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英文契約の基礎_修飾語_副詞の基礎

BASIC ADV

  1. SO(すごく・だから)イメージは「→」;強意副詞、先行文脈を受ける語、接続詞としてもOK

強意

veryより感情が乗った表現。「だから(→)」を感じられる。

These puppies are so cute! すごくかわいい!(だから抱きしめちゃいたい)

接続詞

(→)のイメージそのまま。

I forgot my girlfriend’s birthday, so she got really mad at me.

前の内容を受ける

 

Has Tim arrived yet?――I don’t think so.

I love Lady Gaga.――So do I.(助動詞Doが前に出ているので、”Me too”よりも勢いがある。)

so… (that)

(soの(→)が結果のイメージにつながる。thatは「文を滑らかにつなぐ・正確につなぐ」役割)

I was so tired I couldn’t sleep.(疲れすぎていて眠れなかった)

The teacher’s explanation was so long and complicated that not even the best students could follow it.

 

  1. SUCH;イメージは「指さし」(矢印)

そうした類の

These kids are amazing. They train every day, rain, hail or shine. Such dedication is hard to find these days.

最高値

Shinobu is such a geek!

I’ve never seen you wearing such bright colors.

such as … (・・・のような)

I like different kinds of movies, such as action, horror, comedy, and so on.

I think our school has many good point.――Such as?

such … that ~(とても・・・なので~)

He was such a loser that I dumped him after the first date!

 

 

  1. TOO;イメージは「行き過ぎ(否定的なニュアンスを伴う)」

I thought the movie was too long.

too ~ to …

It’s too hot to play tennis.

 

  1. RATHER;イメージは「対比」

This steak is rather tasteless, don’t you think?(思ったよりもまずい、という対比が隠れている)

ratherの後ろには対比の気持ちが隠れている。

 

  1. would rather むしろ~したい

Lots of people are into sports or hobbies, but I‘d rather just hang out with my friend.

 

  1. but rather そうじゃなくて

The problem is not a lack of intelligence, but rather a lack of motivation.

 

  1. rather than … ・・・というよりも

Actually, it’s a small apartment rather than a house.

 

 

 

  1. NOW;イメージは「今+勢い」(「さあ」「さて」など文に勢いを与える。)

 

I’m free now.(

 

Now, let’s move on to the next item on the agenda.

Now, if I were the boss, I would give everyone a pay raise!

 

by now

今頃は(今起こっていることを想像する。byは「近く」)

The paint should be dry by now.

just now

   

for now

暫定的に(「for」は期間をあらわす)

Just put your bags on the floor for now.

 

 

Was that the phone

 

 

 

  1. THEN; 未来や過去の一時点をあらわす表現

 

  1. 一時点

It was then that I remembered where I’d seen her face before.

I’m going to the concert too, so I’ll see you then.

 

  1. イメージ「→」;「これから」と気軽に付け加える単語。

We went to Los Angeles and then to Las Vegas.

Nobody home? He must be still at work then.

A big typhoon is coming.――We’d better cancel classes, then.

Okay then. We’ll all meet there next Wednesday.

Now then, what would you like to do today?

 

  1. if + then; もし・・・それなら・・・と論理性に力点を置いた言い方

Well, if Hank is refusing to do it, then I guess I’ll have to.

 

 

 

  1. AGO; (話し手基準で、現在から過去に遡る)~前 ⇔ SINCE(過去から現在に向かう感覚で)~から

My dad died 15years ago.

 

a minute ago;ちょっと前

a while ago;しばらく前

a long time ago; ずっと以前

ages ago; ずっと以前

 

sinceとagoは一緒に使えない。

I’ve had a part-time job since 6 months ago.(6か月前から)とは言えない。

正しくはI’ve had a part-time job for 6 months.

 

  1. BEFORE; (現在以外を基準に)~前

Miyuki told me about her strange dream, and it was really funny because I had had the same dream 3 days before.

 

 

  1. ALREADY; 完了(できごとが「すでに」完了していることを示す)

I’ve already seen that movie.

 

  1. YET;未完了(できごとがまだ完了しておらず、後に続くこと)

まだ・もう

まだなの?という感情を付け加える

Has the game started yet? ――No, not yet.

しかし・けれども

未完の意識で、それだけでは話が終わらず追加されるイメージ

She’s still very young, yet she is a true entrepreneur. It’s a small apartment, and yet there’s lots of storage space.

最上級と共に使われるYet

未完了⇒これまでのところは最上だが、ただこれからのことはわからない。

This could turn out to be her most successful book yet.

 

  1. EVER; 任意の時点(いつのことでもいいんだけど・・・)”any”の時間バージョン

    1. いつのことでもいい

Have you ever been to France?

Nobody ever sleeps in Chris’s class. He’s too scary!

Many students hardly ever speak English outside of class.

 

  1. 強調

If you are ever in Barcelona, make sure you give me a call.

This is the best pizza ever!

 

  1. for ever;永久に

I hope our friendship will last for ever.

 

  1. as ever;いつものように

As ever, Jim was the only one not to pay for a round of drinks.

 

  1. ever since;それからずっと

My son has been happier ever since he changed school.

 

  1. ever after;その後ずっと

Lots of children’s stories end with; “They lived happily ever after”

 

  1. whatever; なんでも(いつのことでもいい⇒選択の自由⇒なんでも)

I’ll support you whatever you decide.

 

  1. NEVER; =not … at any time(~したことはない)

 

 

 

  1. JUST;ピタッ(ちょうど・まさに・~だけ等)

 

(基準に照らして)ズレがない。「これ以上でもこれ以下でもない」(no more and no less)

only/merely/exactlyと同様な意味でも使われます。

 

時のピタッ

Mom! Your percel has just arrived.

表現のピタッ

I just can’t stand my sister’s new boyfriend!(まさにcan’tだよ)

These new desigs are just stunning.(まさにstunningだ)

さまざまなピタッ

You are just like your mother.

We had just enough money to buy a ticket home.

More discipline is just what our school requires.

~だけ

Our latest laptop will sell at just 80,000yen.

Don’t worry――it’s just a small technical hitch.

Just call me Ken.

Can I just use your cell phone.

 

 

  1. just because ひとつの理由だけ示し、他の理由がない。

http://www.eigowithluke.com/2011/12/just-because/

今朝、「just because」についての記事を書こうと思っていましたが、書けば書くほど、「just because」の使い方は本当に複雑だなと気がつきました。もし分かりにくいところがある場合、教えて下さい。

基本的に、「just because」は「この理由だけだから」という意味になります。以下の二つの例文は「just because」と「because」の違いを示します。

 

It’s just because they don’t know. ただ知らないだけなんです。

It’s because they don’t know. 知らないからです。

 

通常、「just because」を使う時には一つの理由だけを示します。他の理由はありません。「because」を使う時には、 一つの理由を示すことが出来ますが、他の理由もあるかもしれないというニュアンスがあります。

 

否定文で「just because」を使うと、逆の意味になります。この場合、「ある理由に限りません」という意味です。

 

It’s not because I’m English. イギリス人だからという理由ではありません。

It’s not just because I’m English. イギリス人だからという理由に限りません。

 

ネイティブは喧嘩をしている時には、「just because」でよく文章を始めます。

ネイティブは以下のパターンをよく使います。

 

Just because……. doesn’t mean that ……. . だからというだけで。。。。。 とは限らない。

Just because he’s rich, doesn’t mean that he has a nice house. 金持ちという理由だけで、いい家に住んでいるとは限らない。

Just because you want my girlfriend, doesn’t mean that you can tell me what to do. 彼女だからって、あんたの言いなりにはならないよ。

 

最後に、「just because」を台詞として用いる利用法を紹介しましょう。この場合、意味が全く異なります。

 

Why do you like this song?

Just because.

なぜこの曲がそんなに好きなの?

なんとなくだよ。

 

ここには、理由を聞かれましたが、理由はないや理由をいうのは面倒臭いと思っている時には、「just because」で答えます。

 

  1. EVEN; さえ、すら(レベルの高低を表す強意表現。意外・驚きを伴う極端なレベルを表す。)

Some new graduates can’t even make a spreadsheet.

Even my little kid can do that much!

Question 4 was even more difficult.

 

  1. even so;たとえそうであっても(そこまでは認めるよ。ただしね、、、)

但書のニュアンスに近いのかな?(本文は認めるが、但し…)

This guy seems perfect for the job. Even so, I want to see all the other applicants.

 

  1. HERE・THERE(ここ・そこ)(比喩的な場所にも気軽に使える)

He got stopped by the police for speeding, but his troubles didn’t end there because he also drunk!

I don’t have time to go into detail here, I’m afraid.

 

 

  1. WELL; よく・十分に・健康な(さまざまな要素を勘案して判断した結果、まぁ満足かな)

My Dad is doing well after his operation.

How are you and your family?――Oh, we’re all well, thank you very much.

You lost the match, but you played well.

 

  1. 強意語としてのWell

Your daughter’s English skills are well above average.

I love his new movie, It’s well worth seeing.

 

  1. 思考をあらわすWell

Well, let’s wait and see how things turn out.

 

 

  1. UP・DOWN(上下→増減、接近、出現/消失、完全、良い/悪い、活発/沈滞)

    1. 上下

They’ve gone hiking up in the mountains.

I need to sit down for a while. I’m exhausted.

 

  1. 増減

The number of road fatalities went up/down this year.

The temperature went up/down.

You’d better speed up, if you want to finish on time.

Could you speak up, please?

 

  1. 接近のup

Bad karma always catches up with you.

Coming up, a fascinating documentary entitled Inside Asia.

 

  1. 出現のup / 消失のdown(土の中から芽が出てくるように)

My date didn’t show up.

We have to think up a foolproof plan.

I’ve been busy grading my classes: 4 down 3 to go.

 

  1. 完全

I need to fill up the car with gas before we set off.

It’s going to take us forever to clean up this mess.

My old car has broken down again. Time for a change.

Hey, just shut up, will you?

 

  1. 良い/悪い

I’ve always looked up to my parents.

Some of my colleagues look down on me because I didn’t go to an Ivy League school.

We all have ups and downs in life.

 

  1. 活発/沈滞

I woke up late today.

The flowers you sent me really cheered me up.

The whole nation was down after the terrible earthquake.

 

  1. OUT


Let’s eat out today.

Get out!

Is Namie going out with Daiki? (外出する・デートする)

They carried out the plan to perfection.(机上の計画を外に持ち出す)

With her ability, she’ll always stand out.(外にはみ出して目立つ)

Truth will out.

I found out where they were hiding.(隠れていたものが外に出てくる)

 

  1. 逸脱・脱出

Statement T-shirts are out this year.(望ましい状態からの脱出)

The students were getting out of control, so the Headmaster stepped in.

We can’t rule out the possibility of further job losses.(

I’m sure we can work it out.

My friend helped me out after my accident.

I’l try to talk her out of going there alone.

 

  1. なくなる

We’re running out of milk.

pass out;意識がなくなる

wear out;磨り減る

die out;絶滅する

black out;停電

 

  1. 完全

Just hear me out, OK?

I was impressed by their extremely well-through-out proposal.

Fill out this form.

 

  1. OFF

    1. 離れる

I’m off.

Don’t you think that’s a bit off?

I’m getting off at the next station.

Take off your shoes.

 

  1. 活動から離れる

Don’t forget to turn your cell phone off.

I get off work in about half an hour, so we could grab a coffee.

The TV is never off in their house!

 

 

 

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