I couldn’t sleep.

Shh! I can hear a strange noise coming from the engine.

 

 

単数名詞・複数名詞

 

単数形・複数形の作り方

     

基本

単数形に”-s”を加える。

dogs, cats, girls

語尾が-s, -sh, -ch, -x, -o

“-es” 

buses, dishes, churches, boxes, potatoes

-y

“-ies” 

stories, babies

-f, -fe

“-ves” 

leaves, thieves, wives, lives

 

単数と捉える・複数と捉える

単数形でも複数と感じられるケース、複数形であっても単数と感じられるケースがある。

 

①集団をあらわす名詞の単数・複数

(この場合、単数なのでgroupのsizeであらわす(large or small))

He comes from a large family. 

A theater in London normally has a bar where the audience can ejoy drink during the intervals.

②the + 形容詞(~の人々)は複数扱い

The rich are sometimes stingy.

③まとめて考える場合は単数扱い

20 cigarettes is a lot to smoke in a day, don’t you think?

20 miles is a long way to run.

④2つ以上のモノが絡む動作は複数

Did you get a direct flight or did you have to change planes?

Some people bow while others shake hands.

I made friends with Karen.

 

単数・複数の上手な選択

 

①数の基本は複数。単数は特別。

単数は純粋な「1」のみ。したがって、複数を選択するのが通常。

②モノ一般を示すのは複数形が基本

単数形は具体的な1つのモノをピックアップするときだけ。

③単数⇒単数/複数⇒複数のリズム

I
am a student./We are students.

イコールで結ぶ以上は単数/複数も同じ。

④アバウトに複数形

Dogs have tails.

Do all animals have noses?

ただし、厳密さが要求されるとき、All tourists need a visa to enter Bhutan.、これは1人につき1つであることが強調されている。

 

アバウトに複数形

 

 

 

ADJ-Fundamentals

一般論

Adjectivesとは名詞を修飾する表現。

 

ルール①:前から限定(Look at that big guy.)

ルール②:後ろから説明(John is big.)

 

限定詞

形容詞

名詞

 

感想・評価

大きさ

新旧

材料・所属

 

a

my

this 

gorgeous

comfortable 

big

young

old 

blond

yellow 

Swedish

leather 

girl

armchair

bird 

 

主観から客観的性質の語順。これは名詞への「近しさ」に基づいている。

 

QUANTITY 

OPINION 

SIZE 

AGE 

SHAPE 

COLOR 

ORIGIN 

MATERIAL 

PURPOSE 

NOUN 

five 

  

huge 

young 

  

black 

Canadian  

  

  

bears 

  

battered 

  

old 

shapeless 

gray 

  

cotton 

work 

pants 

many 

magnificent 

  

antique 

  

  

British 

  

reference 

books 

one 

studious 

  

teenaged 

  

  

American 

  

  

boy 

few 

shiny 

  

  

round  

blue 

Indian 

  

  

gems 

many 

well-made 

tiny 

  

elongated 

brown 

  

wooden  

fishing 

boats 

several 

cheap 

large 

  

  

purple 

  

polyester  

sleeping 

bags 

 

限定する

Look at that cute girl over there.

This guy with a goofy face asked me out. I just laughed!

These rotten eggs stink!

 

重ねて修飾

Mark is an excellent though reckless driver.

Naomi is a bright but lazy student.

Look at that beautiful
silk top.

 

複数の表現で作る形容詞

I have a 5-year-old daughter.

This is an amazing, once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. You gotta take it!

 

説明を加える

be+Adj

My girlfriend is gorgeous.

She is beautiful and kind.

My parents were strict but fair.

※接続詞抜きで説明の形容詞を重ねては駄目(NG: She is beautiful kind.)

説明を加えるその他の例

I’m looking for somebody better.

I’ve tried everything possible.

This is the worst scenario imaginable.

I’m afraid there are no seats available for tonight show.

I was given a bag full of cookies!

<意識>名詞だけでは説明不足(somedobyってどんな?everythingって?the worst scenarioってどのくらい?no seatsって何?a bagって何か入っているの?)。だから説明を加える。

That building is 150 meters high and 35 meters wide.

Did you know that the tallest man in the world is 2 metes 49 centimeters tall?

The Great Seto Bridge is 13.1kms long.

<意識>「欠乏感」

 

形容詞の位置

前にしか置けない形容詞

This is my only person.

This is the main road.

onlyやmainは限定的な意味を持つため。そのほかにもmere, chief, formerなどがある。

後ろにしか置けない形容詞

He is still asleep.

I’m afraid of spiders.

説明に特化した単語は後ろ専門。asleep, afraidは「(~が)そうした状態にいる」という意味。

前位置特有の意味を持つ語

my late grandfather(私の亡くなった父)

certainのもつ2つの意味に共通する感覚(具体的で確信に満ちた表現)

some guyとcertain guyは異なる。

 

なんでも形容詞

名詞による修飾(複合語、合成名詞)

We have to do everything to prevent child abuse.

Hey, he’s just a child. Go easy on him.

Adjectionという機能は名詞の前後という位置によって与えられる。

 

the history department ・・・歴史学科(歴史を教える学科)

the historical department ・・・歴史的学科(歴史のある学科)

 

 

動詞-ing形で修飾(躍動的状況を想起させる)

His smile is warm and very inviting.

What you just said is interesting.

There are many English-speaking countries.

 

 

 

動名詞の形容詞的用法は、修飾する名詞の「用途」「目的」を表します(「~するための名詞」と訳す)。

a waiting room / 待合室→(待つための部屋○ / 待っている部屋×)

a smoking room / 喫煙室→(タバコを吸うための部屋○ / タバコを吸っている部屋×)

a swimming pool / 水泳用プール→(泳ぐ為のプール○ / 泳いでいるプール×)

a driving school / 自動車学校→(運転するための学校○ / 運転している学校×)

a washing machine / 洗濯機→(洗うための機械○ / 洗っている機械×)

 

 

動名詞が名詞を修飾する用法

現在分詞が名詞を修飾する用法

 

「~するための名詞」と訳すことができます。

この用法はmigrating birdやbarking dogのように、~する習慣や性質がある名詞、という意味になるか、sleeping babyやburning houseのように今現在~している名詞、という意味になります。(なお、後者の意味は多くの場合、参考書類では分詞扱いされますが、辞書では形容詞扱いされています)

 

sleeping car(寝るための車両=寝台車)

dining room(食事をとるための部屋=ダイニングルーム)

migrating bird(渡り鳥)

barking dog(よく吠える犬)

sleeping baby(寝ている赤ちゃん)

burning house(燃えている家)

 

日本語でも同じ。

決裁基準。決裁者。決裁手続。

洗濯物、洗濯機、洗濯係。

保護者。相談者。被疑者。犯罪者。

相談事。相談窓口。相談者。相談人。

報告対象。報告窓口。報告者。

回収車。回収物。

 

an exciting game 能動⇒

excited supporters 受動

 

forest p214

動名詞+名詞⇒~するための

waiting room;

washing machine;

sleeping car

dining room

frying pan

 

他動詞が名詞を修飾する場合

 

 

 

過去分詞形で修飾

Written English is sometime difference with spoken English.

He is not well-known as an artist yet, but he will be one day.

I love coming here in the off-season because there beaches are deserted.

 

 

 

-ing形vs過去分子形(感情をあらわす)

That game was really exciting.

I was really excited watching that game.

-ingは感情を呼び起こす原因、過去分詞形は感情を呼び起こされた人について使う。

 

 

ADV; Fundamentals

 

Genitive

Conjunctive

Flat

Locative

Interrogative

Prepositional

Pronominal

Relative

 

 

 

–ly副詞

-lyは副詞によく使われる重要なマーク。

My computer is slow.

My computer works slowly.

 

未分類の副詞

ほとんど(各単語の違いがよくわからない)

almost

 

Nick is almost as tall as his Dad now.

nearly

 

It’s nearly half past six. もうかれこれ 6 時半です.

Althouh she doesn’t know her job, she earnes nearly as much as I do.

all but

   

practically

(φ比較)((略式))[修飾する語の前で] ほとんど(almost);やや誇張して言うと《◆very, pretty, not で修飾されない》.

practically the first thing I saw when I got off the train 列車を降りた時に実際に見た最初のこと

 

subsequently;更に、続いて

2. Each Party shall subsequently inform the Secretariat of any significant changes to the information it has provided pursuant to paragraph 1.

締約国は、更に、1の規定に従って提供した情報に関する重要な変更を事務局に通報する。

 

 

GERUND, TO INFINITIVES, PAST PARTICIPLES, CLAUSES

まとまったパッケージを作る要素。

 

Comparative table

 

GERUND (-ING FORM)

TO INFINITIVES

PAST PARTICIPLES

 

生き生きとした具体的な躍動感

指し示す

⇒「こーゆーことは」という一般的な漠然とした平たい感触

⇒「これから」という行為に向かう感触

~される

相性の良い動詞

リアリティ動詞(admit, deny, consider, imagine, enjoy, finish, stop, quit, give up, avoid, mind, miss, practice, suggest, recommend)

「これから」を強く感じる動詞(agree, decide, expect, hope, want, wish, promise, plan, mean, offer, refuse, manage)

 

名詞として

○(Subject, Object)

○(Subject, Object)

×(修飾語のみ)

形容詞として

○(現在分詞と呼ばれる)

 

副詞として

○(現在分詞と呼ばれる)

 

 

GERUND (–ING FORM)(生き生きとした躍動感)

Look! Sarah is biting her nails again.

――Yeah, she always bites her nails.

 

名詞位置での動詞-ing①:主語として

Making new friends is not so easy.

Talking in the library is prohibited.

 

–ingの意味上の主語

My baby’s constant crying is pretty stressful.

 

名詞位置での動詞-ing②:目的語として

I like playing video games with my buddies.

Stop picking your nose!

 

go/come + in~ ~しに行く/しにくる

 

前置詞の目的語として

My kid sister is great at dancing hip-hop.

I’m proud of being bicultural.

I got the booby prize for coming last in my club’s golf tournament.

 

修飾位置での動詞-ing形

説明型の-ing形(進行形)

My brother is acting like an idiot――as usual!

Lucy is putting on her make-up.

 

My hobby is collecting antique watches

 

名詞句の説明

The man scolding those 2 boys is the headmaster.

The woman driving the bus is my sister-in-law.

 

目的語説明

Sorry to keep you waiting.

His jokes had the entire audience rolling in the aisles.

I saw your girlfriend getting into a taxi with a tall, good-looking guy!

 

–ingを前から使う

the working class

English-speaking countries

A barking dog seldom bites.

 

動詞句の説明

The player fell to the ground clutching his ankle.

I’ve spent all morning cleaning up after the party.

I was busy sweeping up the fallen leaves.

 

文の説明(分子構文と呼ばれることもある)

He broke his collarbone playing rugby on Saturday morning.

A huge hurricane hit the city, causing untold destruction.

She left a note on the door, finding nobody home.

接続詞の付加

We met some wonderful people while holidaying in France.(コンパクトで勢いがある)

We met some wonderful people while we were holidaying in France.(冗長)

 

–ingの位置を変えるテクニック

Pushing open the front door, I was shocked to see a body lying on the floor.(ドラマチックな印象。臨場感のある表現から始まる)

The little boy, screaming and kicking, was dragged out of the shop by his mother.(-ingを定位置の文末に置くと、男の子の描写という感じが薄れるので、直後に移した。)

 

-ingが主文の主語以外の行為であるなら-ingに主語を加える

The speaker went on and on, the audience getting more and more bored by the minute.

 

Thes speaker went on and on, _________ getting more and more bored by the minute.

であ、、getting boredの主語がThe speakerになってしまう。

-ingの主語が主文の主語(The speaker)でないならば、主語を加える必要がある。

 

主文より「前」に-ingで示された出来事が起こっているなら「Having + 過去分詞」

Having never been in such a situation before, I had no idea what to do.

have + 過去分詞は「それ以前」を表す形。よって、Having + 過去分詞は主文以前に-ingが起きたことを示す。

 

TO-INFINITIVES(指し示すイメージ)

指し示すイメージ

⇒一般論(指し示す対象とは少し離れているだろうから)

⇒これから

 

修飾位置でのTo不定詞は穴埋め関係と相性が良い。

 

名詞位置①:主語としてのTo不定詞(「こーゆーことは」という一般的な漠然とした平たい感触。一般論、評論、規則の表現に使う。)

To make new friends is not so easy.

To talk in the library is prohibited.

To sell drugs to minors, ladies and gentlemen, is not only morally despicable but also a criminal act, and anyone caught doing this should be given the severest of punishments.

 

意味上の主語

To drink and drive is unforgivable.

For anyone
to drink and drive is unforgivable.

It is difficult for us
to speak English.

 

主語におかれたTo不定詞は「(・・・っていうのは)これから」のニュアンス

To sell the house now would be crazy.(今家を売ることは)

To apologize to her is not such a bad idea, I think.(彼女に謝るっていうの)

 

名詞位置②:目的語としてのTo不定詞(「一般的内容」。ただしwantなどの「これから動詞」は向かっていく感触)

I like to play video games with my buddies.

I want to be a policeman.

to不定詞は「一般的な平たい漠然とした感触」だが、wantなどのこれから動詞の場合、「(ある行為に)向かっていく」感触がある。

 

to不定詞だけしかとらない動詞(「これから」を強く感じる動詞)

agree, decide, expect, hope, want, wish, promise, plan, mean, offer, refuse, manage

I promised not to tell a lie.

If you wish to smoke, please go to car number 3.

 

–ingだけしかとらない動詞(リアリティ動詞)

admit, deny, consider, imagine, enjoy, finish, stop, quit, give up, avoid, mind, miss, practice, suggest, recommend

-ingは具体的で躍動する感触。

-ingだけしかとらない動詞は強く具体性を要求する。具体的な状況が想定されて初めて「認める」「否認する」などが可能になる。

 

to不定詞か-ingかによって意味が異なる動詞

remember, forget, regret, try

Remember to lock the door when you go out.(これからすることを覚えている⇒忘れない)

I remember meeting her at a party.(実際におきたことを覚えている)

 

He regrets breaking up with me.(実際に起きたことを残念に思う⇒後悔する)

I regret to inform you that your application was rejected.(これからすることを残念に思う)

 

Have you tried pressing both buttons? That might work.(実際に試す⇒やってみた)

Have you tried to press both buttons? It’s quite difficult to do that.(これからすることを試す⇒やろうとする)

 

修飾位置でのto不定詞①

come / get + to不定詞

He came to appreciate his parents. (She came to this country last year.と同じ気持ちで使っている)

We got to know Tokyo very well. (We got to know Tokyo very wellと同じ気持ちで使っている)

 

説明型のto不定詞

To see is to believe.【一般的内容】

Our goal is to find a cure for AIDS.【これから】

If you are to get her back, you need to do more than just apologize.【意図】

You are all to be here by 7 a.m. sharp, understood?【命令】

4 kids from Liverpool were to form the most famous rock band in the world.【運命】

The President is to visit Japan next week.【予定】

 

NISSAN TO LAUNCH A BRAND-NEW CAR (be + to不定詞のbe動詞が省略されている)

 

be動詞以外の説明型のto不定詞

The flight attendant seems/appears to be stressed out. = It seems that the flight attendant is stressed out.

Her prediction turned out to be right.

His plan proved to be successful.

We happened to be wearing the same dress!

 

目的語説明(目的語の説明語句としてのto不定詞。think, know, believeなどの思考系動詞によく見られる形)

I thought him to be an honest person.

I consider him to be open-minded.

I found her to be a most capable assistant.

 

to beの効果(指し示す感触⇒よく観察して慎重に結論付けている感触。フォーマル)

I consider him open-minded.は会話でのファーストチョイス。簡単だから。

I consider him to be open-minded.は、toの指し示す感触により、慎重に結論付けている感触。よりフォーマル。

 

John seems (to be) happy.

Everything turned out (to be) fine.

 

修飾位置でのto不定詞②

動詞句の説明と「足りないを補う」

I’m going to Egypt to do some scuba diving.【目的】

I was excited to hear about your new project.【原因】

He grew up to be a famous architect.【結果】

She must be out of her mind to walk around such a dangerous area alone.【判断の根拠】

 

足りない情報を補う呼吸

I’m going to Egypt…(何しに行ったの?) to do some scuba diving.

I was excited…(なんで?)to hear about your new project.

He gew up…(どんな風に?どうなったの?) to be a famous architect.

She must be out of her mind…(なんで?どうしてそう思う?)to walk around such a dangerous area alone.

 

意味のバリエーション(目的・原因・結果・判断の根拠)は文脈から生じている。

 

「目的」を明確に示すフレーズ

I had to fill out loads of forms in order to get a visa.

I suggest we leave around 6:30 so as to ensure we get good seats.

 

感情とその「原因」

I’m relieved…(なんでホッとしたの?) to know that she is safe and sound.

I’m sorry…(なんで謝るの?) to trouble you.

I’m so thrilled…(なんで大喜びしてるの?) to get first prize.

 

「結果」を強調するフレーズ

We stood in line for over 2 hours, only to discover that it was the wrong line!(Only toは「(その結果)~しただけだった」という「がっかり感」)

Her husband disappeared. One day he was here and the next he was gone, never to be seen again.

 

判断の根拠を示す、さまざまな例

You must be rich to buy a Ferrari.

What a fool I was to ask him for help!

It’s so kind of you to lend me a hand.

 

補い方は自由

Over 20 people are coming to the party!

Don’t worry. I’ll help you to prepare everything.

 

名詞句の説明(「足りない」を補う)

I don’t have the right tools here to fix your bicycle.

Michelle was the first female golfer to play in a men’s tournament.

I need someone to drive me to the station.

 

形容詞の説明(「足りない」を補う)

He is easy [hard/ difficult/ impossible] to fool.(難易を表す形容詞

She is sure [certain/ likely/ unlikely] to lose her cool.

The new recruits are eager to show their worth.

 

穴埋め修飾

He is easy to fool ■.

She doesn’t have anyone to turn to in times of trouble ■.

I have 3 kids to feed ■.

 

Enoughとto不定詞

Enoughはto不定詞と特に相性が良い。

Your Mom has enough to worry about already.

I finally have enough money to buy a car.

My boss was kind enough to give me the day off.

 

Wh語+to不定詞

I have no idea what to say.

Tell me when to start.

I know where to find them.

Could you tell me which way to go for the post office?

 

その他

It+to不定詞

It’s difficult to get up in the morning. (itは状況を受けるだけの単語。だから後ろから補う)

It’s tough for the unemployed to make ends meet.

I find it difficult to get up early.

I thought it wise to let you know in advance.

 

It+to不定詞は文を整える機能がある。

①To不定詞は長く不明瞭になりがち

To manage such a big hotel is not easy.

⇒It is not easy to manage such a big hotel.

②頭でっかちな文は、特に会話では好まれない。

I make to wake up at 6:30 a rule.

⇒I make it a rule to wake up at 6:30.

Too ~ to … (~すぎて…できない)

I was too shocked to speak.

“too”は「~過ぎる」⇒「できない」の否定的ニュアンスにつながる

 

Can Johnny come to school today?

He’s still too sick.

 

To+完了形(to have 過去分詞)は、「それ以前ですよ」としっかり示す形

It was good to have reserved seats.

She pretended to have been working.

 

ただし、厳密すぎる印象を与えるので、本当に時間関係をしっかり示したいときだけ使うこと。

I’m really happy to win this tough match.

I’m really happy to have won this tough match.(これだと厳密すぎる)

 

not to不定詞

It would be crazy not to accept their offer.

We’ll try not to make too much noise.

 

限定位置でのto不定詞(種類の限定)

to-do listなど、

 

PAST PARTICIPLES(①~される、②終わってしまった。過去分詞は常に修飾語として働く)

受動文の作り方(「後から説明」のシンプルな呼吸)

たとえばMary was given a trophy.

Step1: Mary…と主語から始める。

Step2: …was given a trophyと説明を加える。

 

受動文が好んで使われるケース

   

行為者が話題になっていない

The Egyptian pyramids were built over 4,500 years ago.(行為者が不明)

English is spoken worldwide.(行為者が誰か、話し手は興味がない)

頭でっかちな文を避ける

Avoid: The tremendous support I have received from all my family and friends has encouraged me.

Use: I have been encouraged by the tremendous support I have received from all my family and friends.

主語を一貫する(話題の中心をそらさない)

Use: Our internet marketing company was founded by Tony Brown in 2002. Since that time, it has produced over 1,000 custom web sites.

Avoid: Tony Brown founded our internet marketing company in 2002 Since that time, it has produced over 1000 custom web sites.

話に一般性をもたらす(発言者を特定しないことで)

It is often said that English is a difficult language.

It is said that there is a lot of match fixing in sumo.

 

受動文基礎

基本型

John was attacked by the dog.

100 students were chosen for their leadership qualities.

 

Byが行為者を表す理由は、byが「近さ」を表す前置詞だから。

 

受動文のあらわす「時」・疑問文・否定文

現在形

Smoochy is buried in the pet cemetery.

過去形

We have been invited to Pat’s New Year’s party.

進行形

Our school cafeteria is being renovated.

助動詞

Your report must be typed, not handwritten, OK?

Tokyo Sky Tree will be completed in 2011.

疑問文

When was this school established?

否定文

The fans were not pleased with their team’s performance this evening.

 

受動文を使わなくても済むケース

他動詞は「行為」を表すが、その多くは「性質」も表すことができる。

「行為」として用いれば受動文になるが、やや不自然である。(e.g. These batteries are charged quickly.)

「性質」として用いれば自然な能動文になる。(e.g. These batteries charge quickly)

 

These juice cartons open easily.

Does your new car drive well?

Green peppers don’t peel easily.

Our books are selling well.

 

受動文なら「by」ではない。それぞれ適した前置詞をつかうこと。

byは「行為者」を強調する場合に用いる。

 

One of my co-workers was badly injured in ([by]ではない) a traffic accident.

French is spoken in Quebec.

I had ice cream covered with chocolate—yummy!

He is known to everyone in the town.

Kyoto is known for its beautiful temples.

A man is known by the company he keeps.

John was surprised [pleased/ delighted / satisfied / disappointed / annoyed].

 

[by / at / with] どれでもOKな場合

John was surprised by the result.(「行為者」が色濃く強調されている)

John was surprised at the result.(時点)

John was pleased with the result.(一緒)

 

受動文のバリエーション

授与をあらわす受動文

Mary was given a trophy.

I was offered the job, but I turned it down.

 

受動文の作り方:

ありがちなのが、能動文を作って(give Mary a trophy)、目的語を主語に移動する(Maryを主語にする)、というやり方。

しかし、ネイティブはシンプルに、Maryを主語において、(was) given a trophyと説明を加えるだけ。

後から説明、というシンプルな呼吸。

 

A trophy was given to Mary.

A love letter was handed to the teacher.

 

ただし、授与をあらわす受動文は、give モノ to 人の形が圧倒的にポピュラー。

 

目的語説明の受動文

I think the guy was called Peter, but I can’t be sure.

Her nails were painted bright pink.

Two students were seen necking in an empty classroom.

 

makeのとる形

I made my student clean the toilet.⇒My student was made to clean the toilet.

 

To不定詞と受動文とのコンビネーション

Step1: I was asked…と始める。

Step2: … to make a speech at my ex-student’s weddingと付け加えて説明する。

 

I was asked to make a speech at my ex-student’s wedding.

We were all told to stay calm.

 

Why don’t you ask the ALT to help you with your English?

 

この形でwantは使えない

The boss wants you to deliver this parcel.

N.G.; You are wanted to deliver this parcel by the boss.

wantは生々しい欲望をあらわす動詞。

~させたがっている、という直接的な表現が合っている。

 

思考・伝達系動詞とto不定詞(一般に流布している情報の伝達)

「…と言われている」、「…と思われている」といった日本語と同じ感覚。

One of last year’s Nobel Prize winners is thought to be in jail.

Her new book is expected to become an immediate.

Jericho is said to be the oldest city in the world.

The hostages are reported to be in good health.

 

It is said that …

It is said that Jericho is the oldest city in the world.

 

be supposed to(~ということになっている)

supposeのイメージは「心に置いた土台」であり、動かないものとして考える。

~することがあたりまえのこととして考えられる、ルール・法律・約束事などに基づいて行動すべき土台を示した表現。

He’ll pay me back one day, I suppose.(そういうものとして考えている)

Suppose you get fired, what will you do?(仮定してみてごらん)

 

be supposed to ~は「~ということになっている」という意味。決まり事によく使われるフレーズ。

We are supposed to be there by 7.

Sorry, but you are not supposed to park here.

 

句動詞の受動文(1つの動詞のようにまとめて取り扱うのがコツ)

My kids have been brought up to respect their elders.

The match has been called off.

The big event will be talked about for years.

Don’t worry. The tickets have already been paid for.

 

過去分詞で修飾

be動詞以外の説明型で用いる過去分詞

Your mom looked disgusted when she saw my tattoos!

They became frightened.

John got arrested for harassment.

 

口語でよく使われるのは「get+過去分詞」。

getは「動き」を表す動詞であり、S get Cは「予期せぬ・突然・驚き」といった、事態が急に動いたニュアンスが強く感じられる表現。

 

I got asked for my autograph on the train.(頼まれちゃった)

 

getのニュアンス

He was angry.(彼は怒っていた)

He got angry.(彼は怒り出した)

 

この「事態が急に動いた」ニュアンスのため、getが使えない文がある。

N.G.; English gets spoken in Canada.(英語はカナダで話され始めた???

N.G.; The book got written by Hiroto and Chris.(この本はヒロトとクリスによって書かれ始めた???)

 

目的語修飾

Keep the door locked.

Would you like your fish grilled?

We found two windows smashed.

I thought I heard my name called.

It’s difficult to make myself heard over all this noise.

I got my car washed yesterday.

 

過去分詞、その他の修飾

名詞+PastParticiples

The man pictured in the newspaper article is my grandfather.

The things stolen from my room were not very valuable.

動詞句+PastParticiples

My daughter came home disappointed.

We arrived at our destination exhausted.

The fans left the stadium overjoyed.

PastParticiples + 名詞

mashed potatoes, boiled eggs, written/spoken English

文全体を過去分詞で説明

Our situation is healthy, compared with many companies.

This apartment is ideal for young couples, situated very close to lots of shops, restaurants, and leisure facilities.

 

過去分詞を文頭に送るテクニック(フォーマルな、格調高い印象)

Surrounded by glorious white beaches, this private resort is perfect for a honeymoon.

Founded in 1905, our company has been a global leader in this industry for more than 100 years.

 

過去分詞のもう一つの意味(あるできごとが終わってしまった)

ある状態から別の状態への移行を表す動詞で使われる用法。

 

She is gone. She’ll never come back.

There are lots of leaves fallen from the trees.

Life can be tough for retired people.

 

CLAUSES

主語、動詞を兼ね備え、文としての体裁をもった「節」は文中の様々な位置において自由に使いこなせる要素。

 

I think Liz is the person for job.

Whether he stole the money or not remains a mystery.

I have no idea where Natasha is at the moment.

 

主語位置での節

ただの節

That he is hiding something is plain to see.

That she was only after his money was obvious to everyone.

 

NG; He is a spy is clear.

これでは、He is a spyで文が終わる気がするが、is clearと続くので、文の形がわからない。そこで、

OK; That he is a spy is clear.

Thatは「導く」なので、聞き手は文の主要テーマを理解できる。

 

主語の節にthatがつかない場合

~ is all(~で全部だよ)

is allは後付感覚で使われるので、

 

Calm down. I just asked her if she wanted a drink is all.

 

二択のwhether節

Whether our plan will work or not is in the lap of the Gods!

Whether we buy the house will depend largely on the selling price.

 

wh節

What the government decides affects all of us.

When she gets married is her business.

Where she got all that money from is a mystery.

How you treat others will determine how others treat you.

Who my son goes out with doesn’t concern me at all.

Why he has so much trouble finding a girlfriend is beyond me.

 

目的語としての節

I think you should definitely apply for that job in that you’ve got nothing to lose.(何も失うことがないという意味で)

This suit is quite satisfactory, except that the sleeves are a little too long.(that以下を除いて)

Your success depends on whether you make the right decisions.(~かどうか)

The quality of a presentation depends on how well you prepare.(どれくらい~か)

 

修飾語位置での節

説明型の節

The simple fact is that we lost the game. End of story.

The question is whether/if our business can survive or not.

This is where I hang out.

 

動詞(句)を説明(レポート文)

I love that I live within walking distance of my university.

He told me that he doesn’t want to lose me.

I’m afraid that your plan doesn’t work.

 

whether/if節

I don’t know whether I can afford to go clubbing this weekend.

He asked me if I wanted to go to Guam with him.

 

wh節

I asked her what she was planning to wear to the wedding.

He didn’t tell me what kind of restaurant he would like to go to.

I don’t have a clue where I put my keys.

 

wh節の2つの解釈

He asked me where I live.(どこに住んでいるのか)

It’s far from where I live.(住んでいる場所)

両者は訳語は異なるが、言っていることは同じ。

 

She wanted to know why I stood her up.

That’s why I stood her up.

I don’t know who snitched on me.

That’s who I met at the meeting.

He asked me what I wanted for my birthday.

This is exactly what I wanted for my birthday.

 

コト・モノのwhat

How can I forget what you did for me?

What is cheap is not always nasty.

I love who you are, not what you have.

What he told me was a load of rubbish.

 

名詞句の説明

I heard a rumor that you had dumped your boyfriend. So what about me?

The question whether an afterlife exists has been debated for centuries.

 

文の修飾方向(前から修飾)

will-she-or-won’t-she get-the-guy romantic comedy

whodunit detective story

 

疑問詞を使ったさまざまな表現

wh語 + ever

everは任意の時点を表す副詞。

任意の時点⇒選択の自由⇒なんでもOK

whatever; なんでも

You can have whatever you fancy.

whichever; どれでも

Please choose whichever you need.

wherever; どこでも

Whenever you go, I will follow you.

whenever; いつでも

I’ll be here for you whenever you need me.

whoever; 誰でも

Whoever you decide to marry, I will be happy for you.

however; どんなに

However hard I tried, I couldn’t break the code.

 


 

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